European Treaties bearing on the History

of the United States and its Dependencies

to 1648

Articles concluded between France and Portugal at Lyons,
July 14, 1536.

As early as 1512 King Ferdinand of Spain complained that the King of Portugal sheltered in his ports French vessels lying in wait for the Spanish ships from the West Indies.1 A few years later the French corsairs became a terrible plague to both Spanish and Portuguese mariners, who in turn made reprisals on French shipping.2 When the Emperor and Francis I. renewed war in 1536, they both desired the friendship of Portugal, situated near the pathway of their ocean commerce. Portugal, fearing the overgrown power of the Emperor, needing the good-will of the French in order that her spice-fleet might sail safely to Flanders,3 and hoping that the French king

1 C. Fernández Duro, Armada Española ( 1895- 1903), tom. I., app. 14, pp. 420, 421.
Later complaints, which throw light on the meaning of the articles of Lyons, are printed in Cal. St. Pap., Spain, 1538- 1542, vol. VI., pt. I., p. 294, and in T. Buckingham Smith, Coleccion de Varios Documentos para la Historia de la Florida ( 1857), I. 116, trans­ lated in J. P. Baxter, Memoir of Jacques Cartier ( 1906), p. 359.
"I see . . . . no chance for the present of the Portuguese consenting to join their fleet to that of the Emperor, and should the war with France break out . . . . I fear these people will do everything they can to keep neutral, though on the other hand, should the Emperor put some pressure upon them they will hardly dare to decide for the French.

"If a vessel from France happens to meet with bad weather at sea she makes for the coasts of this kingdom, shelters and takes in provisions. The same thing they do as if they were the friends and confederates of Portugal in the lands and territories which this king has on the other side, such as the Terceiras and the island of Madeira, and there prowl about for Spanish vessels returning from the Indies. Should it be known and published that these Portuguese are the friends and allies of the Emperor, the French would not venture on such expeditions." Cal. St. Pap., Spain, loc. cit.

In 1541 in a "Statement of what was agreed upon in the Council of the Indies in regard to the fleet to be fitted out to resist that of the French which is said to have set out for the Indies the following passage occurs: "The most important thing to pro­ vide for at present, it seems, is that your Majesty ask the Most Serene King of Portugal not to allow the French ships to take shelter in any of the ports of his kingdom or in the Azores; and that if they should enter port they be treated as enemies of your Majesty and his enemies too, since it is well known that for no other purpose can they sail in that sea than to do injury to your Majesty and his Highness; and that with reference to this matter there should, on your Majesty's part, be shown the king of Portugal all the urgency the case demands." J. P. Baxter, loc. cit.

2 For accounts of the French corsairs in the early years of the sixteenth century, see Ch. de La Roncère, La Marine Fronçaise, III. ( 1906) 243 ff.; Fernández Duro, op. cit., tom. I., C. 15; Guénin, Ango et ses Pilotes; Paul Gaffarel, "Jean Ango" in the Bulletin of the Société Normande de Géographie, tom. XI. ( 1889) ; G. Marcel, Les Corsaires Français au XVIe Siècle dans les Antilles ( 1902). 3 Cal. St. Pap., Spain, 1536- 1538, p. 318. Cf. Doc. 15, introduction, note 8.

would prohibit his subjects from going to Brazil and other Portuguese colonies, inclined toward France.4

The negotiations conducted by the Portuguese ambassador in France5 were advanced by the French admiral, Chabot, a pensionary of Portugal.6 In Portugal negotiations were probably entrusted to the French ambassador Honoré de Caix,7 an agent especially obnoxious to the Emperor.8

On July 14, 1536, at Lyons, the temporary residence of the French court,9 a treaty between France and Portugal was concluded. It provided for the protection of the neutral commerce of Portugal--a neutrality which, accord­ ing to the Portuguese, the French had violated during the first war between Francis I. and the Emperor10--and it permitted the French to bring prizes-- and these, for the most part, would be Spanish ships--into the harbors of the King of Portugal. Now, the regions east of the Antilles especially, frequented by the French corsairs in wait for the Spanish treasure-ships, were the Azores, Madeira, and the coasts of Portugal. By this treaty the harbors of all these were opened to the French as places from which to pounce upon the enemy or to which to bring the prizes they had made.

The Emperor soon observed the ill effects of this treaty. In February, 1537, he instructed his ambassador to Portugal to represent to John III. the many injuries that the French were inflicting upon the Emperor in all parts of the world, "the principal cause of such damages and injuries at sea being that French vessels are allowed to enter and take shelter in the ports of Portugal". The ambassador was to request the king to order that no French vessels of any description be allowed to enter the ports of the Azores, or take shelter there.11

For some years France remained on amicable terms with Portugal. In 1536, Francis I. charged his officers to punish violators of the treaty and restore what they had taken from the Portuguese; in 1537 and 1538, he ordered members of the Parliament of Normandy to punish infractors of the treaty.12 In 1537, 1538, and 1539, he forbade his subjects to sail to

10 Guénin, op. cit., p. 192.
11 CaL. St. Pap., Spain, 1536- 1538, pp. 314, 315. For Portugal's answer, see ibid., pp. 317, 318, 334, 335. Cf. also ibid., p. 374; and above, note I.
12 Santarem, Quadro Elementar, III. 257-260; Guénin, op. cit., 204.
4 Relations des Abassadeurs Vénitiens (ed. M. N. Tommaseo), I. ( 1838) 88,89, in Coll. de Docs. Inédits sur l'Histoire de France.
5 Luiz de Sousa, Annaes de El Rei Dom João Terceiro (pub. by A. Herculano, 1844), pp. 400, 401.
6 La Roncière, op. Cit., III. 291, 292. The Venetian ambassador (cf. note 4), writing in 1535 about the Franco-Portuguese negotiations, described the situation succinctly: "L'amiral traite pour la France, l'ambassadeur de Portugal pour son roi; mais les riches présents que celui-ci donne à l'amiral traînent l'affaire en longueur." The Admiral arrived at Lyons on June 2, 1536. Cal. St. Pap., Spain, 1536- 1538, p. 136.
7 Two days after the signing of the treaty, Francis I. ordered 1350 livres to be paid to Honoré. Cat. des Actes de Fraitçois Ier ( 1887, etc.), III. 228.
8 Cal. St. Pap., Spain, 1536- 1538, p. 318, and cf. Doc. 15, introduction.
9 F. Decrue, Anne, Duc de Montmorency, à la Cour de Fratiçois Ier ( 1885), p. 255.

Brazil, or Guinea, or the lands discovered by the Portuguese.13 In 1540, however, upon the discovery of Admiral Chabot's dealings with the Portu­ guese ambassador, this embargo was removed, and the French seamen at once prepared to invade again those regions.14

Text: MS . A copy of the treaty that was signed by Francis I. and Bayard at Lyons, July 14, 1536, is in the National Archives at Lisbon, Corpo Chronologico, parte Ia, maço 57, doc. 65.

Text: Printed . The text has never, it is believed, been printed. An abstract, in Portuguese, is in Viscount de Santarem, Quadro Elementar ( 1842- 1876), III. 254-256, and a French translation of this abstract is in E. Guénin, Ango et ses Pilotes ( 1901), pp. 201, 202.

References . Guénin, op. cit., pp. 156, 157, 166, 167; Santarem, op. cit., III. lxxxviii ff.

Pera continuar a amizade, alianiça, e confederação dantre o Rey Chris­ tianisimo e el Rey de Portugal, e pera bem e proveito dos ditos senhores reis e de seus sugeitos seram gardados os artigos que se seguem.

[1.] Primeiramente, que os ditos portos e avras dos ditos princepes fiquaram e seram livres16 e comuuns a seus sugeitos, e seram suas pesoas, navios, beens, e mercadarias rrecebidas em seguridade, e lhe seram dados mantimentos e tudo o que lhe for necesario, pagaudo rrezoadamente a tudo aquilo que for por seus sugeitos respeitivamente tornado e comprado.

[2.] Item, pera entretimento e liberdade do dito comerçio entre os sugeitos dos ditos senhores reis, os embaixadores do Rey Christianisimo que estam com o senhor Rey de Portugal, depois de feita por elas inquisiçam e tomado as copias [blank in original] daram certeficaçam, asinadas de suas mãos e aseladas de seus selos, aos Portugueses, como os navios e mercadarias declaradas na dita certeficaçam pertencem aos ditos Portugueses ou a outros que nam sejam imigos do dito Christianisimo Rey.

[3.] E pera que as ditas certefycações posam ser mais seguramente feitas, o dito senhor Rey de Portugal fara defesas, sob confiscaçam dos corpos e avras, a todos de qualquer estado ou condiçam que sejani, que nam careguem nos ditos seus portos e avras alguma mercadaria que pertença aos Espanhoes e a outros quaes quer sugeitos do emperador, debaixo do home dos Portu­ gueses e como a eles pertençem.

Sob semelhantes penas sera defeso pelo dito senhor Rey de Portugal a seus sugeitos, que nam metam nem careguem alguuma mercadaria em navios

13 The decree of Dec. 22. 1538, is printed in Guénin, . Ango et ses Pilotes, pp. 203-205:
see also La Roncière, La Marine Française, III. 292. This decree was referred to by the Portuguese ambassador to England, when he was urging Elizabeth to prohibit her subjects from sailing to Guinea. Cal. St. Pap., Foreign, Elizabeth, 1562, p. 54.
14 La Roncière, op. cit., III. 297.
15 The text is from a copy, written on paper, preserved in the Archivo Nacional at Lisbon, Corpo Chronologico, parte Ia, maço 57, doc. 65.
16 The words e seram livres are repeated in the text.

dEspanhoes e outros imigos do Rey Christianisimo se nam tiver certefiçaram de seus enbaixadores.

[4.] E se for achado alguuma mercadaria que pertença aos imigos del Rey Christianisimo em navios de Portugueses sem a dita certeficacam, tudo sera de boa presa, asy o navio como a mercadaria, ora pertença aos Portugueses ora aos imigos do dito Christianisimo Rey.

[5.] Igualmente, sera de boa presa a mercadaria que pertencer aos Portu­ gueses que for achada nos navyos dos Espanhões e outros imigos do dito Rey Christianisimo, se nam for certeficada per seus enbaixadores pela maneira sobredita.

Que aqueles que tomaren navios e miercadaryas de Portugueses tendo a dita certeficaçam dos embaixadores do dito Christianisimo Rey, tomando os embaixadores do dito Christianisimo Rey verificaçam do caso feyta pelos Portugueses, sejam punidos pela justiça do dito senhor Rey de Portugal como quebrantadores de paz, segundo o caso rrequer.

E se os ditos rroubadores nam forem tomados pelos navios e gentes do dito Rey de Portugal, e levarem seus navios ou mercadarias rroubadas ao senhorio do Christianisimo Rey, o dito senhor Rey lhe mandara fazer a puniçam e justiça, como dito he.

[6.] E igualmente sera feito aos Portugueses que tomarem navios e mercadaria que pertençer aos sugeitos do Christianisimo Rey.

[7.] E por tirar os enganos que poderiam ser feitos por alguuns piratas e rroubadores dos navios e mercadarias Portuguesas, não obstante as certe­ ficações dos ditos embaixadores, escondendoas ou queymandoas ou lance­ andoas no mar, podera o dito senhor Rey de Portugal cometer e deputar alguumas pesoas nos portos e avras do dito senhor Rey Christianisimo, e fazer secrestar os ditos navios e mercadaria per autoridade de justiça, onde seram achados, ate que seja conhecido e verificado se levavam certeficaçam expedida pelos ditos embaixadores, os quaes lhe daram pelo treslado de seus rregistos tudo aquilo que se achar que nisso fose feyto.

[8.] E iguaes certeficaçoes acima ditas seram dadas e expedidas pelo embaixador do dito Christianysimo Rey que estaa com el Rey de Ingraterra aos mercadores Portugueses que quiserem caregar na dita terra.

[9.] E por nam impedir o dito comercio entre os ditos Franceses e Portu­ gueses, os portos e avras del Rey de Portugal seram franquos e livres de todas as presas dantre os Franceses e seus imigos nem poderam fazer presas huuns sobre os outros nos ditos portos e avras.

[10.] Mas as presas que forem feitas fora das ditas avras em plano e alto mar por os Franceses sobre seus imigos nam seram impedidas pelo dito senhor Rey de Portugal nem por seus navios nem pelos de seus sugeitos, posto que depois as ditas presas, navios, gentes, e mercadarias fosem levadas aos portos e avras do dito senhor Rey de Portugal, onde poderam fazer e despor delas como dautras presas feytas sobre imigos.

[11.] Hos quaes artiguos e defesas neles nomeadas seram feytas e publi­ cadas nos portos e avras dos ditos senhores Reys, por tal que nenhuum posa pretender causa de inorancia.

E por tal que as ditas publicaço?s e defesas sejam rrespeitivamente feitas em França e em Portugal em iguaes tempos, seram declarados os dias em que se faram as ditas publicaço?s.

Sera contente o dito senhor Rey Christianisimo de emviar a Flandres huuma pesoa pera fazer e expedir aos Portugueses taes e semelhantes certeficaçoes como asyma he feyto mençam, que se fara em Portugal e Inglaterra, avendo o dito senhor Rey de Portugal salvo cotiduto suficiente pera a dita pesoa e o tera pera o dito efeito na dita terra de Frandes as suas custas e despesas.Sera asy mesmo contente o dito Senhor Rey Christianisymo que os juizes ja ordenados sobre o feyto dos rroubos procedam segundo as comisões ja expedidas no lugar e dentro daquele tempo que sera ordenado. Feyta em Lyam a xiiii dias de Julho de 1536.FRANCISQUO.17 BAYARD.18

For the continuance of the friendship, alliance, and confederation between the Most Christian King and the King of Portugal, and for the good and advantage of the said lord kings and of their subjects the following articles shall be kept: 1. First, that the said ports and roadsteads of the said princes shall remain and be free and common to their subjects, and their persons, ships, goods, and merchandise shall be received in safety, and they shall be pro­ vided with provisions and everything they may require, everything respec­ tively taken and bought by their subjects to be paid for at a reasonable rate.

2. Item, for the fostering and freedom of the said commerce between the subjects of the said lord kings, the ambassadors of the Most Christian King to the lord King of Portugal, after making inquiry and taking the copies [blank in original], shall give a certificate signed by their hands and sealed with their seals to the Portuguese, that the ships and merchandise specified in the said certificate belong to the said Portuguese, or to others not enemies of the said Most Christian King.

3. And in order that the said certificates may be given with greater security, the said lord King of Portugal shall make prohibition to all men, of what­ ever sort or condition they may be, under penalty of confiscation of their persons and goods, forbidding them to lade in his said ports or roadsteads any merchandise belonging to Spaniards, or any other subjects of the Em­ peror, under the name of Portuguese or seeming to be their property. The said lord King of Portugal shall prohibit his subjects, under the like penalty, from shipping or embarking merchandise in ships belonging to Spaniards, or other enemies of the Most Christian King, without the certifi­ cate of his ambassadors.

4. And should any merchandise belonging to enemies of the Most Christian King be found in Portuguese ships without the said certificate, all shall be lawful prize, both ship and merchandise, whether belonging to the Portu­ guese, or to the enemies of the said Most Christian King. 5. Likewise, merchandise belonging to the Portuguese which shall be found in Spanish ships, or those of other enemies of the said Most Christian King, uncertified by his ambassadors in the manner aforesaid, shall be lawful prize.

17 The Portuguese form of the name François.
18 Gilbert Bayard, seigneur de Lafont, one of the secrétaires des finances. Cf. Doc. 18, note 4.
19 The translation is by Miss Amalia Alberti.

Those who shall seize ships or merchandise belonging to the Portuguese having the said certificate of the ambassadors of the said Most Christian King, the said ambassadors having verified the case brought by the Portu­ guese, justice shall be done upon them by the lord King of Portugal as breakers of the peace, as the case may require. And should the said robbers not be taken by the ships and forces of the said King of Portugal, and should they bring such stolen ships or merchan­ dise into the dominions of the said Most Christian King, the said lord king shall order them to be brought to justice and punished as aforesaid.

6. And the like shall be done to such Portuguese as shall seize ships or merchandise belonging to the subjects of the Most Christian King.

7. And to avoid the frauds which might be practised by any pirates and robbers of Portuguese ships and merchandise, in spite of the certificates of the said ambassadors, by concealing, burning, or throwing them into the sea, the said lord King of Portugal may commission and depute certain persons in the ports and roadsteads of the said Most Christian King, and cause the said ships and merchandise to be sequestrated by authority of justice, wherever they may be found, until it can be known and ascertained whether they carried certificates granted by the said ambassadors, who shall supply a copy from their registers of everything to be found that has been done in connection therewith.

8. And similar certificates to the abovesaid shall be given and granted by the ambassador of the said Most Christian King to the King of England to Portuguese merchants wishing to embark merchandise in that country.

9. And that the said commerce between the said French and Portuguese may not be impeded, the ports and roadsteads of the King of Portugal shall be closed to and free from all prizes taken from the French by their enemies, nor shall they take prizes from each other in the said ports and roadsteads.

10. But prizes taken outside the said roadsteads, on the high seas, by the French from their enemies shall not be impeded by the said lord King of Portugal nor by his ships, nor by those of his subjects, though the said prizes, ships, men, and merchandise be afterwards brought into the ports and roadsteads of the said lord King of Portugal, where they may do with them and dispose of them as other prizes captured from their enemies. 11. The said articles, and prohibitions therein mentioned, shall be made and proclaimed in the ports and roadsteads of the said lord kings so that no man may be able to plead ignorance.

And in order that the said proclamations and prohibitions may be made respectively in France and Portugal at the same time, dates shall be appointed for the said proclamations.

The said Most Christian King shall be obliged to send some person to Flanders to issue such similar certificates to the Portuguese as those to be issued in Portugal and England, as aforesaid, the said lord King of Portugal having sufficient safe conduct for such person; and he will maintain him for that purpose in the said land of Flanders, at his own cost and expense.

The said Most Christian King shall likewise be obliged to have the judges already appointed in the case of thefts proceed in accordance with the com­ missions already issued, in the place and within the time which shall be appointed.

Given at Lyons the 14th day of July, 1536.



Treaty concluded between France and Spain, at Crépy-en­ Laonnois,
September 18, 1544;
separate article relating to the Indies,
signed by the plenipotentiaries of France on the same day.

Among the articles considered by the Emperor at the end of November, 1537, in connection with the instructions to his ministers, Cobos and Gran­ velle, for treating with Montmorency, the grand master of France, the following was included: "Whether some article ought not to be introduced concerning the Indies, to prevent King Francis from undertaking anything in that quarter?"2 In the truce of Nice ( June 18, 1538), which was the fruit of these negotiations, no reference to the Indies, however, appears to have been made.3

In July, 1542, the King of France, Francis I., irritated by the Emperor's action in respect to the Milanese, broke the truce of Nice by declaring war against him. Francis had as allies the Turks and some of the minor European powers; the Emperor formed an alliance with Henry VIII. of England. Both the last-named allies invaded France, and the Emperor terrified Paris by his successful siege of Saint-Dizier (July 5-August 25) and his subsequent march toward the capital. While the siege of Saint-Dizier was in progress, Francis made overtures of peace. From August 29, there were frequent conferences, at which France was represented by the Admiral d'Annebaut, Gilbert Bayard, secretary of state, and Erraut de Chemans, keeper of the seals, whose place was soon taken by Charles de Neuilly, master of requests. The Emperor's representatives were his chancellor, Nicolas Perrenot, sieur de, Granvelle, Ferrante Gonzaga, viceroy of Sicily, Antoine Perrenot, bishop of Arras, and Alonso de Idiaquez, one of the Emperor's secretaries.4 At Crépy­

1 This is the date and place as given in the treaty. Some have maintained that it was concluded a day or two earlier at Soissons, or that it was signed as late as Sept. 19. Cf. Cal. St. Pap., Spain, 1544, vol. VII., pp. xxvii, 348; Gachard, Trois Années, p. 62; Paillard, L'Invasion Allemande, pp. 391 ff., 412 ff. The text of the treaty of peace is printed in F. Leonard, Recueil des Traitez ( 1693), II. 430 ff., and in J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique ( 1726- 1731), tom. IV., pt. II., pp. 279 ff.
2 Cal. St. Pap., Spain 1536- 1538, p. 407. "Sy se tractara y articulara alguna cosa tocante a las Indias, a fin que el dicho Rey de Francia no emprenda de aqui adelante algo en perjuyzio de Su Magestad." British Museum Add. MSS., 28590, f. 27.
3 The text of the truce is in Leonard, op. cit., II. 407 ff. For its effect on depredations by the French in the West Indies, see La Roncière, La Marine Française, III. 296.
4 Gachard, Trois Années, pp. 54 ff.; Paillard, L'Invasion Allemande, pp. 366 ff.

en-Laonnois, on September 18, a treaty of peace was signed, which provided, among other things, for a marriage between the Duc d'Orléans and either a daughter or a niece of the Emperor, with either Flanders and Burgundy, or the Milanese, as dower. A secret treaty included the stipulation that France should aid the Emperor in repressing heresy.5 On September 18, the French commissioners also signed the separate article relating to the Indies, which is printed below. To understand this article it is to be recalled that the incursions of the French into the western seas had caused immeasur­ able annoyance to Spain.6 It was bad enough when the French confined themselves to attacking Spanish treasure-ships and settlements in the West Indies; they became even more obnoxious when they attempted to explore and colonize. Jacques Cartier's third voyage had greatly disturbed the Emperor.7 The Council of the Indies sent a spy to France to ascertain the equipment and destination of Cartier's fleet. The Emperor despatched a caravel to the region of Newfoundland,8 and vainly tried to persuade the King of Portugal to join him in preventing the French from settling in those regions. 9

The article respecting the Indies provided that France would leave the Emperor and Portugal in peaceable possession of the West and East Indies, and would not attempt any discoveries or other enterprises therein; but it reserved to the subjects of France the right to go to these Indies, for trade only. Probably the French were the more ready to make this concession because of their disappointment in the "gold and diamonds" of Canada that Cartier had brought back.10 However that may be, the article signed by them, and apparently accepted by the Emperor and Prince Philip,11 was displeasing to the Council of the Indies, the council of state summoned at Valladolid by Prince Philip,12 and the Royal Council of Castile; although, on the other hand, Fr. Garcia de Loaysa,13 president of the Council of the Indies,

10 La Roncière, La Marine Française, III. 326.
11 A copy of a ratification of the article by Prince Philip is in the Archives of the Indies, Patronato, 2-5-1/26, ramo 1.
12 Prince Philip's letter to the Emperor, Dec. 14, 1544, Cal. St. Pap., Spain, 1544, vol. VII., pp. 479-480.
13 See Doc. 14, note 8.
5 Paillard, op. cit., p. 414.
6 For instances of depredations committed by the French in the West Indies prior to 1544, see E. Ducéré, Histoire Maritime de Bayonne: Les Corsaires ( 1895), app. II., pp. 345 ff.; Fernández Duro, Armada Española ( 1895- 1903), tom. I., app. 14; La Roncière, op. cit., III. 249 ff.; G. Marcel, Les Corsaires Français au XVIe Siècle dans les Antilles ( 1902).
7 As is shown by the documents printed in T. Buckingham Smith, Coleccion de Varios Documentos, pp. 103-116, and in translation in J. P. Baxter, Memoir of Jacques Cartier, pp. 347-359; and in the letter from the Emperor in Häpke, "Der Erste Kolonisations­ versuch in Kanada (1541-1543)", in Hansische Geschichtsblätter, 1911, Heft 2, pp. 450-451. 8 J. T. Medina, Una Expedición Española a la Tierra de los Bacallaos en 1541 ( 1896).
9 T. Buckingham Smith, op. cit., pp. 112-114; J. P. Baxter, Memoir of Jacques Cartier, pp. 354-356.

believed that "the clause should be accepted with some modifications, and that trade should be permitted".14 The objection of the councils was based on the opinion that the contemplated permission to trade would make trouble, because the French would not trade in accordance with regulations. The Council of the Indies urged that in this, as in former treaties, matters per­ taining to the Indies should not be mentioned at all. If, however, the French were permitted to trade, they should be held to the laws prohibiting the removal of gold and silver from territory subject to Castile, even in exchange for merchandise, and their homeward-bound ships should be obliged to touch at Cadiz or San Lucar.15 The King of Portugal also objected to the article, declaring that the French went in armed ships not only for the purpose of trading, but in order to rob with more security.16 Doubtless on account of the strong opposition, the article, as would appear, was never duly ratified; and in 1545, in accordance with the Emperor's demand, Francis I. forbade his subjects to go to the oversea possessions of Spain.17

Text: MS. The original of the article relating to the Indies, printed below, it is believed for the first time, is in the Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Paris, Mémoires et Documents, Espagne, vol. 306, f. 196.

14 Cal. St. Pop., Spain, 1544, vol. VII., pp. 495-496.
15 The opinions of the councils are given in a document in the Archives of the Indies, Patronato, 2-5-1/26, ramo 1. The opinion of the Council of the Indies is as follows:
"Paresce al Consejo que pot algunos inconvinientes que se seguiran de la contractaçion de los Françeses en las Indias, fuera mas servyçio de Su Magestad, que en estas pazes no se tractara en las cosas de las Indias mas que en las pazes y capitulaciones hasta qui hechas, y que se guardara en esto lo que siempre se ha hecho, que los Franceses no fueran a contratar a Ins Indias, como nunca havian ydo, sin hazer sobresto nuevo asiento, y que esto quedara con la costumbre muy usada, que ha havido desde el tiempo del descu­ brimiento y publicacion de las Indias, de no passar a ellas Franceses. Pero sy los negocios vinieron a terminos que se sospechava, que aunque con estos reynos hoviera paz, el Rey de Francia y sus subditos molestaran e hizieran daño a las Indias, y que para assentar bien las cosas dellas, no se pudo, o no se puede, dexar de conçeder este capitulo que se ha visto en consejo, en tal caso, pot lo que conviene la paz a las Indias, paresçe que se puede sufrir lo tractado en el capitulo con tanto que entienda el Rey de Françia que sus sutditos que fueren a contratar a Ins Indias, han de guardar en todo las leyes y prematicas que ellos mismos y los Ingleses y Portugueses y vassallos de qualquier reyno estraño guardan en estos reynos de Castilla y de Leon, de cuya corona son las Indias, quando vienen a contratar en ellos; en as quales entre otras cosas se dispone que ningunos mercaderes ny otras personas, estrangeros ny naturales, no puedan sacar de los reynos de Castilla oro ny plata, en pasta ny en moneda ny vellon, aunque lo ayan habido en precio y pago de las mercaderias que a ellos traen, pot que si en retorno de sus mercaderias hoviesen de sacar oro o plata, era enriqueçer el reyno de Françia y enpobrecer estos reynos, y sy con esto se pudiese tractar que los navios Françeses a la buelta de las Indias fuesen obligados a tocar en Caliz o en Sanlucar, y manifestar lo que traen ally, escusar seyan algunos inconvinientes que se temen desta contractaçion y ellos no rodeavan mucho en su viage."
16 Santarem, Quadro Elementar, III. 308-309.
17 La Roncière, op. cit., III. 302, 303.

Translation. A Spanish translation (manuscript) is in the Archives of the Indies in Seville, Patronato, 2-5-1/26, ramo 1.

References: Contemporary and early writings. Letter from Prince Philip of Spain to the Emperor, Dec. 14, 1544, in Calendar of State Papers, Spain, 1544, pp. 495-496; T. Buckingham Smith, Coleccion de Varios Documentos para la Historia de la Florida, I. ( 1857) 103-116, with translation in J. P. Baxter, Memoir of Jacques Cartier ( 1906), collateral documents, nos. 13-17, pp. 347-359; Viscount de Santarem, Quadro Elementar ( 1843- 1876), III. 306-309, with translation (not wholly trust­ worthy) in E. Guénin, Ango et ses Pilotes ( 1901), pp. 232-233.

References: Later writings. Ch. de La Roncière, Histoire de la Marine Française, III. ( 1906) 293-305, 315-326; R. Häpke, "Der Erste Koloni­ sationsversuch in Kanada (1541-1543)", in Hansische Geschichtsblätter, 1911, Heft 2. Accounts of the negotiations leading to the treaty of Crépy, but not referring to the article respecting the Indies, are in L. P. Gachard, Trois Années de l'Histoire de Charles-Quint, .1543-1546 ( 1865) ; Ch. Paillard, L'Invasion Allemande en 1544 (ed. Hérelle, 1884), pp. 366 ff.; A. Rozet and J.-F. Lembey, L'Invasion de la France et le Siège de Saint-Dizier par Charles-Quint en 1544 ( 1910), ch. 12.

L'article suyvant a este accorde par nous, Claude, sicur d'Annibault, cheva­ lier de l'ordre du Roy Tres Chrestien, mareschal et admyral de France, lieuten­ ant general dudict sieur roy en ses armées en l'absence et soubz l'auctorité de Messieurs les Daulphin et Duc d'Orleans, Maistre Charles de Nully, conseiller et maistre des requestes ordinaire de l'hostel dudict sieur roy, et Gilbert Bayard, sieur de la Fons, aussi conseiller et secretaire d'estat dicelluy sieur roy et de ses finances, et contrerolleur general de ses guerres, procureurs et ambassadeurs du Roy Tres Chrestien, en passant le traicté de paix entre l'Empereur et ledict sieur roy avec tres illustre sieur Don Fernando de Gonzague, chevalier de l'ordre de la Toison d'Or, prince de Melphete, duc de Ariano, visroy de Sicille, et lieutenant general de l'armée de l'Empereur, et Messieur Nicolas Perrenot, chevalier, sieur de Grantvelle, commandeur de Calamer en l'ordre d'Alcantara, premier conseiller d'estat et garde des sceaulx de sa Majesté Impériale, procureurs et ambassadeurs dudict sieur Empereur, au lieu de [blank], le XVIIIe jour de Septembre, l'an mil cinq cells quarante quatre.

Et pource que de la part dudict sieur Empereur a esté remonstré que aucuns subgectz dudict sieur Roy Tres Chrestien s'avancent de armer navires et bateaulx soubz ombre d'aller descouvrir aux Indes, nonobstant que Sadicte Majesté Impériale maintient que a luy et au Roy de Portugal, son beaufrère, appartiennent a bon et juste tiltre selon la division de traictez dentre eulx, toutes les terres des Yndes, tant en isles que de terre ferme, descouvertes et a descouvrir, tant par eulx que par le moyen des feurent toys et reynes de Castille et de Portugal, sans que autre y puisse emprendre, como qu'il soit

18 The following text is taken from the original manuscript, preserved in the archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Paris, Mémoires et Documents, Espagne, vol. 306, f. 196. The editor is indebted to Mr. H. P. Biggar for knowledge of this document.

soubz ceste coulleur de descouvrement se font plusieurs roberies et pilleryes en mer, a esté accordé par ledict sieur Roy Tres Chrestien que doresnavant luy et ses successeurs, roys de France, et ses subgectz, laisseront paisibles lesdicts sieurs Empereur et Roy de Portugal en tout ce qui concerne lesdictes Yndes, descouvertes et a descouvrir, sans directement ou indirectement y faire emprises quelconques, en quelque lieu ou endroict que ce soit, reservant seullement que les subgectz de France pourront aller marchandement en icelles Yndes, descouvertes et qui se descouvriront par lesdicts sieurs Empereur et Roy de Portugal, et que en cas que soubz coulleur de ceste navigacion ilz font aucune violances, soit esdictes Yndes en allant ou retour­ nant, quilz soient chastiez selon et où ilz seront trouvez coulpables.


Articles concluded between Spain and Portugal in 1552.

Near the close of the year 1551, when France and Spain were on the eve of war and Spain was reorganizing the defense of her commerce,1 the Emperor Charles V., acting through Lope Hurtado de Mendoza, his ambas­ sador at the Portuguese court,2 endeavored to arrange with the King of Portugal a union of armaments for securing Spanish and Portuguese ship­ ping against the French corsairs.3 The Emperor had long identified his interest in protecting ocean commerce with that of Portugal;4 but Portugal had preferred a French to an imperial alliance.5 The recent capture by the French of richly laden vessels, bound from Lisbon to Flanders,6 had, however, impressed upon Portugal the necessity of better guarding her ships. More­ over, as was urged, the proposed union of armaments need cause no breach between Portugal and France, since "the corsairs were not a fleet in the pay of the French King but robbers" whom Portugal had a right to punish.7

1 Fernández Duro, Armada Española, tom. I., app. 14, p. 438, "Prior y Cónsules de la Universidad al Emperador", and pp. 440, 441; Navarrete, Coleccion de Documentos Inéditos para la Historia de España ( 1842- 1895), L. 265 ff., "Copia del asiento de D. Alvaro de Bazan sobre el armada, Valladolid 14 de Febrero 1550" ; Ordenanzas Reales para la Casa de la Contratacion de Sevilla ( 1604), ff. 49-53; Cal. St. Pap., Spain, 1550-1552, pp. 27, 364 ff.
2 Cf. Doc. 15, introduction. Lope Hurtado de Mendoza was first appointed to the Portuguese court in 1527. A few years later he was withdrawn and was reappointed in 1543. Santarem, Quadro Elementar, II. 84.
3 Papers concerning this negotiation are in the Archives at Simancas, Secretaría de Estado, leg. 375.
4 Thus, in 1531, the Emperor had intervened in favor of the King of Portugal in the latter's dispute with France over the issue of French letters of marque against the Portuguese. E. Guénin, Ango et ses Pilotes ( 1901), ch. 6. The Emperor's instructions on foreign policy sent to Prince Philip in 1548 included an injunction "to keep a good understanding with Portugal, especially in what relates to the Indies, and their de­ fence". P. de Sandoval, Historia de la Vida y Hechos del Emperador Carlos V., II. ( 1614) 650; or Papiers d'État du Cardinal de Granvelle, III. ( 1842) 296 (ed. by Ch. Weiss, in Coll. de Docs. Inédits sur l'Histoire de France). Cf. also in Prince Philip letter to the Emperor, Sept. 28, 1544, the passage beginning "Your Majesty knows already that I wrote to the King of Portugal requesting him to send his fleet to the Azores, in order to escort the vessels returning from the Indies". Cal. St. Pap., Spain, VII. ( 1899), 375.
5 Cf. Doc. 17, introduction.
6 Ch. Piot, "La Diplomatie concernant les Affaires Maritimes des Pays-Bas vers le Milieu du XVIe Siècle jusqu' à la Trêve de Vaucelles", in Bulletin de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, 2d ser., tom. XL. ( Brussels, 1875), p. 847, note 2.
7 "Paresce que para buscar los corsarios, unos por una parte y otros por otra, se devria conformar, syn embargo del respecto que el señor Rey de Portugal quiere tener a no romper por el presente con Francia, pues que estos corsarios no son armada que anda a sueldo del rey, syno ladrones, que andan a robar a toda ropa, como paresce por el daño que Portugueses han recibido dellos, y justamente el señor Rey de Portugal los puede mandar buscar y seguir para castigallos." Archives of Simancas, Secretaria de Estado, leg. 375, f. 120.

In the convention that was concluded, Portugal agreed to provide a coast- guard, to send vessels to protect the region of the Azores, and to order ships bound for the African islands and mainland and Brazil to sail at fixed seasons, armed and with an armed convoy. Ships bound for the Antilles might accompany these fleets. Spain agreed to guard the straits of Gibraltar and Galicia, and to share with Portugal the defense of the Azores and Cape St. Vincent.

Text: MS . No signed manuscript of the articles has been found. A manu­ script account of the contents of the articles is in the Archives at Simancas, Secretaría de Estado, leg. 375, f. 102. It corresponds almost precisely to the printed account mentioned below, except that it omits particulars as to the stations of the Portuguese coast-guard.

Text: Printed . An account of the articles is in Fr. d'Andrada, Chronica do Rey Dom João o III. ( 1796), pt. IV., c. 91, pp. 369-372.

References: Contemporary and early writings . For notices relative to the corsairs and the Spanish and Portuguese fleets about 1552, see C. Fernández Duro , Armada Española ( 1895- 1903), tom. I., app. 14, pp. 438 ff.; Viscount de Santarem, Quadro Elementar ( 1842- 1876), III. 330 ff.

References : Later writings. For diplomatic relations between Portugal and France, see Viscount de Santarem, op. cit., III. xcvi ff. For accounts of the Spanish treasure fleets, see C. Fernández Duro, La Mar Descrita por los Mareados--Mas Disquisiciones ( 1877), "Disquisicion Novena: Galeones y Flotas de Indias"; and Naval Tracts of Sir William Monson (ed. by M. Oppenheim for the Navy Record Society, 1902), vol. II., app. B, "The Spanish Treasure Fleets of the Sixteenth Century".

El Rey nosso senhor9 e o Emperador Carlos Quinto, vendo as perdas e danos que seus vassalos recebião dos continuos roubos e insultos dos cossayros, que em todos os tempos e lugares andavaõ sempre vigiando o mar para este effeito, como erão princepes Cristianissimos e zelosissimos do bem de seus reynos, assentaraõ antre sy este anno de 1552, mandarem sair suas armadas ao mar para guarda e defensaõ das suas costas e segurança do comercio de seus vassallos; e o concerto foy que Sua Alteza mandaria armar vinte navios latinos de vinte e cinco até trinta tonelladas cada hum,10 que andassem sempre ha vista da terra para guarda da sua costa, de que os tres aviaõ d'estar em Cascaes,11 coatro na Atougia,12 coatro em Caminha,13 coatro em Lagos,14 dous

10 For an account of the various kinds of Portuguese ships at this period, see H. Lopes de Mendonça , "Estudos sobre Navios Portuguezes nos Seculos XV. e XVI.", in Centenario do Descobrimento da America: Memorias da Commissão Portugueza ( Acad. Real. das Sciencias, Lisbon, 1892).
11 A town 14 miles west of Lisbon.
12 Near Cape Carvoeiro.
13 At the mouth of the Minho river, which separates Portugal from Spain.
14 About twenty miles east of Cape St. Vincent.
8 The text is from Andrada, Chronica do Rey Dom João o III., pt. IV., c. 91, pp. 369-372.
9 John III., king of Portugal from 1521 to 1557.

em Villa nova,15 e tres em Cizimbra ou Sinis,16 qual milhor parecesse, que erão os lugares a que os navios armados custumavaõ vir, e que tambem os navios Portugueses e Castelhanos aviaõ de vir demandar forçadamente; e mandaria mais coatro náos ou galeões para correrem a costa deste reyno mais ao mar, e ajuntarião a sy cada vez que cumprisse os vinte navios acima declarados; e afóra estas armadas se ordenaria outra para a costa do reyno do Algarve de coatro navios de remo, hum navio grosso e tres caravellas, que tambem ajuntariaõ a sy, cada vez que fosse necessario, os outros navios latinos que aviaõ de andar continuamente na costa do mesmo reyno, os quais navios todos mandaria Sua Alteza que no verão e inverno andassem sempre no mar sem se recolherem a porto algum, senaõ com necessidade, tirando os de remo, que se recolheriaõ no inverno; e para as Ilhas17 se mandariaõ cada anno, no mes de Abril, dez navios armados, tres náos ou galeoens e sete caravellas. Mandaria Sua Alteza que os navios que ouvessem de navegar para Arguim, Cabo Verde, tratos de Guiné, costa da Malagueta, Mina, Ilha de São Tomé, e Brasil, fossem e viessem em tres mouções, huma em Janeyro, outra em Março, em companhia das náos da India, e outra em Setembro; e que alem dos navios armados de Sua Alteza, que aviaõ de ir naquellas mouções, se ordenaria que todos os outros navios, ou os mais delles, fossem tambem armados, e de se navegar por aquellas mouções parecia que se podia esperar segurança para os que navegassem para aquellas partes, e para as Antilhas, que tambem se podiaõ aproveitar dellas, e alem disso seria cousa de muyto proveyto para ajudar a guardar as Ilhas dos Açores, aonde todas aquellas frotas aviaõ de ir demandar. O Emperador da sua parte parecia que devia de mandar guardar o estreyto, conforme has novas que tivesse dos Turcos e Franceses,18 porque quanto importava a guarda do estreyto, se conhecia entaõ claramente do trabalho que dava a toda Christandade estar pejado o canal de Frandes. Parecia que devia o Emperador mandar cada anno, no mes d'Abril, has Ilhas os dez navios redondos,19 que então se dizia que para lá se armavaõ em Sevilha, e que deviaõ de ir bem armados, por quanto importava a segurança daquella paragem, onde se dizia que aviaõ de ir armadas grossas; e por boa rezão parecia que naõ deixaria de ser assy, porque em ninhuma outra parte podiaõ ellas fazer tanto proveito para sy, com dano de todas as outras partes a que pretendessem fazello; e que esta armada devia andar nas Ilhas até o fim do mes d'Agosto, e ametade della devia andar todo o anno ao mar do cabo de Saõ Vicente, que era a paragem onde vinhaõ demandar os navios que vinhaõ das Antilhas e do Perú, e que na costa de Galiza devia o Emperador de trazer coatro ou cinco navios armados, para favor daquella costa, e segurança das náos, que de todas aquellas navegaçoes com alguns tempos contrarios hião demandar os seus portos; e que as nave­ garçoes dos Castelhanos, Framengos, e Portugueses destas partes para Frandes fossem cos navios todos juntos, e em duas monções, huma em Abril, e outra em Setembro; e as navegações de Frandes para estas partes fossem em

15 Villa Nova de Portinão, east of Lagos.
16 Cezimbra is situated on a bay 11 miles W.S.W. of Setubal.
17 The Azores.
18 In the early part of the year 1552, the Turks, whose sea-power was then at its height, were preparing to aid the French in maritime operations against the Emperor.
Négociations de la France dans le Levant ( 1848- 1860), II. 175, 177, et passim (pub. by E. Charrière in Coll. de Docs. Inédits sur l'Histoire de France).
19 For descriptions of the various kinds of Spanish ships of this period, consult C. Fernández Duro, Disquisiciones Náuticas ( 1876- 1881), general index, tom. VI.

outras duas monções, huma em Janeyro, e outra em Junho; e que para se bem effeituar o que acima fica dito, devia mandar o Emperador dar ordem para que as urcas, que então estavão reteudas em Frandes, e por este respeito outros muytos navios de Castella e Portugal, viessem logo na milhor ordem que set pudesse; e viessem cada anno aos tempos acima declarados, porque de navegarem todos juntos e nas moucões acima ditas se seguiria segurança naõ sómente das mercadorias que elles levassem e trouxessem, mas ainda das dos outros que navegassem dentro daquelles lemites de hunas partes para outras; e alem destes proveitos, se seguiriaõ outros muytos grandes aos estados do Emperador e d'el Rey nosso senhor; e que mandaria Sua Alteza que os navios das suas armadas e dos seus vassallos dessem favor e ajuda aos do Emperador, e o Emperador mandaria que os das suas armadas fizessem o mesmo aos de Sua Alteza, o que se entenderia sómente sendo necessario para defensaõ de huns e dos outros. O que tudo se aprovou pollo Emperador e por Sua Alteza, e ficou antre ambos assentado de se cumprir inteyramente.

Our lord, the king, and the Emperor Charles V., in view of the loss and injury which their vassals were suffering from the continual robberies and insults of the corsairs, who at all times, and in all places, kept constant watch at sea for that purpose, and since they were most Christian princes and most zealous for the good of their kingdoms, agreed together in this year of 1552, to send their fleets out to sea for the protection and defense of their coasts, and the security of the commerce of their vassals. The agreement was that his Highness was to have twenty lateen-rigged vessels equipped, of from twenty-five to thirty tons each, which were to cruise continually in sight of land, in order to guard the coast: of which three were to be stationed at Cascaes, four in the Atouguia, four at Caminha, four at Lagos, two at Villanova, and three at Cezimbra or Sinis, as should be thought best--these being the places whither the armed vessels were wont to resort, and to which the Portuguese and Castilian vessels were forced to put in. He [i. e., his Highness) was also to send four more ships or galleons to cruise along the coast of this kingdom, further out to sea, and join with the twenty ships afore­ said whenever it should be advisable. Besides these fleets, another fleet was also to be prepared for the coast of the kingdom of the Algarve, consisting of four oared vessels, one large ship, and three caravels, which were also to unite, whenever it should be necessary, with the other lateen-rigged vessels, that were to cruise constantly along the coast of that kingdom. His Highness was to order all those ships to remain constantly at sea, summer and winter, without putting into any port, unless in case of necessity, excepting the oared vessels, which were to go in during the winter. Ten armed ships, three ships or galleons, and seven caravels were to be sent to the Islands every year in the month of April. His Highness was to order the ships bound for Arguin, Cape Verde, trade of Guinea, coast of Malagueta, Elmina, Island of St. Thomas, and Brazil, to come and go during the three monsoons, [namely], the one in January, the one in March (in company with the ships from India), and the one in September. Besides the armed ships of his

20 The translation is by Miss Amalia Alberti.

Highness, which were to sail during those monsoons, orders were to be given that all the other ships, or most of them, were also to be armed; and by sailing during those monsoons, it was thought that the vessels journeying to those regions might hope for security, as well as those bound for the Antilles, which might also take advantage of the monsoons. In addition to this, it would be of great advantage in helping to guard the islands of the Azores, where all these fleets had to put in. It was thought best for the Emperor, on his side, to order the guarding of the Straits, in accordance with the news that he might have of the Turks and French, the importance of such guarding of the Straits being then clearly apparent from the trouble caused to the whole of Christendom by the channel of Flanders being blocked. It was thought best for the Emperor to send to the Islands, every year, in the month of April, the ten square-rigged ships which, it was said, were to be equipped for that purpose in Seville; and that they should be well armed, because of the impor­ tance of the safety of that region, whither it was reported that great fleets [of the corsairs] were about to sail. There was good reason to believe that such would not fail to be the case, for in no other region could they gain so much profit for themselves or do so much damage to all other parts, as indeed was their intent. [It was thought best] for this fleet to remain off the Islands until the end of the month of August, and that half of it should cruise at sea during the whole year off Cape St. Vincent, since that is the region through which the ships from the Antilles and Peru must pass; that the Emperor should keep four or five armed ships off the coast of Galicia, for the protection of that coast, and the security of the ships from all the aforesaid routes, which might be driven into its ports by bad weather; that the voyages of the Castilian, Flemish, and Portuguese from these parts to Flanders should be made by their ships all together, during the two monsoons, [namely], the one in April, and the other in September, and the voyages from Flanders to those parts during the two other monsoons, [namely], the one in January, and the other in June; that for the good accomplishment of what is set forth above, the Emperor should order the armed fly-boats then retained in Flanders, and for the same reason, many other Castilian and Portuguese ships, to come at once, in the best way possible, and to come every year at the seasons above named, for by voyaging all together during the monsoons, as aforesaid, they would ensure the safety not only of the merchandise which they brought and carried themselves, but also that of others journeying within those limits from one place to another. Besides these benefits, others, many and great, would ensue to the states of the Emperor and of our lord, the king. [It was thought best] for his Highness to order the ships of his fleets, and those of his vassals, to favor and assist those of the Emperor, and for the Emperor to do the like for those of his Highness, this to be understood only in case of necessity for the defense of each other. All of the abovesaid was approved by the Emperor and by his Highness, and the faithful observance thereof was agreed between them.

20. Truce between France and Spain, concluded at Vaucelles, Feb­ ruary 5, 1516; separate article relating to the Indies and Savoy.

The war begun in 1552 between the Emperor Charles V. and Henry II. of France involved several other European powers and also spread to America. The corsairs of Guipúzcoa did much damage to the French fish­ eries of Newfoundland, Spanish troops were landed on the island, and many ships were captured in the ports and neighboring seas.1 In Porto Rico and Cuba the French committed depredations; in 1555, Havana was taken and pillaged by the French Protestant, Jacques de Sores.2

Through the marriage of his son Philip with Queen Mary, Charles V. hoped to gain England as an ally against France, but the English would not be drawn into a Spanish quarrel. Their interest lay in bringing about a cessation of hostilities and Queen Mary undertook the rôle of mediator. The Pope also desired peace and appointed Cardinal Pole to negotiate it; but Pole had little success.3 Towards the close of 1555, however, conditions were favorable to a truce. Charles V. had already begun abdicating his various dignities, and wished to transfer to his son a realm at peace. He was also alarmed by the alliance between the King of France and the newly-elected pope, Paul IV. Henry II., on the other hand, feared lest his union with the Pope might drive England into an alliance with Spain. Moreover, both realms were impoverished.4 Near the end of the year the French commis­ sioners, Admiral Coligny and Séebastien de l'Aubespine, and the Imperial commissioners, Charles de Lalaing and Simon Renard, who were already conferring at the abbey of Vaucelles, near Cambray, were empowered to

1 "Informacion hecha en la villa de San Sebastian, el año de 1555, para acreditar las acciones marineras de los capitanes armadores de Guipúzcoa durante la guerra con Francia", printed by C. Fernández Duro, Disquisiciones Náuticas, VI.: "Arca de Noé" ( 1881), pp. 355-378; and by E. Ducéré, Histoire Maritime de Bayonne: Les Corsaires, pp. 333-344.
2 Ducéré, op. cit., pp. 347, 348; La Roncière, La Marine Française, III. 579-584.
3 For Pole's part in the negotiations, see P. Friedmann, Les Déepêches de Giovanni Michiel, Ambassadeur de Venise en Angleterre de 1554 à 1557 ( 1869), pp. xxxv ff.; and Martin Haile, Life of Reginald Pole ( 1910), espec. chs. 20-22, and 23 to p. 480.
4 Papiers d'État du Cardinal de Granvelle, IV., 556, 557; Romier, Les Origines Politiques, I. 488 ff.

conclude a peace or truce.5 In addition, Charles de Tisnacq, Philibert de Bruxelles, and Gian Battista Schizzo were appointed to act for the Emperor and Philip. The five years' truce, signed on February 5, 1556, as a result of their deliberations, included the separate article, printed below, relating to the Duke of Savoy, the Emperor's ally, and to the Indies. By this article it was agreed that during the truce the subjects of the King of France should not sail to or trade in the Spanish Indies without special license from King Philip. Against those that acted to the contrary, force might be used without impairing the validity of the truce. This renunciation of trade in the Indies was obtained with great difficulty from the French, who claimed that the trade had been permitted them.6 In later treaties with France, e. g., in those of 1559 and 1598, Spain was unable to obtain a similar renunciation, and as late as the middle of the seventeenth century she harked back to this truce as a reason why the French should keep away from Spanish America.7 The Spanish contention was of course weak since it rested on an article of a truce that was valid for only a short period.

Text: MS. A copy of the separate article on the Indies and Savoy, certified by Josse de Courtewille, secretary of state to Philip II., is in the Archives Nationales at Paris, K. 1643 (D. 6).

Text of the separate article: Printed. F. Leonard, Recueil des Traitez de Paix ( 1693), II. 506-507; J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique ( 1726- 1731), tom. IV., pt. III., p. 84; G. Ribier, Lettres et Mémoires d'Estat ( 1666), II. 629-631 (verbal variations from Leonard).

References: Contemporary and early writings. Papiers d'État du Cardi­ nal de Granvelle ( 1841- 1852), IV. 541 (ed. by Ch. Weiss, in Collection de Documents Inédits sur l'Histoire de France); C. Fernández Duro, Armada Española ( 1895- 1903), I. 451.

References: Later writings. Ch. de La Roncière, Histoire de la Marine Française, III. ( 1906) 583, 584. The history of the negotiations pre­ liminary to the truce is given in F. Decrue, Anne, Duc de Montmorency, sous les Rois Henri II., François II., et Charles IX. ( 1889), ch. 8; A. Segre, "La Questione Sabauda e gli Avvenimenti Politici e Militari che prepararono la Tregua di Vaucelles", in Memorie della Reale Accad. delle Scienze di Torino, 2d ser., LV. ( 1905) 383-451; L. Romier, LesOrigines Politiques des Guerres de Religion

5 The powers given to Coligny and l'Aubespine on Dec. 25, 1555, to conclude a peace or truce are printed in J. Du Bouchet, Preuves de l'Histoire de l'Illustre Maison de Coligny ( 1662), pp. 475, 476; Henry II.'s instructions to Coligny, Jan. 25, 1556, are printed in part in J. Delaborde, Gaspard de Coligny ( 1879), I. 606-607.
6 Renard wrote to King Philip: "Quant à l'article concernant les Indes, ilz l'ont avec grande difficulté accordé, disans que par cy-devant la navigation marchande leur a esté permise, comme vostre majesté verra." Papiers d'État du Cardinal de Granvelle, IV. 5 41).
7 Thomas du Grand Hamel, Discours Sommaire de la Navigation ( Rouen, 1650), p. 97.

Origines Politiques des Guerres de Religion ( 1913, etc.), tom. I., liv. IV.; G. Duruy, De pactis anno 1556 apud Valcellas Indutiis ( 1883). These writers do not, however, refer to negotiations respecting the Indies.

Commil soit que aujourdhuy, date de cestes, air este traicte tresve marchande et communicative entre messres Charles, conte de Lalaing, baron de Scornetz, chevalier de lordre du thoison dor, lieutenant et capitaine general, et grand bailly de Haynnau, Simon Renard, Charles Tisnacq, Phillibert de Bruxelles, et Jehan Baptista Schicio, senateur et regent de Milan, conseilliers et procureurs de lempereur, et de treshault, tres excellent, et tres puissant prince, Don Philippe, roy dangleterre, de Naples, etc., et messres Gaspar de Coligny, sieur de Chastillon, admiral de France, gouverneur et capitaine general tant en lisle de France quen Picardie, et Sebastien de Laubespine, abbe de Bassefontaine et de Sainct Martin en Ponthoise, conseillier et maistre des requestes du Roy tres Chrestien de France. Iceulx commis dudit seigneur Roy tres Chrestien ont en vertu de leur povoir oultre le contenu en ladite tresve accorde et promis que ledit seigneur Roy de France payera ou fera payer, reallement et de fait, durant ladite tresve et chacune annee dicelle, aux termes cy apres speciffiez, au sieur Duc de Savoye,9 ou ses procureurs ou entremecteurs ayans quictance de luy, la valeur du revenu annuel du plat pays et deppendans de la ville de Ivree,10 tel que sera estime et liquide par commis quy seront pour ce nommez et choisiz. Et se fera ledit paiement en la ville de Lyon par marchant particulier quy sera advise, assavoir la moictie au dernier jour de Juillet prochainement venant, et lautre moictie au dernier jour de Janvier suyvant, et consequamment de termes en termes. Dont ledit seigneur donnera mandemens et lettres en forme requise pour seurete et payement de la somme. Et joyra ledit seigneur duc ses pays, subjectz, et serviteurs du benefice de ladite tresve, tout ainsi que les subjectz et pays desdits sieurs Empereur et roys. Et rentreront lesdits subjectz en la joys­ sance de leurs biens, droictz, et actions, comme lesdits subjectz et serviteurs de leursdites majestez. Et audit sieur duc ne sera mis empeschements en ce quil tient et possede, et se treuvera tenir et posseder, au temps de la date des presentes. Aussy a este expressement convenu et capitule, que jaçoit ladite tresve soit marchande et communicative, sy est ce les subjectz dudit seigneur Roy de France ou aultres par leur adveu ne pourront naviguer, trafficquer, ou negocier aux Indes appertenant audit sieur Roy dangleterre, sans son expres conge et licence. Autrement, faisans le contraire, sera licite user contre eulx dhostilite, demeurant toutte ffois ladite tresve en sa force et vigeur.

10 Ivrea, a town 27 miles N.N.E. of Turin, taken from Savoy by France in 1553.
8 The following text is from a copy, certified by Philip II.'s secretary, preserved in the Archives Nationales at Paris, K. 1643 (D. 6).
9 Emmanuel Philibert, who succeeded to the dukedom in 1553. The question of re­ storing to the Emperor's ally, the Duke of Savoy, the territories taken from him by France, had been the chief obstacle to an earlier conclusion of the negotiations. The truce was finally arranged on a basis of uti possidetis. The duke, bitterly disappointed, rejected the yearly stipend promised him by this article. A. Segre, "La Questione Sabauda", in Memorie della Reale Accad. delle Scienze di Torino, 2d ser., tom. LV.
On the importance of the question of Savoy in these negotiations, see also Romier, Les Origines Politiques, tom. I., liv. IV., ch. 1.

Moyennant aussy que soubz ceste umbre riens neste face ou commecte au prejudice des subjectz dudit seigneur Roy tres Chrestien quy se treuveront voiaiger par mer, ailleurs a leurs commoditez, et ou bon leur sembleroit, comme du passe. Le marquis Albert de Brandenburg est comprins de la part dudit seigneur Roy tres Chrestien en la presente tresve. Mais pour son esgard a este declaire, que nonobstant la comprehension faicte de luy par ledit seigneur roy, lon entend quelle ne puisse avoir lieu en ce que concerne lempire, sinon apres que ledit marquis qui est au ban dudit lempire se sera reconcilie et remis comme devant; et sera bon content que la justice et chambre imperialle y pourvoye commil appertiendra par droict et raison. A la charge aussy que cependant dune part ny dautre ne se donnera faveur ny ayde audit marquis, directement ou indirectement, pour emprendre contre les estatz, pays, et royaulmes de leurs Majestez, ny en quelque lieu que ce soit. Oultre la comprehension generalle, en laquelle la Royne Leonore sera inseree en la tresve, sy bon luy semble, aians les depputez de Sa Majeste Imperiale, et du Roy dengleterre son filz fait instance des arreraiges de son dot, et voulu entrer en la vigeur et contenu aux traictez qui font mention de ladite dame, Les depputez dudit seigneur Roy tres Chrestien ont respondu nen avoir aucune charge, et remis le tout a Sa Majeste royalle pour en adviser, ainsy que de raison. Aussy aiant les depputez dudit seigneur Roy tres Chrestien fait semblable instance pour Madame la Duchesse de Parme, ceulx de sadite Majeste Imperiale et dudit seigneur roy son filz ont remis le tout a leurs Majestez, Comme nen aiant aucune charge esperant quelles y auront tel regard que de raison. Tous lesquelz articles et chacun diceulx auront et sortiront effect comme sy distinctement ilz estoient comprins en ladite tresve generalle. En signe dequoy lesdits deputez ont promis et jure lobservation et ratiffication diceulx comme de ladite tresve. Et iceulx signez de leurs seingz. Au lieu de Vaulcelles, le cincqizesme jour de Febvr', lan quinze cens cinc­ quante cincq.11 Ainsy signe, C. de Lalaing, Renard, de Tisnacq, P. de Bruxelles, Giovanni Battista Sichzo, de Coulligny, et S. de Laubespine.

Collationne avecq la lettre originale, escripte en parchemin et signee comme dessus par moy.


11 The year is reckoned from March 25.
12 Comparison of signatures shows that this is Josse (or Joseph) de Courtewille, clerk of the Order of the Golden Fleece and commander in the Order of Calatrava. Philip II. took him to Spain to serve as secretary of state for the affairs of the Low Countries. He died in 1572.

* Treaty between France and Spain, concluded at Cateau- Cambrésis,
April 3, 1559.
Oral agreement concerning the Indies.

The truce of Vaucelles was soon broken. Within a year, Henry II. renewed the papal alliance and began hostilities against Spain. In the ensuing war both sides won notable victories, which offset each other. In October, 1558, after preliminary conferences, the kings empowered plenipotentiaries to negotiate the peace, which both monarchs ardently desired.1 Philip's re­ sources were nearly exhausted. Henry hoped that the return of the Constable Montmorency, who had been held as prisoner, would check the growing power of the Guises. Both sovereigns wished to begin a domestic campaign against Protestantism.2 In a castle of the Bishop of Cambray, a treaty between France and Spain was signed on April 3, 1559. A treaty between France and England, the ally of Spain, was signed on the day preceding.3

The treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis, supplemented in 1598 by the treaty of Vervins, was "the fundamental charter of Europe up to the treaty of West­ phalia". Contemporaries considered it disgraceful to France, which sur­ rendered two hundred towns to Savoy and Spain, and abandoned her pretensions to Italy. Among other things the treaty stipulated the marriage of Philip II. and the daughter of the King of France.

In the course of the negotiations the right of the French to go to the Spanish Indies was discussed repeatedly and at length.4

1 The powers are printed in Traicté de Paix fait à Chasteau-Cambresis ( 1637), pp. 160-165. The French plenipotentiaries were: the Cardinal of Lorraine, the Constable Montmorency, the Marshal Saint-André, Jean de Morvilliers, bishop of Orleans, Claude de l'Aubespine, secretary of state, and later, his brother, Sébastien de l'Aubespine, bishop of Limoges. Spain was represented by the Duke of Alva, William, prince of Orange, Ruy Gomez de Silva, count of Melito, Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, bishop of Arras, and President Viglius. Bishop Thirlby, the Earl of Arundel, and Nicholas Wotton represented England. The Duke of Savoy and the King of Navarre also sent plenipotentiaries. From the middle of October, 1558, till nearly the end of the following January, negotiations were conducted at Cercamp; afterwards, at Cateau-Cambrésis.

2 For the causes that made Philip desire peace, see L. P. Gachard, Relations des Am­ bassadeurs Vénitiens sur Charles-Quint et Philippe II. ( 1855), pp. 314, 315.
3 The text of the French-Spanish treaty is in F. Leonard, Recueil des Traitez ( 1693), II. 535 ff.; and J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique ( 1726- 1731), tom. V., pt. I., pp. 34 ff.; the text of the French-English treaty is in P. Forbes, Full View of Public Transactions in the Reign of Q. Elizabeth ( 1740- 1741). I. 68-81.
4 Papiers d'État du Cardinal de Granvelle, V. 285, 286, 546, 564; Négociations relatives au Règne de François II., p. 279; Archives of Simancas, Secretaría de Estado, leg. 518, f. 88.

Philip thought the question of great importance. During the truce, in viola­ tion of the separate article,5 and during the war just passed, the Spanish islands had been the prey of French corsairs. Villegagnon's colony in Brazil seemed a new danger to Spain as well as to Portugal.6 In 1557 the Venetian ambassador in Spain ascribed the recent rupture between that country and France partly to the sending of French ships to the Indies "to occupy some place and obstruct the navigation".7 The Council of the Indies advised Philip to arrange in the negotiations for the punishment of French corsairs and for the surrender of French pretensions to the Indies.

The Spanish commissioners based their claim to a monopoly of the western navigation on the bulls of Pope Alexander VI. and Julius II. and on the fact that Spain alone had borne the labor and expense of discovery. They urged that Villegagnon should be recalled.8 The French deputies, arguing that the sea was common, and making a distinction used by the English merchants during the Anglo-Portuguese negotiations of 1555, would not agree to exclude Frenchmen from places discovered by them and not actually subject to the kings of Portugal or Castile; but they would consent either that the French keep away from lands actually possessed by the aforesaid sovereigns, or, as an alternative, that, as in earlier treaties, the Indies should not be mentioned, and if Frenchmen were found doing what they should not they might be chastised. Philip did not approve of the former alternative. The Indies were, therefore, not mentioned in the treaty, but an oral agreement was made, apparently to the effect that west of the prime meridian and south of the Tropic of Cancer might should make right, and violence done by either party to the other should not be regarded as in contravention of treaties. Beyond these "lines of amity" treaties should lose their force. Ships cap­ tured there were considered good prize.9 At a later period the Spaniards and

5 Doc. 20. Ch. de La Roncière, La Marine Fraçaise, III. ( 1906) 584.
6 Papiers d'État du Cardinal de Granvelle, IV. 659.
7 E. Albçri, Relazioni degli Ambasciatori Veneti, sér. I., tom. III. ( 1853), p. 304.
8 Letter from the French deputies to the King of France, dated Mar. 13, 1559.
Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Correspondance Politique, Espagne, vol. IX., ff. 168-170.
9 On Mar. 13, 1559, the Spanish plenipotentiaries at Cateau-Cambrésis wrote to King Philip as follows: . . . . "Oultres ce, nous avons longuement debatu pour exclure les Franchois de la navigation des Indes: mais nous ne les avons sceu attraire a ce quilz voulussent exclure leurs subjectz de la ditte navigation, ny que lon leur donnast mettes ou limites: du moins quil ne leur fut permis daller aux lieux que si bien ilz sont descouvertz, toutesfois nobeissent ny au royaulme de Castille ny a celluy de Portugal. Bien consenti­ roient ilz quilz nallassent aux terres possedées par Vôtre Majesté et par le Roy de Portu­ gal, ou que lon demeurast aux termes des traictez passez, quest quil ne sen fist mention, et que si lon les trouve faisant chose quilz ne doibvent que lon les chastye: alleghans les argumens ordinaires que la mer soit commune, et nous au contraire nous servant du fondement de la bulle du pape Alexandre et du pape Julle second, de la sommation que se fit aux princes Cretiens pour scavoir ceulx que vouldriont contribuer aux frais du descouvrement, la demarcation que sen fit, et que ce nestoit raison que aultres vinssent joy'r des travaulx et fraiz faictz par aultruy pour descouvrir les dittes Indes. Et que nous leur voulions bien declarer que silz y venoient, encoires quil fut en paix, que lon

French differed as to the situation of the prime meridian. The former placed it in the Azores; the latter in Ferro, the westernmost of the Canaries.10 In 1634 Louis XIII. ordered French cartographers to place the prime meridian on their globes and charts at the island of Ferro.11

It may be noted that the "lines of amity" recognized by the Spaniards roughly corresponded to what may be described as the Portuguese demarca­ tion line of the bull of 1455, Doc. 1--the meridian of Cape Non12--and the Spanish demarcation line of the bull of May 4, 1493, Doc. 7.13

procureroit de les jecter au fond, sans que par ce nous entendissions que lon peust alleguer davoir contrevenu ausdits traictez en ce quilz traictent de la communication et conversation des subjectz de lung sur les pays de laultre. Et finablement, après longue dispute, nous nous sumes arrestéz a ce que nous ferions coucher ung article sur ce point, lequel nous pourrions veoir et regarder si sur icelluy nous scaurions accorder. En quoy nous avons enchargé au docteur portugais qui est icy apres lavoir informé de ce quest passé dy besoigner ceste nuict et demain le matin." . . . Archivo General de Simancas, Secretaria de Estado, tom. 518, f. 88.

The following extract from a letter, apparently written by a member of the Council of the Indies, probably dates from or about the year 1565. It is in the Archives Na­ tionales at Paris, K. 1504, No. 19a (Fonds de Simancas). "Illustre Señor. Quando Su Mag[esta]d en Flandes tomo el ultimo assiento de las pazes con el Rey de Françia, embio a mandar a este consejo le advirtiese si en lo que tocaba a las Yndias avia que tratar cosas que tocasen a su servicio, y el consejo rrespondio que ordinariamente andavan françeses cosarios por la mar aguardando a los navios que venian de las Yndias por hazer alguna presa, o rrobo en ellos, y que estos se debrian castigar como rrobadores, cosarios, y ynquietadores de la paz y amistad de los rreyes. Y asi mesmo que debria asentarse con el Rey de Françia, que se apartase de qualquier pretension que tuviese en tierra de las Yndias, pues Su Mag[esta]d las tenia y poseya con tan justos titulos.

"Y enquanto al primer capitulo se allanaron, y satisfizieron bien, pero enquanto a lo segundo rrespondieron que no tocarian en las tierras que Su Mag[esta]d poseya en las Yndias, pero que en las tierras que Su Mag[esta]d no poseya ni navegar por la mar no se las devia estorvar, ni se consentirian pribar de la mar y cielo.

"Esto es lo que me acuerdo que entonçes se trato y rrespondio en sustançia, pero yo hacer buscar la diçha consulta y rrespuesta y vista advertire a v. m. si en ella oviere otra cosa de alguna ymportançia que se me olbide."

Henry IV., writing on Sept. 20, 1604, to Maximilien de Béthune, remarked apropos of the treaty recently concluded between Spain and England (Doc. 27): "Je croy qu'ils en useront de part et d'autre, comme ont faict mes sujets et les Espagnols depuis la paix de l'an mil cinq cens cinquante-neuf, que les François ont continué les dicts voyages, jaçoit qu'i n'en soit fait mention par la dicte paix; mais comme les Espagnols les rencontrans par delà la ligne les ont traittez en ennemis, les dicts François leur ont rendu la pareille et pour cela l'on n'a entendu que la dicte paix fut violée." (Le Roi à Béthune, 20 Sept., 1604. Bibl. Nat. 500 Colbert, 348: 590. Printed in P. Laffleur de Kermaingant , L'Ambassade de France en Angleterre sous Henri IV.: Mission de Christophe de Harlay ( 1602- 1605) ( 1895), I. 193, note 1.) See also the letters written by the Queen Regent of France to the King of England in 1610 and 1611, quoted in D. Asseline, Antiquitéz de Dieppe, II. 149 ff., and in E. Guénin, Ango et ses Pilotes ( 1901), p. 269 ff. In a document of the year 1588 ( Santarem, Quadro Elementar, III. 510, 511) the tropic of Cancer is mentioned in connection with the prime meridian-- the two constituting the "lines of amity".

10 There is an interesting memoir by Richelieu on this question in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Paris, Mémoires et Documents, France, 792. 11 F. A. Isambert et al., Recueil Général des Anciennes Lois Françaises ( 1822- 1827), XVI. 409-411. 12 See Doc. 1, note 40. 13 For instances of the use of the demarcation line of the treaty of Tordesillas as the prime meridian, see Doc. 10, introduction.

Text. No statement of the wording of the oral agreement has been found.

References: Contemporary and early writings. Papiers d'État du Cardi­ nal de Granvelle ( 1841- 1852), V. 169 ff. (ed. by Ch. Weiss, in Coll. de Docs. Inédits sur l'Histoire de France) ; Négociations relatives au Règne de François II., tirées du Portefeuille de Sébastien de l'Aubespine, Evêque de Limoges (ed. by L. Paris in the same collection, 1841). p. 271 ff. Under the title Traicté de Paix fait á Chasteau-Cambresis a collection of letters from the French deputies was printed in 1637. This contains nothing about the Indies, but some omitted passages relating to the Indies are preserved in manuscript form in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Correspondance Politique, Espagne, vol. IX., ff. 168-170.

References: Later writings. The history of the treaty, but without refer­ ence to the question of the Indies, is in F. Decrue, Anne, Duc de Mont­ morency, sous les Rois Henri II., François II., et Charles IX. ( 1889), ch. 10; A. de Ruble, Le Traité de Cateau-Cambrésis ( 1889).

22. Treaty between the King of Spain and the Catholic Princes of France, concluded at Joinville on January 16, 1585.

On June 10, 1584, the Duke of Anjou, brother of Henry III., died, and Henry of Navarre, chief of the Huguenot party, became heir to the French crown. In anticipation of this event, the Duke of Guise, who secretly aspired to the throne, his brother, the duke of Mayenne, and other Catholic nobles, had already proclaimed the old and simple Cardinal of Bourbon as heir presumptive, and revived the Holy League of 1576 to oppose the succession of the King of Navarre. The Duke of Guise had long been in the pay of Philip II. That monarch was now at odds with the ruling family of France because of their dealings with his rebellious subjects in the Netherlands and their befriending of Dom Antonio, prior of Crato, a claimant of the crown of Portugal, which Philip had recently annexed to Spain. Thus a common hostility to the Valois and Protestants brought Philip and the Guises into alliance. Negotiations already begun through the Spanish agents, Juan Moreo and Juan Bautista de Tassis, were continued from the last days of December, 1584, to January 16, 1585, at the château of the Duke of Guise at Joinville on the Marne. On the latter date, a treaty of offensive and defensive alliance was signed by Tassis and Moreo on behalf of Philip II., by the Sieur de Mainville on behalf of the Cardinal of Bourbon, and by the dukes of Guise and Mayenne in their own names and those of their brother, the Cardinal of Guise, and their cousins, the dukes of Aumale and Elboeuf. The treaty was ratified by Philip,2 and renewed at Rheims by the Duke of Guise on September 2, 1585.3 Its chief provisions were as follows: the Cardinal of Bourbon should be declared presumptive heir to the throne of France, from which all heretical princes or countenancers of heresy should be excluded, and, if necessary, opposed with arms; the Cardinal of Bourbon should, on his accession, confirm the treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis;4 in France, only Catholic forms of worship should be permitted, no places should be left in

1 The main text of the treaty is dated Dec. 31, 1584; one of the separate articles, Jan. 1, 1585; the other, Jan. 16, 1585. J. B. de Tassis, one of the negotiators, states with regard to the treaty:
"confectum est foedus decima sexta die Januarii, octuagesimi quinti, etiamsi instrumentum Calendis ipsis asserat confectum."
Commentariorum Libri Octo, p. 446.
2 Ibid., p. 461; Rübsam, Johann Baptista von Taxis, pp. 75, 76.
3 See below, p. 225.
4 Cf. Doc. 21.

the hands of heretics, those who would not return to the Catholic Church should be exterminated, and the decrees of the Council of Trent should be observed; alliances with the Turks and voyages of the French to the Indies and Azores should cease; the King of Spain should pay the contracting princes 50,000 crowns monthly, for the expenses of the war, and advance other sums, as specified; Cambray and the places in the Netherlands yielded by the heretics to the French should be restored to Spain, and every effort made to prevent the French from trading with or helping the heretics in the Netherlands; all French Catholics might enter the League, but the con­ tracting parties to the treaty might not separately admit a foreign Catholic prince, or treat with any prince, including the King of France, to the League's prejudice, or make the treaty public. The dukes of Mercœur and Nevers being absent, a space should be left for them to sign the treaty; the King of Spain, the Cardinal of Bourbon, and the dukes of Mercœur and Nevers should ratify the treaty before the end of the following March. In two important separate articles,5 the dukes of Guise and Mayenne promised that, on the outbreak of war, they would endeavor to have Dom Antonio delivered up to the King of Spain, on condition that nothing be attempted against his person; and the Cardinal of Bourbon promised that every effort should be made to put all the lands of the King of Navarre situated outside France into posses­ sion of the King of Spain.

There were obvious reasons why Philip and the Catholic Leaguers should desire to stop the voyages of the French to the Indies, and to the Azores where the Indian fleets regularly put in. Within the last two and a half years, the Queen-Mother, Catherine de' Medici, to whom Dom Antonio had promised Brazil, had used the naval power of France in an attempt to preserve his authority in the Azores. The French captains who undertook the western voyages and chafed under the commercial restrictions imposed by Spain6 were mostly Protestants.7 The far-sighted Huguenot statesmen, Coligny and Duplessis-Mornay, had both planned a French invasion of Philip's western dominions in order to stop at its source the "golden Indian stream" that flowed through the Spanish king's coffers into the hands of the soldiers, agents, and rebels who fought with him against Protestantism. The plan of Duplessis-Mornay, which had been submitted to the King of France a few months before, included an attack upon the treasure fleet; an occupation of the Isthmus of Panama which would give the French command of both oceans and a short route to the Moluccas; and the diverting of the East Indian trade into the hands of the French by employing the route to Suez and

5 Printed in de Tassis, Commentariorum Libri Octo, pp. 456-460.
6 Cf. "Plaintes sur les obstacles apportés au commerce maritime des Rouennais par les Espagnols", Aug. 20, 1584, in E. de Fréville, Mémoire sur le Commerce Maritime de Rouen ( 1857), II. 503-505.
7 La Roncière, La Marine Française, IV. ( 1910) 31.

thence to the Mediterranean through the territory of their Turkish allies,8 who had recently proposed to establish at Antwerp, under the Duke of Anjou, a staple for all their European trade in Asiatic commodities, which should be conveyed across France from Marseilles to Bordeaux.9

The League was never able to give effect to the article in the treaty of Joinville concerning the Indies. After the death of Henry III., Philip offered in vain to allow the French to trade there on condition that the League should recognize him as protector of France, and agree to the marriage of his daughter (niece of Henry III.) with a French prince, who should become King of France after the death of the Cardinal of Bourbon.10

Text: MS. No original manuscript of this treaty has been found. Two copies of the French text are in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Fonds Français, 3363, f. 9, and 3974, f. 67. These are similar and in the same hand. The former is printed in part below.

Text: Printed. The French text of the treaty, without the additional articles, is printed in F. Leonard, Recueil des Traitez de Paix ( 1693), II. 636-642, and J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique ( 1726- 1731), tom. V., pt. I., pp. 441-443. The Latin text, including the two separate articles, is in "Joannis Baptistae de Tassis Commentariorum de Tumultibus Belgicis sui Temporis Libri Octo", in C. P. Hoynck van Papendrecht, Analecta Belgica ( 1743), tom. II., pt. II., pp. 446-460.

References: Contemporary and early writings. J. B. de Tassis, Commen­ tariorum Libri Octo (etc., as above), tom. II., pt. II., pp. 442-446, 461.

References: Later writings. J. Rübsam, Johann Baptista von Taxis ( 1889), Kap. 3; E. Saulnier, Le Rôle Politique du Cardinal de Bourbon (Charles X.), 1523-1590 ( 1912), in Bibliothèque de l'École des Hautes Études, fasc. 193.

TEXT.11 Traicté faict avec le Roy d'Espagne l'an 1585 par Messieurs les Cardinal de Bourbon et Ducz de Guise et du Mayne en Janvier, 1585, a Janville. Le dict traicté depuis fut renouvellé par le dict sieur Duc de Guise le deuxiesme Septembre, mil Vc quatre vingtz cinq, a Reims.12

10 "Que le commerce de la marchandise sera ouvert aux François pour aller aux terres de Perou et autres terres nouvellement conquises par Sa Majesté, et se pourront associer avec les Espagnols ou Portugais, ou naviger à part si bon leur semble." P. V. Palma Cayet , Chronologie Novenaire, in Michaud and Poujoulat, Nouvelle Collection des Mémoires ( 1836- 1839), Ire sér., tom. XII., pt. I., p. 190. See also J. Nouaillac, Villeroy ( 1909), pp. 170 ff.
11 The text is taken from a copy in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Fonds Français, 3363, f. 9.
12 In margin in MS.: "Escript en pappier de la main de . . ., secretaire de Monsieur dumaine." This note is in a hand different from that of the text but like that in which the names of the signatories and the notes at the end of the text are written. 8 Mémoires et Correspondance de Duplessis-Mornay ( 1824- 1825), II. 580 ff., and see La Roncière, op. cit., IV. 201-205.
9 J.-A. de Thou, Histoire Universelle ( 1734), VIII. 646.

Au nom de Dieu le Createur. A tous ceux qui ces presentes lettres verront, soit notoire comme ainsy soict qu'il ny aict en ce monde rien que oblige daventaige, ny en quoy les rois, princes, et tous Chrestiens soient plus tenuz, qu'a ce qui est du service de Dieu, tuition, deffence, et conservation de sa saincte loy; et que les seectes et heresies de long temps dispersees par la Chrestienté ayent pris tel accroissement que grande partie dicelle sen trouve gastee et infectee, voires sy avant qu'en plusieurs contrees grandes et notables lon est venu jusques a la, que de banir la religion catolique, appostolicque, et Romaine, en faisant tout l'effort possible pour l'extirper et ruyner de fond en comble, et que les chefz et ministres des dictes sectes et heresie ne veillent, jour et nuict, par tous les subtilz couvertz et publicqz moiens quilz peuvent, que a corrompre et gaster de mesme ce quelle a encores, graces a Dieu, dentier et net, et que au lieu qu'entre les princes Chrestiens, les sectaires et hereticques debvroient estre traictez et tenuz comme commungs ennemiz; ce neantmoings du costé de la Franceet d'aulcuns Francoys ilz ayent esté tellement supportez, favorisez, et entretenuz au Pais Bas, qu'ilz nauroient peu estre chastiez, puniz, et reduictz, comme il appartient par tres hault, tres excellent, et tres puissant prince, le Roy Catholicque, leur souverain.

Ce que les soubzscritz Catolicques de la dicte Francedisent avoir esté faict en icelle seullement par le mauvais conseil et persuasion de certaines personnes, plus soigneux de leur proffict particullier que de lhonneur de Dieu, du service de leur roy, et du bien de leur patrie; et qu'en cecy lon y continue encores a present plus que jamais par negotiations, promesses, exortations, pour les rendre tousjours plus obstinez et endurciz en leurs pernitieuses intentions, mesmes que au dedans de la Franceles catolicques se plaignent de veoir limpunité du blaspheme, quilz appellent liberté de conscience, permise entreux, et daultre part, les villes, les forteresses, leurs maisons, et leurs families, voires les peuples entiers, estre livrez et habandonnez au bon plaisir et domination des hereticques. En quoy, oultre ce que lestat de la dicte Francese dissippe par ce moien, encores sont ce aultant d'arcenacqs et magasins dressez pour les hereticques affin d'endommager plus aysement les catolicques, et sestant faict plusieurs et diverses plainctes sur ce particulier a tres hault, tres excellent, et tres puissant prince, le Roy Tres Chrestien, leur souverain, tant aux assemblees des estatz generaulx et particulliers que par les tres humbles requestes, supplications, et remonstrances faictes par plusieurs princes et aultres gens de quallite, lesquelles n'auroient peu obtenir aucune consideration par les artifices de personnes trop soigneuses de leur proffict, comme dit est, et sur le poinct du plus grand denger, que depuis la mort de feu tres excellent prince, monsieur le Duc dAtençon, le prince du sang, qui de tout temps et encores a present est chef des hereticques, se pretendant attribuer le premier degré en la suc­ cession de la couronne de France, a par nouveau serment juré et confirmé la protection des dicts hereticques, non obstant ce peril si present,13 luy ont esté accordées nouvelles investitures pour plusieurs annees des villes quil possede, contre toutte raison, comme si de propos delibere, lon le voulloict conduire aitisy ennemy de la foy quil est a la succession de ceste couronne de France, advenant le deceds sans hoirs masles du Roy Tres Crestien, qui seroict preparer de longue main lentiere ruyne de leglise de Dieu. Et combien quil soict en sa divine main de donner enffens audict sieur Roy Treschrestien, quant il luy plaira, si estre quil n'est moings possible quil puisse deceder sans iceux, et pour lors il seroict trop tard de penser aux remedes des certains dangers que le present estat des affaires menassent, non seullement a la

13 Leonard, Recueil des Traites, II. 637, reads pressant.

France, mais generallement a toutte la Chrestienté, dont lon sapperceoit maintenant a veue doeil. Pour ces cau[s]es, nous, Phillippes, par la grace de Dieu deuxiesme de ce nom, roy de Castille, de Leon, dAragon, Portugal, de Navarre, de Naples, de Seecille, de Jhierusalem, de Majorque, de Sar­ daigne, des Isles, Indes, et terre ferme de la mer occeane, archiduc d'Autreiche, duc de Bourgongne, de Lottier, de Braban, de Lambourg, de Luxembourg, Gueldres, et de Milan, conte de Hasbourg, de Flandres, d'Artois, de Bour­ gongne, palatin de Haynault, de Holande, et de Zelande, de Namur, et de Zutphun, prince de Zvuanem, marquis du Sainct Empire, seigneur de Frise, de Sallins, de Malignes, des citez, villes, et pais dutrecq, doverissel, et de Groayningin, et dominateur en Asie et Affricque, desirans en tant qu'a nous est subvenir au grand et pressant d'enger de la religion catolicque, et nous, Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon, premier prince du sang de France, legat du Sainct Siege appostolicque au conté d'Avignon, primat de Normandie, arche­ vesque de Rohan, etc., considerans lestroicte obligation que nous avons premierement a Dieu et apres a ce royaume, comme premier prince du sang et legitime heritier de la couronne de France, de prevenir et nous opposer au danger de la religion et a levidante et prochaine ruine de la couronne; Lois, cardinal de Guise, archevesque et duc de Reims, premier pair de France; Henry de Lorraine, duc de Guise et de Chevreuse, souverain de Chasteau­ regnault et des terres d'oultre et decza la Meuse qui en deppendent, prince de Joinville, comte deu, baron de Lamberg, Orgon, et Esgallieres, pair et grand maistre de France, gouverneur et lieutenant general pour le Roy Tres Chrestien en ses pais de Champaigne et Brie; Charles de Lorraine, duc de Maynne, pair et grand chambellan de France, gouverneur et lieutenant general pour Sa Majesté Tres Chrestienne en ses pais et duché de Bourgongne; Charles de Lorraine, duc d'Aumalle, pair et grand veneur de France; Charles de Lorraine, duc delbeuf, aussy pair de France, resentans le debvoir qui nous oblige a la religion catolicque, estans princes Chrestiens et ne pouvans deffaillir aux pais de nostre naissance, comme membres principaulx dicelluy, en ung besoing si grand et remerquable et ou il est question de lhonneur de Dieu, de la conservation de son eglise et salut de son peuple, apres que noz susdictes supplications et remonstrances, tant de fois reyterees, nont peu rien obtenir; tous unanimement, poussez d'entier zelle de sa gloire et honneur, et invocans pour la bonne issue de ceste entreprise l'intercession de la sacree Vierge mere et de tous les sainctz, avons par ensemble traicté, conclud, et arreste, traictons, concluons, et arrestons par ces presentes confederation, union, et ligue, offencive et deffencive, perpetuelle et a tousjours, pour nous et noz hoirs, pour la seulle tuition, deffence, et conservation de la religion catolicque, apostolicque, et Romaine, restauration dicelle, et pour lentiere extirpation de touttes sectes et heresies de la Franceet des Pais Bas, et ce aux charges et conditions qui sensuyvent:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Renoncera14 le dict sieur Cardinal de Bourbonou ses successeurs, comme font aussy lesdicts princes Catholicques, entierement aux ligues et confedera­

14 The Latin text in de Tassis, Commentariorum Libri Octo, pp. 450, 451, is as follows: "Renuntiabunt prorsus dictus D. Cardinalis aut ejus successor atque etiam principes foederati amicitiis foederibusque initis atque contractis cum Turca, neque posthac poterunt cum eo ejusque successoribus inire alia foedera aut commercia in praejudicium vel tantillum religionis Christianae, quod similiter se facturum spondet Rex Catholicus. Cessabunt statim omnia latrocinia, pyratica, maritimaeque rapinae, omnesque aliae navigationes illicitae, Indiam Insulasque versus sub ea comprehensas quae sunt dominii Regis Catholici, quae navigationes posthac non sunt permittendae."

tions que la couronne de Francea de present avec le Turc, et ne pourront doresnavant en dresser daultres, ou avoir avec icelluy Turc ou ses successeurs aucune corespondance qui puisse tant soict peu prejudicier a la Chrestienté, non plus que ne fera Sa Majesté Catolicque.

Cesseront incontinant touttes pirateries, escumeries de mer, et touttes aultres navigations illicites vers les Indes et Isles comprises soubz icelle apartenans a Sa Majeste Catolicque, sans quelles puissent estre permises de la en avant.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ce traicte fut faict, clos, conclud, et arresté, au chasteau de Joinville, au nom et de la part de Sa Majesté Catolicque, par le sieur Jehan Baptiste de Tassis, chevallier et commandeur de Bien venida, de lordre de Monseigneur Sainct Jacques, conseiller du conseil de guerre et vedor general du camp et armee de Sadicte Majeste Catolicque au Pais Bas, a ce speciallement commis et depute par icelle et assisté de frere Jehan Moreo, chevallier et commandeur dalfosses de lordre de St. Jehan de Jhierusalem, y envoyé a cest effect de par Sadicte Majeste Catolicque, Francoys de Roncherolles, sieur de Mayneville et Hengueville, premier baron de Normandie, conseiller nay en la cour de parlement dudict pais, cappitaine de cinquante hommes darmes soubz la charge de Monsieur le Conte de Soissons, a ce commis et deputte speciallement par le dict sieur Cardinal de Bourbon. Les susdicts Ducz de Guise et de Mayenne, en propres personnes et au nom et de la part desdicts sieurs Cardinal de Guise, Ducz daumalle et delbeuf, le dernier jour de decembre, lan 1584.


Cest escript est de la main de Monsier de Guise.

tant en nostre nom que nous faisans fortz de
Messieurs les Cardinal de Guise et Ducz daumalle et delbeuf.

Nota. Ilz ont laisse espace entre la signature de Monsieur daumalle et la leur pour y mectre 2 signatures, et encores place au bas diceux pour y en mectre 4 ou 5.


League between France, England, and the United Netherlands against Spain.
Accession of the United Netherlands, con­ cluded at the Hague,
October 31, 1596.

In January, 1595, Henry IV., king of Navarre and France, formally de­ clared war against Spain. He appealed to Queen Elizabeth for help, but she responded with demands for the cession of Calais. After Calais had fallen to the Spaniards, Henry sent an embassy to the queen, in April, 1596, to conclude an offensive and defensive alliance, which the United Provinces and other Protestant powers should be invited to join, against the common enemy. Elizabeth appeared reluctant to aid Henry further. She had already spent large sums in support of armies in France and Flanders, was now burdened with the rebellion fostered by Spain in Ireland and with prepara­ tions for a naval expedition against Cadiz, and on the eve of the negotiations, she learned of the death of Hawkins and Drake off the coast of America. Nevertheless she yielded to the threat that the King of France, if unaided, would conclude a separate peace with Spain; and the conferences, which had been conducted chiefly by the Duke of Bouillon and the Sieur de Sancy on the part of France and Lord Burghley on the part of England, terminated in the signing at Greenwich of two treaties, one public and the other secret.1 The public treaty, dated May 14/24, stipulated in articles 1 to 7 that earlier treaties should be confirmed; an offensive and defensive league should be formed against Spain, which all interested princes and states should be invited to join; an army should be raised as soon as possible from the com­ bined forces of the allies to invade the Spanish dominions; neither sovereign was to treat for peace or truce with the King of Spain or his officers without

1 For an account of the negotiations, see the "Discours de la Negotiation de Messieurs de Bouillon et de Sancy en Angleterre, 1596", in G. Du Vair, Oeuvres ( 1625); De Thou. Histoire Universelle, tom. XII., liv. 116, pp. 647-661; A. Poirson, Histoire du Règne de Henri IV. (1862-1867), tom. II., ch. 7; Motley, United Netherlands, III. 450-466; L. A. Prévost-Paradol , Élisabeth et Henri IV., 1595-1598 ( 1855); J. B. Black, Elizabeth and Henry IV. ( 1914), pp., 103 ff. Du Vair, a negotiator of the public treaty, says nothing of the private treaty, for which see P. Laffleur de Kermaingant, L Ambassade de France: Mission de Jean de Thumery ( 1886), pp. 44 ff., or Motley, loc. cit. The public treaty is printed in F. Leonard, Recueil des Traitez ( 1693), II. 652-655; Dumont, Corps Diplomatique, tom. V., pt. I., pp. 525-527. The secret treaty is printed in part in Kermaingant , op. cit., pièces justificatives, pp. 256-258.

the other's consent; the truce in Brittany should be extended to England, when renewed; no general truce was to be made with places held by the enemy except with the queen's consent, and particular truces were not to be con­ tinued more than two months without consent of both sovereigns. Articles 8 to 19 provided chiefly that the queen should send 4000 infantry to serve against the Spaniards, but not more than fifty miles from Boulogne; that she should advance their pay for six months; and that if the queen's dominions were invaded and she should ask aid of the French king he should send 4000 infantry to England to serve at her expense not more than fifty miles inland. Articles 20 to 23 stipulated that each sovereign might buy munitions of war and provisions from the other, if mutually convenient; that there should be reciprocal protection of merchants and freedom in trading; and that the King of France and his successors should not permit any subject of the queen to be molested on account of his religion. Two days later a secret treaty was signed, annulling certain stipulations of the public alliance by providing that the queen should send only 2000 men to France, and advance their pay for only four months, and that she need not spend anything for the invading army of the allies, in spite of the article to the contrary inserted in the public treaty "for the reputation of the league".

These treaties having been duly confirmed by both sovereigns, negotia­ tions with the States General were conducted at the Hague by the Duke of Bouillon, Buzanval, the regular French ambassador there, and George Gilpin, English councillor in the Council of State of the United Provinces. The public treaty allured the Dutch to the alliance, in which, for the first time in international affairs, they ranked on an equality with other sovereign powers. The terms of their accession to the league, signed on October 21/31, 1596, were the same as articles 1 to 7 and 20 to 23 of the Franco-English treaty of May 14/24, summarized above.

Before the conclusion of this alliance, as well as after it, the Dutch co­ operated with England against the maritime power of Spain. By the con­ tract concluded between Elizabeth and the States General at the end of 1577,2 and again in the treaty concluded between the same in 1585,3 it had been agreed that the Dutch should send ships of war to resist the enemy's fleet in co-operation with English ships under the English admiral. In June, 1596, the Dutch had gone beyond their treaty obligations in sending a squadron under Admiral Duyvenvoord to join the English in the expedition against Cadiz,4 the staple town for all the American and Eastern trade. To save the outward-bound American fleet from falling into the hands of the allies,

2 Printed in Dumont, op. cit., tom. V., pt. I., p. 315.
3 Printed in Dumont, ibid., pp. 454, 455.
4 For the Cadiz expedition, see Cal. St. Pap., Dom., 1595- 1597, especially pp. 231-235, 255-258, 271-273, 290; Oppenheim edition of Monson, Naval Tracts, I. 344-395, II.
1-20; J. S. Corbett, Successors of Drake ( 1900), ch. 3.

the Spaniards had burned all the ships and cargo, losing, it was estimated, 12,000,000 ducats, and "completely dislocating the American trade". In 1597, after the Dutch had bound themselves by the triple alliance to offensive action, they contributed another squadron, also under Duyvenvoord, which accompanied Essex on the unfortunate Islands voyage,5 projected for the purpose of destroying the Adelantado's fleet, intercepting the homeward- bound American fleet, and occupying the Azores.

The triple alliance was of short duration, for Henry, in spite of his promise and contrary to the wishes of his allies, made peace with Philip at Vervins, on May 2, 1598.6 In these negotiations, as in the Franco-Spanish negotiations at Cateau-Cambrésis,7 the question of the Indian trade was discussed; but Henry did not succeed in obtaining any further concessions from Spain.8

Text: MS. The original of the ratification by the States General is in the London Public Record Office, T. R., Diplomatic Documents, no. 1175. It is in bad condition, but the parts which are illegible can be supplied from a good copy in B. M., Add. MSS., 19876.

Text: Printed. J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique ( 1726- 1731), tom. V., pt. I., pp. 531-537 (Dutch and French translation); P. Bor, Nederlandsche Oorlogen ( 1679- 1684), IV. 262-265.

Translation. A General Collection of Treatys ( 1732), II. 97-102.

References: Contemporary and early writings. J. A. de Thou, Histoire Universelle ( 1734), tom. XII., liv. 116, pp. 663-671; P. Bor, Neder­ latidsche Oorlogen ( 1679- 1684), vol. IV., bk. XXXIII., pp. 257-267.

References: Later writings. R. Fruin, Tien Jaren uit den Tachtigjarigen Oorlog, 1588-1598 ( 5th ed., 1899), ch. 16; J. L. Motley. United Nether­ lands ( 1904), III. 450-465; Naval Tracts of Sir William Monson, I. 362 ff., II. 1-20, "The Cadiz Voyage", II. 21-83, "The Islands Voyage", ed. by M. Oppenheim in Publications of the Navy Records Society, XXII., XXIII. ( 1902); P. J. Blok, Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche Volk ( 2d ed., 1912- 1915), II. 294 ff., or, in English translation, History of the People of the Netherlands ( 1898- 1912), vol. III., ch. 8.

5 For the Islands voyage, see Cal. St. Pap., Dom., 1595- 1597, pp. 437-438, instructions, pp. 439-441, et passim; Oppenheim edition of Monson, Naval Tracts, II. 21-83; Corbett, op. cit., chs. 7, 8.
6 The text is in Dumont, op. cit., tom. V., pt. I., pp. 561-573.
7 Doc. 21.
8 [Anno 1600.) "I1 [le Roy] me parla particulièrement de quelque plainte qu'on faisoit des recherches conte ceux qui avoient pris quelques Espagnols aus Indes, et me dict que ne devions pas favoriser lesdits Espagnols; et puisqu'ils ne vouloient pas permettre que l'on traictast aux Indes, Brésil, et autres lieux au delà de la ligne, et qu'au traicté de paix dernier it n'y avoit peu rien gaigner, qu'il n'entendoit pas qu'on fist recherche aucune de ce qui avoit esté exécuté par nos gens ausdits lieux; et puisqu'ils prenoient nos vaisseaux quand ils les y trouvoient, qu'ainsi on leur debvoit rendre la pareille." Mémoires de Claude Groulart, in Michaud and Poujoulat, Nouvelle Collec­ tion des Mémoires, Ire sér., tom. XI., p. 585.

Comme ainsi soit que pour resister aux entreprinses et desseins ambitieux du Roy d'Espaigne contre tous les princes et potentats de la Chrestienté, le Treschrestien Roy de Franceet la Serenissime Royne d'Angleterre ayent conclud, accordé, et juré entre eulx une ligue offensive et defensive, pour la conservation de leurs personnes, royaumes, pays et subjects, contre les in­ vasions dudit Roy d'Espaigne, leur ennemy commun, ses royaulmes, estats, pays, et subjects, et qu'a ceste occasion leursdites majestez ayent advisé et resolu d'associer en ceste confederation leurs treschers et bons amys, Mes­ sieurs les Estatz Generaulx des Provinces Unies du Pays Bas, comme ceulx qui ont aultant ou plus d'interest que nuls aultres princes, ou estatz souverains, et pour cest effect commis et envoyé leurs depute'z pardevers eulx. A ces causes, nous, Henry de la Tour, duc de Bouillon, viconte de Turenne, mare­ schal de France, assisté du Seigneur de Buzanval, gentilhomme ordinaire de la chambre dudit Sieur Roy, et son ambassadeur ordinaire esdites Provinces Unies des Pays Bas, et nous, Georges Gilpin, conseiller introduit de la part de ladite Serenissime Royne d'Angleterre au Conseil d'Estat desdites Prov­ inces Unies, authorisez de la part de leursdites Majestez par lettres de creance qui seront inserées a la fin du present traicté, d'une part, et nous les Estatz Generaulx desdites Provinces Unies du Pays Bas d'aultrepart, avons faict et faisons entre nous esdits noms les accords, traicté, et conventions qui ensuivent; cest ascavoir, nous, Duc de Bouillon, assisté dudit Sieur de Buzanval, et en vertu du pouvoir a nous donné par ledit Sieur Roy, qui sera aussi inseré la fin de ce present traicté, et nous, George Gilpin, authorisé comme dessus, avons receu et associe, recevons et associons par ce present traicté, pour et au nom dudit sieur Roy Treschristien et de ladite Serenissime Royne d'Angleterre et leurs successeurs ausdits royaulmes, iceulx Estatz Generaulx desdites Provinces Unies du Paysbas, ascavoir de Gueldres avecq Zutphen, Hollande avecq Westfrize, Zelande, Utrecht, Frize, Overyssel, Groeningen et Ommelanden, avecq tous les membres, villes, et habitans d'icelles, et les nobles, villes, et forteresses du Pays de Brabant et Flandres, qui sont a present unis avecq lesdits Estatz Generaulx, et les Pays de Drenthe, ensemble les provinces, nobles, membres, et villes de Brabant, Luxembourg, Flandres, Artois, Haynault, et aultres provinces dudit Paysbas, qui se joindront et reuniront au corps desdits Estatz Generaulx dedans deux ans, a compter du jour et date des presentes, en ladite ligue offensive et defensive contre ledit Roy d'Espaigne, leur ennemi commun, ses royaumes, estats, pays, et subjects, avecq toutes leurs Souverainetez, droicts, privileges, et franchises, et ce aux clauses et conditions dudit traitté faict entre lesdits sieur Roy et Royne, duquel la teneur ensuit:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

[2.] Erit confoederatio haec offensiva et defensiva inter dictos regem et reginam eorumque regna, status, dominia, etc., contra Regem Hispaniarum et regna et dominia ejus.

[3.] Ad hoc foedus a praefatis principibus contrahentibus invitabuntur et intrare in idem poterunt omnes alii principes et status, quorum interest

9 This text is taken from the original manuscript of the ratification by the States General except where that is illegible, when a copy in the British Museum, Add. MSS., 19876, has been used.

sibimet ipsis praecavere ab ambitiosis machinationibus et invasionibus quas Rex Hispaniarum molitur contra omnes vicinos suos, et ad hunc effectum mittentur nuncii seu legati a praefatis rege et regina ad tot principes et status, quot dicti confoederati censuri sunt idoneos ad eos permovendos ut intrent in eandem confoederationem.

[4.] Quanto citius commode fieri poterit et negotia praefatorum regis et reginae id permittent, conscribetur unus exercitus de communibus copiis, tam praefatorum regis quam reginae ac aliorum principum et statuum qui intraturi sunt in hanc confoederationem, ad invadendum Regem Hispaniarum et dominia quaecunque sua.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Laquelle ligue, nous, lesditz Estatz Generaulx desdites Provinces Unies du Pays bas cy dessus nommez, apres avoir indurement sur icelle deliberé en nostre assemblée avecq le hault et tresillustre seigneur, Maurice, né prince d'Oranges, comte de Nassau, marcquis de la Vere et Vlissingues, gouverneur et capitaine general de Gueldres avecq Zutphen, Hollande avecq Westfrize, Zelande, Utrecht, Overyssel, et des villes et forteresses de Brabant et Flan­ dres, admiral general, ensemble avecq le Conseil d'Estat desdites Provinces Unies, et trouvé icelle ligue et confederation estre treshonnorable, utile, et necessaire pour la conservation desdites Provinces contre l'ambition dudit Roy d'Espagne, avons icelle ditte ligue avecq tous et chacuns les articles et conventions y contenues, accepté, et acceptons par ces presentes, moyennant lesquelles leursdites Majestés, leurs successeurs ausdits royaulmes, et lesdits Estatz Generaulx desdites Provinces Unies seront et demeureront respective­ ment tenuz et obligez a l'entretenement et observation de tous et chascun les points et articles contenuz audit traitte de ligue, promettans nous, Duc de Bouillon, assisté dudit Sieur de Buzanval, et en vertu de nostre dit pouvoir, de fournir et delivrer dedans six mois prochainement venants, ou plustost si faire se peult, ausdits Estats Generaulx lettres de ratification dudit traitte contenu cy dessus, dudit sieur Roy Treschrestien, pour luy et ses successeurs, en bonne et deue forme; comme pareillement nous, Georges Gilpin, authorisé comme dessus, avons promis et promettons de procurer que ladite Serenissime Royne d'Angleterre leur fournisse et delivre ses lettres de ratification, aussi en bonne et deue forme et dedans ledit temps de six mois, ou plustost si faire se peut, pendant lequel temps sera neantmoins ledit traitte executé et accompli par lesdits sieur roy, royne, et lesdits Estats Generaulx, en tous et chascuns ses poincts et articles, selon la forme et teneur, pour la conservation de leursdits royaulmes, pays, et estats, ensemble des estats, pays, et subjects de tous roys et royaulmes, princes, electeurs du Sainct Empire, seigneuries, et republiques qui entreront et seront receus en icelle ligue.

[Here follow the Duke of Bouillon's credentials from the King of France, dated August 16, 1596; George Gilpin's credentials from the Queen of England, dated September 11, 1596, and the powers granted by the King of France to the Duke of Bouillon, "assisted by Buzanval", dated July 9, 1596.]

En foy dequoy, nous, lesdits Duc de Bouillon, de Buzativall et ledit Georges Gilpin, authorisez ainsique dessus, avons signé le present traitté de nos mains et a icelluy apposé le seel de nos armes, et nous, lesdits Estatz Generaulx desdites Provinces Unies du Paysbas, avons faict appendre a icelluy le grand seel desdits Estatz et signer par nostre greffier. Faict a la Have en Holland l'an de grace mil cincq cens quatre vingt seize, le trentuniesme et dernier jour du mois d'Octobre. Henry de la Tour, Paul de Choart Buzanval, Geo. Gilpin.Par ordonnance desditz Seigneurs Estatz Generaulx.C. AERSSENZ.

2. This league between the said king and queen, their kingdoms, states, dominions, etc., shall be offensive and defensive against the King of Spain and his kingdoms and dominions.
3. All other princes and states whose interest it is to take precautions with them against the ambitious plans and attacks that the King of Spain is pre­ paring against all his neighbors, shall be invited by the aforesaid contracting princes to join this league, and shall be able to enter into it. To bring this about, envoys or ambassadors shall be sent by the aforesaid king and queen to as many princes and states as the said allies shall think fit, in order to persuade them to enter the said league.
4. As quickly as can be conveniently done, and as the affairs of the afore­ said king and queen allow, one army shall be formed from the combined forces, both of the aforesaid king and queen and of the other princes and states that shall enter this league, in order to attack the King of Spain and all his dominions.

24. *
* Cession of the Netherlands by Philip II. of Spain to his daughter, Isabella-Clara-Eugenia, on condition of her mar­ riage with the Archduke Albert. Madrid, May 6, 1598.

On May 6, 1598, Philip II., the dying king of Spain, signed two acts, a public and a private, conditionally ceding to his daughter Isabella, in antici­ pation of her marriage to the Archduke Albert of Austria, the old Burgundian dominions--the seventeen provinces of the Netherlands, and the counties of Burgundy and Charolais. The public act--part of which is printed below-- regulated the mode of succession to the principality; provided that in default of descendants from the "Archdukes" the territory should revert to the Spanish crown; that the principality should not be infeoffed or alienated without the consent of Spain; that a female ruler should marry the King of Spain, his son, or some one acceptable to the king, and that marriages of children of rulers should also be acceptable to the king; that future rulers must take an oath to hold to the Catholic faith; and that neither the rulers nor their subjects should trade in the East or West Indies. The private act1 stipulated that Spain should, at its discretion, keep Antwerp, Ghent, and some other strong places in the southern provinces, regulating and paying for their defense; and that the archdukes and their successors should perse­ cute heretics and retain none but Catholics in their household or service.

By thus establishing a quasi-independent government in the Netherlands, Philip II. had hoped to induce the rebellious northern provinces to reunite with the southern.2 In August, 1598, the government at Brussels wrote to the States General at the Hague, urging them to reunion.3 Toward the end of 1598, the new King of Spain, Philip III., attempted to coerce the Dutch by closing to them the very profitable trade with Spain and Portugal; and about the same time the archdukes also prohibited commerce with the rebels.4 But the Dutch would be neither persuaded nor coerced into submission. In March, 1599, they responded to the overtures of the Brussels government by pointing out the disadvantageous character of the terms of Philip's cession,

1 The private act is in Brants, Ordonnances des Pays-bas, Règne d'Albert et Isabelle, I. 12-13, and in Navarrete, Col. de Docs. para la Hist. de España, XLII. 222-225.
2 L. P. Gachard, Documents Inédits concernant l'Histoire de la Belgique ( 1833- 1835), I. 378.
3 Gachard, Actes des États Généraux de 1600, pp. xxxiii ff.
4 Gachard, ibid., pp. lxxii-lxxiv.

and in particular of the article that shut out the Netherlanders from the Ameri­ can and East Indian trade.5 To the commercial restrictions they replied by prohibiting all trade with Spain and the Belgian provinces;6 by equipping a fleet to act against the Spanish armada, the treasure-ships, and the coasts of Spain and America; and by organizing that direct trade with the East Indies and America which was soon to give them the pre-eminence in wealth that Spain and Portugal were unable to retain.7

Text: MS. A contemporary copy is in the Register of the States of Hainaut, in the State Archives at Mons, États de Hainaut: Inaugurations et Serments des Princes, Obsèques, 1549- 1717, no. 660, I., p. 53.

Text: Printed. French. V. Brants, Recueil des Ordonnances des Pays- Bas, Règne d'Albert et Isabelle, 1597-1621 ( 1909), I. 7-12. This text, from the Register at Mons, differs considerably from that in J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique ( 1726- 1731), tom. V., pt. I., pp. 573-575, and in E. van Meteren, Histoire des Pays-Bas ( 1618), liv. XX., pp. 425, 426. Spanish. M. F. de Navarrete, Coleccion de Documentos Inéditos para la Historia de España ( 1842- 1895), XLII. 218-222.

References: Contemporary and early writings. Meteren, op. cit., liv. XX., p. 428; P. Bor, Nederlandsche Oorlogen ( 1679- 1684), vol. IV., bk. XXXVI., passim.

References: Later writings. L. P. Gachard, Actes des Etats Généraux de 1600 ( 1849), introduction; A. Levae, Recherches Historiques sur le Commerce des Belges aux Indes ( 1842), pp. 5-8; R. Fruin, Tien Jaren uit den Tachtigjarigen Oorlog, 1588-1598 ( 5th ed., 1899), ch. 19; G. Turba, "Beiträge zur Geschichte der Habsburger: Aus den Letzten Jahren des Spanischen Königs Philipp II.", in Archiv für Oesterreichi­ sche Geschichte, Bd. LXXXVI. ( 1899), pp. 367 ff.; H. Pirenne, Histoire de Belgique ( 1900, etc.), IV. 215-222.

Philippe, etc. A tous présens et à venir qui ces lettres verront ou lire oyront. Comme nous ayons trouvé convenir tant au bien de la Chrestienté en général qu'au particulier de noz pays d'embas, de ne dilayer plus longuement le mariage de nostre très chère et très amée bonne fille aisnée, l'infante Isabel Clara Eugenia, et qu'estans à ce meu, tant à cause de la conservation de nostre maison que d'aultres bon respectz, comme aussy pour l'affection particulière que portons à nostre très cher et très amé bon frère, nepveu, et cousin,

5 The document in which the Dutch criticize the terms of the cession is printed in Bor, Nederlandsche Oorlogen, IV. 542.
6 Gachard, op. cit., p. xxxvii.
7 Gachard, ibid., pp. lxxiv, lxxv.
8 This text is from the contemporary copy in the Register of the States of Hainaut, in the State Archives at Mons, États de Hainaut, Inaugurations et Serments des Princes, Obsèques, 1549-1717, no. 660, I., p. 53.

l'archiducq Albert, pour nous lieutenant gouverneur et capitaine général de noz pays d'embas et de Bourgoigne, ayons jecté l'oeil sur sa personne, faisant choix de luy pour futur mary de nostre susdite fille aisnée, le tout tant par consentement et gré de nostre Sainct Père le Pape qui en a accordé les dispensations requises, comme aussy à la communication en tenue avecq très hault, très excellent, et très puissant prince, nostre très chier et très amé bon frère, nepveu, et cousin Rodulphe, le second du nom, empereur des Romains, ensemble à nostre très chère et très amée bonne soeur, l'impératrice, sa mère, quoy considéré et afin que nostre susdicte fille soit pourveue des moyens qu'est raisonnable pour ses grandes qualitez et mérites, mesmes pour de nostre costel faire démonstration de l'amour singulier que tousjours avons porté et portons à nosdicts pays d'embas et de Bourgoigne, ayons prins résolu­ tion de, à l'advancement dudict mariage, faire à nostredicte fille donation d'iceulx noz pays et avecq tout ce qu'en dépend, en la manière que sera dict et spéciffié cy dessoubz, le tout moyennant et à l'intervention, volonté et consentement de nostre très cher et trés amé bon filz, le prince Philippe, nostre seul filz et unicque héritier, suivant l'advertence que par nous et icelluy prince nostre filz en a esté donné aux principaulx seigneurs chevaliers de nostre ordre, consaulx, et estatz de nosdicts pays d'embas soy tenans en nostre obéissance, ensemble à ceux de nostre pays et conté de Bourgoigne, qui ont déclairé et tesmoigné par leur responce la joye et contentement qu'ilz avoient receu de telle nostre bénigne résolution qu'ils coignoissent et con­ fessent estre pour le bien et repos de nosdicts pays d'embas, et que s'est le vray chemin pour parvenir à une bonne et solide paix, et se délivrer d'une si ennuyeuse guerre, de laquelle ils ont esté travaillez par si longue espace d'années, laquelle tranquillité et repos leur avons tousjours désiré, et con­ sidérant ce que à tous est notoire, que le plus grand heur que peult advenir à ung pays est de se trouver régy et gouverné à la veue et par la présence de son prince et seigneur naturel, Dieu est tesmoing des paines et soing qu'avons eu souvent de ne l'avoir ainsy peu faire personellement par dela, comme en vérité l'avons grandement désiré si les aultres grands et importans affaires de noz royaulmes d'Espaigne ne nous eussent obligez à tenir ferme et con­ tinuelle résidence en iceulx, sans nous esloigner comme semblablement ils nous obligent à présent, et combien que l'eaige de nostredict filz le prince semble plus à propos que poinct le nostre pour voyager, touttesfois ayant esté le bon plaisir de Dieu de nous donner tant d'aultres royaulmes et pays pour le bon gouvernement desquels ne manqueront jamais affaires de très grand emport, pour lesquels sera aussy requise sa présence par deca, avons trouvé convenable de prendre ceste résolution, afin de ne laisser nosdicts pays d'embas es mesmes inconvéniens que du passé, y joinct la raison qu'il y a de faire partaige à nostredicte fille l'infante selon ses mérites et la grandeur de sa naissance, attendu aussy en particulier que après ledict prince, nostre filz (a qui Dieu conserve par longues années avecq la prospérité qu'il sera servy luy donner), nostredicte fille aisnée est la première et plus prochaine, et que, moyennant le vouloir de nostredict filz, elle peult dès maintenant estre admise, nous avons choisy tel moyen, soubz espoir que par icelluy pourront nosdicts pays d'embas retourner à leur ancienne fleur, repos, et prospérité qu'ilz ont eu du passé. Sçavoir faisons que désirans à présent mectre en effet audict endroict ce que tant meurement y avons résolu, et attendu le consentement volontaire que nostredict filz le prince y a si libéralement donné et presté de sa part, mesmes après avoir cognu la submission avecq laquelle se sont nosdicts pays conformé à ceste nostre bonne intention, nous avons résolu de céder et transporter à la susdicte nostre fille l'infante en advancement dudict mariage tous nosdicts pays d'embas et de Bourgoigne, par la forme et manière et aulx pactz et conditions cy embas expressées et mentionnées.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

[8.] Item, à condition et non aultrement que nostre dicte fille l'infante et son mary ny aucuns de ses successeurs ausquelz seront devoluz lesdicts pays ne tiendront en aucune manière, commerce, trafficq, ou contractation aux Indes Orientales ou Occidentales, ne aussy envoyeront aucune sorte de batteaux, à quelque tiltre, couleur, ou prétexte que ce soit, auxdicts endroictz, à paine que lesdicts pays seront dévoluz au cas de ladicte contraven­ tion, et au cas qu'aucuns de leurs subjects s'acheminassent vers lesdictes Indes contre ladicte deffence, que les seigneurs desdicts pays les auront à chastoyer de paine de confiscation de biens et d'aultres griesves, mesmes de la mort.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Et afin que de tout ce que dessus il conste ouvertement et soit chose ferme et stable, perpétuellement et à tousjours, nous avons signé ces mesmes présentes de nostre nom et y faict mectre nostre grand seel, veuillant et ordonnant que enregistration et intérinement en soit faict, en tous et chacun de noz consaulx et chambres des comptes où il appartiendra.

Donné en nostre ville de Madrid, royaulme de Castille, le sixiesme jour du mois de May en l'an de grasce XVc nonante huict, et de nos règnes, assavoir de Napleset de Hierusalem le XLVe, de Castille, d'Arragon, Sicille, et des aultres, le XLIIIe, et de Portugal le XIXe.

N. D. v[idi]t.

Par le Roy.

25. Treaty between England and the United Netherlands concluded at Westminster, August 6/16, 1598. Ratification by the States General, September 20, 1598.

For some months before and after the conclusion of the treaty of Vervins,1 it appeared doubtful whether Elizabeth would make peace with Spain or would continue the war and the Dutch alliance. She urged the Dutch to conclude peace with Spain, pressed them to reimburse her for the sums she had spent in their behalf, failed to come to an agreement with the Dutch envoys who were in England from March to May, 1598, but in June despatched Sir Francis Vere to the Hague to propose negotiations for a treaty. Thereupon another embassy, which included the Advocate Olden­ barnevelt and Admiral Duyvenvoord, was sent to London. Elizabeth's coun­ cillors were divided. A Burgundian party, led by the Cecils, did not lack arguments for peace.2 The English could not endure to see the Dutch grow­ ing rich and powerful through the employment of their ships in the West India trade, and through their traffic with Spain and Portugal, from which the English were debarred.3 Peace with Spain would diminish the danger from rebellious Ireland. It was said that the war had become less profitable since Spain had learned to defend her American possessions.4

On the other hand, the war party, which included Essex and other sup­ porters of the Dutch alliance, argued that Spain's peace proposals were deceitful, as in 1588; that the States could not make peace since this would re-establish Spanish sovereignty and Catholicism in the United Provinces; that England could not honorably or safely make a separate peace, since Spain would demand the cautionary towns held by English garrisons in the

1 May 2, 1598. See Doc. 23, last paragraph of introduction.
2 J. S. Corbett, Successors of Drake ( 1900), p. 233, remarks that after the treaty of Vervins, which secured the retirement of Spain from the Channel and the re-establish­ ment of England's naval position in the Narrow Seas, "It cannot be wondered at if in the eyes of Burghley, who could never rise to an appreciation that the real struggle with Spain was for the new world, there was very little left to fight about ", and, p. 316, "That the struggle with Spain was really a vital contest for the commercial and Colonial supremacy of the world [Sir Robert Cecil] never seems to have grasped".
3 Deventer, Gedenkstukken, II. 262; Letters written by John Chamberlain during the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, ed. by S. Williams for the Camden Society, LXXIX. ( 1861) 11-13; cf. Motley, United Netherlands, III. 524, 525.
4 Camden, History of England, II. 606.

Netherlands;5 that England and the Netherlands would together hold the empire of the seas,6 which would fall to Spain if the Netherlands should submit to their former sovereign; that offensive warfare in America would still be found profitable and might open up American commerce to Europeans, who desired nothing more than this;7 that the peacemakers were ready to renounce the trade to the Indies.811

Text: MS. The original of the ratification by the United Provinces is in the London Public Record Office, T. R., Diplomatic Documents, no. 1174.

Text: Printed. French. T. Rymer, Foedera ( 1704-1735), XVI. 340-343;
J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique ( 1726-1731), tom. V., pt. I., pp. 589-591. Dutch. Dumont, ibid., pp. 584-589; P. Bor, Nederlandsche Oorlogen ( 1679-1684), IV. 475-478.

Translation. Cal. St. Pap., Venice, 1592-1603, pp. 356-360.

References: Contemporary and early writings. M. L. van Deventer, Gedenkstukken van J. van Oldenbarnevelt ( 1860-1865), II. 175 ff.; Historical MSS. Commission, Calendar of MSS. of Marquis of Salisburyat Hatfield House

10 See Doc. 23, introduction.
11 Corbett, op. cit., pp. 362, 365 ff.; Naval Tracts of Sir William Monson, II. "Sir Richard Leveson and Sir William Monson to the Coast of Spain" (ed. by M. Oppenheim in Publications of the Navy Records Society, XXIII. 1902).
5 These arguments are used in the Apologie, written by the Earl of Essex in 1598 and published in 1603.
6 Deventer, op. cit., II. 265.
7 Camden, op. cit., II. 607.
8 Essex, Apologie: "Trade into the Indies our zealous peacemakers will not stand for, lest the enemy offended will grant no peace at all."
9 The offer to join with the queen in sending a fleet against the Azores, the Indies, or other dominions of the King of Spain, was made by the States' envoys, British Museum, Cotton MSS., Galba, D. XII., ff. 176 (183), 216 (223), 226 (233); Bor, Nederlandsche Oorlogen, IV. 479.

at Hatfield House ( 1883, etc.), VIII. 84, 128, 250, 388, 533-538, et passim; W. Camden, History of England during the Life of Elizabeth, trans. in [ J. Hughes], A Complete History of England ( 1706), II. 606- 610; P. Bor, op. cit., IV. 475 ff.; E. van Meteren, Histoire des Pays-Bas ( 1618),p.429.

References: Later writings. J. L. Motley, United Netherlands ( 1904), III. 524 ff., 550-562; R. Fruin, Tien Jaren uit den Tachtigjarigen Oorlog, 1588-1598 ( 5th ed., 1899), ch. 20, pp. 363 ff.

Les Estats Generaux des Provinces Unies des Pays Bas, a tous ceulx qui ces presentes lettres verront ou orront, salut.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8. Cas advenant que l'ennemy commun ou ses adherens envoye armee navale pour assaillir, durant ladite guerre, le royaulme d'Angleterre, ou les isles appartenantes,--vizt. de Vicht, Sorlingues, Guernezey et Gerzey, et que Sa Majesté appreste et mette en ordre sa flotte pour luy faire teste, lesditz Sieurs Estatz furniront pour le service de Sa Majesté et a sa requisition, trente, ou, si faire se poeult, quarante navires de guerre bien equippees, dont le [sic] moytie sera de deux cents et l'aultre moietie entre cent et deux centz tonneaux, pour estre employees soubz le commandement du general chieff ou admiral de Sa Majesté, en conformite et ensuyvant les conditions dudit traicte de l'an mil cincq cents quattre vintz et cincque, en tous pointz, et mesmes concernant les conquestes a faire sur l'ennemy.

9. Et semblablement, l'ennemy venant assaillir et faire descente sur le royaume d'Angleterre ou l'isle de Vicht, lesditz Sieurs Estatz furniront (le requerant Sa Majesté) un nombre de cincq mille hommes de pied, et cincq centz chevaux, a estre employez soubz le commandement du general de Sa Majesté, ou bien a l'election et choix de Sadite Majesté, les gages et soulde de tel nombre, sur le pied des gages arresté aux traictez de l'an mil cincq centz quattre vintz et cinque, ledit payement a commencer dez le jour que l'ennemy aura faict descente, et de continuer jusques à ce qu'il en soit entierement desfaict, repoulsé ou chassé.

10. Si Sa Majesté trouvera bon, selon les occurrences des affaires, d'entre­ prendre offensivement durant ladite guerre, sur l'ennemy commun par armée consistant au moins de cinquante ou soixante navires de guerre, se faisant telle entreprinse par mer sur les pays d'Espaigne, Portugal, Isles, ou Indes, lesditz Sieurs Estatz joindront a la flotte de Sa Majesté a leur despens un pareil nombre de vaisseaux de guerre, et de semblable qualité qu'est contenu en l'article precedent; ou si tant sera que Sa Majesté se resouldra dedans ledit temps de jecter une bonne armée au moins de dix mille hommes de pied et de deux mille chevaux es Pays de Flandres ou Brabant, avec train et provisions d'artillerie et munitions, pour faire la guerre à l'ennemy susdit; se tiendront lesditz Sieurs Estatz obleigez d'y furnir a rate de la moytie des

12 The text is taken from the original manuscript of the ratification by the United Provinces, preserved in the Public Record Office, T. R., Diplomatic Documents, no. 1174, except where that is illegible when the text in Rymer, Foedera, XVI. 340-343, printed from the same manuscript, has been used.

trouppes et forces de Sa Majesté avecq artilleries et munitions propor­ tionnables, usant des conquestes selon la proportion comme dessus.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Faict, accorde, conclu et soubzsigné par les seigneurs du Conseil de Sa Majesté d'une part, et par lesditz deputez de Messieurs les Estatz Généraux des Provinces-Unies d'aultre part, a Westminster, le seiziesme jour du mois d'Aoust, l'an de nostre Seigneur mit cincq cens nonante huict.

Estoit signé:

Tho. Egerton, C. S. J. v. Duvenvoirde.
Essex. Jehan van Oldenbarnevelt.
Notingham. Jehan van Warck.
G. Hunsdon. Jehan van Hottinga.
R. North. And. d'Hessels.
T. Buckehurst. Noel de Caron.
W. Knollys.
Ro[bert] Cecyll.

et cachette du cachet d'armes desditz seigneurs du conseil de Sa Majesté, et des susditz deputez des Seigneurs Estatz Généraulx respectivement.

Nous ayans agréables tous et chacun les pointz et articles contenuz et déclairez au dit traicté, avons icelle traicté ratifie, approuve, et confirme, ratifions, approuvons, et confirmons par ces presentes, promettans . . . eans en bonne foy de l'accomplir et satisfaire tous et chacun ses pointz, pour aultant qu'il nous touche, [sans] contrevenir directement ou indirectement en quelque sorte ou manière ce soit.

En tesmoing de quoy avons faict appendre à ces presentes nostre grand sel et signer par nostre greffier à la Haye en Hollande le vingtiesmie de septembre, l'an mil cincq centz quattre vingtz dix huict.


Par ordonnance desdicts seigneurs Estatz Generaulx.



Agreement signed by the King of France at Villers Cotterêts on July 19, 1603, and by, the King of England and Scotland at Hampton Court on July 30/August 9, 1603.

Upon the accession of James I. to the English throne, March24/April 3, 1603, the King of France and the States General of the United Provinces feared that James's pacific tendencies would lead him to conclude a peace with the King of Spain to whom, in spite of the treaty of Vervins,1 Henry IV. had remained opposed. On June 17, 1603, the Marquis of Rosny (later the Duke of Sully) arrived in London as ambassador extraordinary from France, with instructions2 to persuade James to enter into a secret agreement to aid the United Provinces; to find out what he would do in regard to an offen­ sive and defensive alliance against Spain; and to urge him to continue Elizabeth's policy of sending naval expeditions to the coasts of Spain and Portugal and toward the Indies. In the additional and secret instructions which, according to Rosny, were also given him, was a clause to the following effect: "Que la France, l'Angleterre, le Dannemarc, la Suede et les Pays- Bas à frais communs, et neantmoins proportionnez aux puissances d'un chacun, essayassent de se saisir des Indes ou à tout le moins des isles qui sont sur le chemin des flottes d'Espagne, afin d'en empescher le traject, et ce, par le moyen de trois armées navales de huict mille hommes chacune, lesquelles se rafraischiroient de huict en huict mois, afin de remplacer ce qui seroit devenu defectueux en icelles."3 Sully probably invented these " secret in­ structions ", but in any event they are of some interest, especially when com­ pared with the suggestion made by the Dutch embassy to James, in a harangue delivered on May 27, 1603--that if the various states opposed to Spain should form a general league against that power, they would soon bring the Spaniards to reason; otherwise, England and her allies, as masters of the sea, would deprive them of the East and West Indies.4

To an unusual extent Rosny negotiated directly with the king himself, and in about a fortnight after his arrival obtained James's oral consent to a written

1 Doc. 23, last paragraph of introduction.
2 Two sets of instructions are in Sully's Mémoires in Michaud and Poujoulat, Mémoires, 2e ,sér, tom. II., ch. 115. See Ch. Pfister article in the Revue Historique, LV. 296 ff., for an examination of the authenticity of the "secret instructions".
3 Mémoires, ed. cit., tom. II., p. 441.
4 E. van Meteren, Histoire des Pay-Bas ( 1618), liv. XXV., p. 531.

agreement providing that the Franco-Scottish and Franco-English alliances should be renewed and strengthened by means of a defensive league in which allies of both kings should be comprised; that the two kings should procure reasonable conditions of peace for the United Provinces, their chief ally. and, pending this, should secretly assist them with money and men; that if, on account of this assistance, either king were attacked by Spain, the other should send an army to his aid; that if both were attacked or decided to make war on Spain, they should aim at the complete independence of the seventeen provinces of the Low Countries; that the King of France should send an army to the Low Countries and so dispose other troops and his Mediterranean fleet as to divert the attention of Spain; that the King of England should provide two great fleets to attack the Indies and the Spanish coasts, and an army for operations on land; and that neither king was to make peace, diminish his forces or cease from hostilities without consent of the other. The draft drawn up by Sully and agreeed to by James I. was signed by Henry IV. on July 19, 1603, and by James at Hampton Court on July 30/August 9, of the same year. But when in August, 1604, James concluded a peace with Spain,5 the English government regarded this earlier agreement with France as a dead letter. 6

Text: MS. The original of the agreement signed by Henry IV. on July 19, 1603, is in the London Public Record Office, State Papers Foreign, Treaties, no. 50.

Text: Printed. The agreement signed by James I. on July 30/August 9, 1603, is printed in F. Leonard, Recueil des Traitez de Paix ( 1693), V. 1-3; J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique ( 1726- 1731), tom. V., pt. II., pp. 30, 31; J. A. de Abreu y Bertodano, Coleccion de los Tratados de España: Reynado del Rey D. Phelipe III. ( 1740), I. 164-169.

Translation. A General Collection of Treatys ( 1732), II., 128-131.

References: Contemporary and early writings. Duc de Sully (Maximilien de Béthune), Mémoires in Michaud and Poujoulat, Nouvelle Collection des Mémoires (1836-1839), 2e sér., tom. II., cc. 114-122, and in other editions; P. Laffleur de Kermaingant, L'Ambassade de France en Angleterre sous Henri IV.: Mission de Christophe de Harlay, 1602-1605 ( 1895), pièces justificatives, pp. 110-121 (letters from Henry IV. to Beaumont) ; Calendar of State Papers, Venice, 1603- 1607, nos. 64, 81, 86, 87, 90, 91, 93, 98, 107, 118, 127, 139, 141, 147, 161, 162, 259, 739 (p. 518), et passim.

References: Later writings. Laffleur de Kermaingant, op. cit., ch. 2, pp. 110-119; S. R. Gardiner, History of England, 1603-1642 ( 1894- 1896), I. 106, 107; L. von Ranke, History of England ( 1875), 1. 388, 389. In the Revue Historique, tom. LV. ( 1894), pp. 70 ff., 291 ff., Ch. Pfister examines critically Sully's account of his English embassy.

5 Doc. 27.
6 Kermaingant, L'Ambassade de France, I. 244; Gardiner, History of England, 1603- 1642, I. 217, 218.

Articles traittez et accordez avec le Roy d'Angleterre et d'Escosse8 par le Sieur Marquis de Rosny, grand maitre de l'artillerie et grand voyer de France, ambassadeur et envoyé par Sa Majesté vers ledit roy.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8.9 Davantage a esté accordé, que si les deux roys estoient ensemblement attaqués par l'Espagne ou qu'ilz fussent contraints par raison d'estat et pour la seureté, repos, et utilité de leurs personnes, royaumes, et subjects, d'ouvrir communement la guerre, que un chascun d'eux la fera de son costé, non point à demy mais selon qu'il convient à la dignité et grandeur de telz princes, et avec moyens suffisans pour en faire esperer l'entiere delivrance des dix-sept Provinces des Pays-Bas.

9. A sçavoir de la part du roy avec une armee de quinze ou vingt mil hommes, qu'il jettera vers lesdits Pais bas, et tiendra les provinces de Guyenne, Languedoc, Provence, Dauphiné, Bresse, et Bourgogne, munyes d'un suffisant nombre de gens armez, ensemble d'une suffisante quantité de galeres en equipage de guerre dans la mer de Levant, afin de tenir non seulement ses costes en seureté, mais donner juste jalousie au Roy d'Espagne, et par conse­ quent occuper et divertir partie de ses forces.

10. Et de la part du dit Roy d'Angleterre la guerre se fera avec deux grandes flottes dignes de faire de bons exploits vers les Indes et costes d'Espagne; et une armee de terre, laquelle ne pourra estre moindre que de six mil hommes, le tout levé et soudoyé à ses fraiz et despens, sans que durant tout ce temps de guerre commune ledit Roy d'Angleterre puisse presser Sa Majesté de ce qu'il luy pourra lors debvoir de reste.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Faict a Villiers Costerets le dixneufiesme jour du moys de Juilet, 1603.


7 The text is from the original manuscript of the agreement signed by Henry IV. on July 19, 1603, preserved in the P. R. O., State Papers Foreign, Treaties, no. 50.
8 See Doc. 27, end of text, after note 19.
9 The articles are not numbered but the text is paragraphed.


Treaty between Spain and Great Britain concluded at London,
August 18/28, 1604.
Ratification by the King of Spain, June 5/15, 1605.
[Ratificatioii by the King of Great Britain, August 19/29, 1604.]

James I. of England, a lover of peace and favorably disposed toward Spain, regarded the Anglo-Spanish war of Elizabeth's reign as a personal quarrel between sovereigns, which had been ended by Elizabeth's death and his accession.1 In accordance with this theory, on June 23/July 3, 1603, he issued a proclamation that Spanish ships and goods taken by his subjects after April 24/May 4, 1603, should be restored to their owners.2 On May 19/29, 1604, he empowered his leading councillors, Thomas Sackville (earl of Dorset), Charles Howard (earl of Nottingham), Charles Blount (earl of Devonshire), Henry Howard (earl of Northampton), and Lord Robert Cecil, to treat for peace with the deputies of Spain, Juan de Velasco (con­ stable of Castile), the Spanish ambassador in London, Juan de Tassis (count of Villa Mediana), and Alessandro Rovida ( senator of Milan), and with the deputies of the archdukes, Charles, prince-count of Arenberg, President Richardot, and the Audiencer Verreycken. In the negotiations, which begaii at the residence of the Spanish ambassador on May 20/30 and lasted six weeks, controversy centred about two questions--Anglo-Dutch relations, and the rights of English traders in Spain, Flanders, and the East and West Indies. The English commissioners refused to renounce trade with the Dutch, or, for the present, to hand over the cautionary towns to Spain; but they agreed that English subjects should not transport Dutch merchandise to the King of Spain's dominions or to the archdukes' provinces, or Spanish merchandise to the United Provinces, or use Dutch ships in the Spanish trade. They also consented to several somewhat ambiguous articles, offensive to the Dutch, which Cecil declared would be rendered harmless by England's friendly interpretation.3 In regard to trade with Spain it was provided that imports from Britain and Ireland into the Spanish dominions, and exports from the Spanish dominions into Britain and Ireland, should be exempt from the recently imposed 30 per cent. tax; and that English traders in the Spanish

1 The king's speech to his first Parliament. Journals of the House of Commons, I. 142.
2 Rymer, Foedera, XVI., 516, 517. Cf. below, art. 2.
3 Winwood, Memorials, II. 27, 28.

dominions should not be molested "for the cause of conscience", "so as they give not scandal unto others" (art. 21). Concerning trade to the East and West Indies, an arrangement but no real agreement was reached. The instructions4 of the English commissioners in this matter, identical with those for the abortive Anglo-Spanish negotiations at Boulogne, four years

4 Instructions to English commissioners, May 22/June 1, 1604. . . . "Lastly, it is likely they will forbid us trade into the Indias, wherein you must by all arguments you can maintaine that it is very disconsonant with trewe amitie to forbid their freinds those common liberties. Yea, though the whole Indias were as meerely subject to their sover­ aignetie as Spaine it selfe is, especiallie when in former treaties there have been con­ trarie clauses, which have given freedome of trade into all their domynions. And yet because it shall appeare that wee will not be found unreasonable, you shall let them knowe that, to avoyde all inconveniences that may peradventure happen in places so remote, when the subjects of other princes shall fall in companie one with another, where their lawes and discipline cannot be so well executed, wee are contented to prohibite all repaire of our subjects to any places where they are planted, but onely to seeke their traffique by their owne discoveries in other places, whereof there are so infinite dymensions of vast and great territories as themselves have no kind of interest, but do trade with divers great kings of those countryes but as forrayners and strangers, from which to barre ourselves by accord, seeing it is not in his power to do it by force, no not to any pettie prince, were both an unkindnesse and an indignitie to be offered." P. R. 0., State Papers Foreign, Spain, bundle 10. Also B. M., Cotton MSS., Vesp. C. XIII., f. 61. With these it is of interest to compare the following instructions for the negotiations at Bourbourg in 1587:

"15. It is likely allso, that some speciall article will be required to forbyd all trafick of our people into the Indias, both of the west belonging to the crowne of Castill and to the Est allso, now in the K of Spaynes possession by reason of Portingall. To this it may be allso sayde, that we shall be content to observe such orders as were in any force in the tyme of the Emperor Charles being possessed of the West Indias. And as for the Est Indias, wee are content to covenannt to observe allso all such orderes as were att any tyme accorded and used in the tyme of the King Sebastian. And if these generall answeres shall not content them, then ye shall require of them, what other speciall article they wolde reasonably desyre, for that ye are not warranted otherwise to yeelde to them. But yet our meaning is ye shall as of yourselves reason with them, as it may appeere that ther is no reason to barre our subjects to use trade of merchandise in the Indias, where the Frencile are daily suffred so to doo, so as the same be with the goodwill of the inhabitants of the countryes, and only for lawfull trade of marchandise. And likewise it is no reason by a large naming of the Indias, to barre our marchantes to trade in any places dis­ covered or to be discovered by our own people, being places where neyther in the tyme of the Emperor Charles, nor of the King that now is, any Spanyard, Portingale, or any other Christian people have had any habitation, residence or resorte. And to those provisions mentioned (as of yourself) to be annexed to the generall prohibitions, if they will condescend ye may saye, ye will send to knowe our opinion, what we lyke therof, and what other conditions we will require to be excepted out of the generall prohibition for our subjects to sayle into the Indias.

"In the argument therof ye may aledge that the cheefe reasons why the Emperor Charles and the King of Portingale in their tymes did seeke to prohibite all others than their own subjectes to trade into those Indias discovered by their people, was in recompence of the charges sustayned by the discoverers that the proffitt of the riches discovered might recompence the first discoverers and their heires. A matter agreable to good reason, but not so to be extended as by the large titles and nomination of the Indias (wherof ther is no certain limitation) all parts of the worlde in the West or in the East, that were not or should not be discovered by the subjects of the said Emperor, or by the kinges of Portingale should still so remayne undiscovered and not to be by any other Christians with their laboure sought out and discovered and brought to the knowl­ edge of God, and of Christ the Saviour of the Worlde, for that were against all Christian charitie, and against all humain reason, and directly againste that generall proposition in the holy Scripture: Coelum coeli Domino, terram dedit filiis hominum." P. R. O., State Papers Foreign, Flanders, 1585-1587, I. Also in B. M., Cotton MSS., Vesp. C. VIII., and ibid., Galba D. II. f. 318b, a draft in Burghley's hand.

before,5 sanctioned only one concession--that Englishmen should be pro­ hibited from going to any places in the Indies where the Spaniards were actually "planted". This was in accordance with a principle formulated by the French and English long before6 and recently embodied in the charter granted to the English East India Company on December 31, 1600.7 It was rejected by the Spaniards, who insisted that the English should be excluded from every part of the Indies, either expressly or by clear implication; or else, that the King of England should declare in writing that his subjects would trade in the Indies at their own peril. These demands the English refused. Cecil and Northampton alleged that an express prohibition to trade would wrong James's honor since Spain had not put it in the treaties made with France and other princes; and that a denial of reciprocal freedom of intercourse was contrary to the law of nations. The Senator of Milan answered " that though ordinary societies by law should be equal, yet that they might be limited by conventions, and that the same ought not to be found strange in this case, because the said Indias was a new world". After much debate it was resolved that in the article for general intercourse the following words should be inserted: "In quibus ante bellum fuit commercium juxta et secundum usum et observantiam antiquorum foederum." This left the matter "to the liberty of interpretation of former treaties and the observance and use thereof".8 Now, from the time of Hawkins, the English, and Cecil in particular, had interpreted the clauses for mutual intercourse in the old Anglo-Spanish and Anglo-Burgundian treaties as permitting them to trade in the Indies,9 and the government continued to hold to this interpre­ tation.10 Soon after the conclusion of the treaty Cecil wrote to the English

10 Cf. the instructions for the negotiations at Bourbourg printed above, note 4. In "Reasons for the trade to the East and West Indians", compiled by Robert Cotton for Northampton's use in the negotiations of 1604 (Brit. Mus., Cotton MSS., Vesp. C. XIII., ff. 47-50), the "former leagues" of 1489, 1507, 1515, 1520, 1529 and 1543, are adduced. The last four were concluded between Henry VIII. and Charles of Spain. Philip II. had refused to confirm the treaties with England. The article of mutual intercourse in the last two treaties mentioned above refers back to the article in the treaty of Apr. 11, 1520, which is as follows: "Item, conventum, concordatum, et con­ clusum est quod onmes et singuli subditi regnorum et dominiorum dictorum principum eorumdemque actores, factores, negotiorum gestores, attornati, servitores, et ministri, cum rebus, navibus, bonis, et mercibus suis quibuscumque, ad omnia et singula terras, patrias, dominia, civitates, oppida, villas, castra, portus, jurisdictiones, et districtus utriusque principum praedictorum accedere, navigare per terram, mare, vel aquas dulces, venire, morari, et perhendinare, ibique omnium mercium genera, cum quibuscumque mercatoribus cujuscumque nationis, emere, vendere, permutare, et cum eisdem vel 5 The instructions are in P. R. O., State Papers Foreign, France, bundle 44.
6 Cal. St. Pap. Foreign, 1561- 1562, p. 72; and cf. J. Williamson, Maritime Enterprise, 1485-1558 ( 1913), pp. 288 ff.
7 The charter is in S. Purchas, Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimet ( Maclehose ed., 1905- 1907), II. 366-391.
8 Journal of the negotiations. See below, bibliography.
9 The Hawkins' Voyages (ed. C. R. Markham for the Hakluyt Soc., LVII. ( 1878) 30-34, 38); W. Camden, History of England during the Life of Elizabeth, in [J. Hughes], A Complete History of England ( 1706), II. 410; cf. Cal. St. Pap., Spain, 1558- 1567, 593.

ambassador in France: "If it be well observed how the [ninth] article is couched, you shall rather find it a pregnant affirmative for us than against us; for, sir, where it is written that we shall trade in all his dominions, that comprehends the Indies; if you will say, secundum tractatus antiquos, no treaty excluded it".11 The Spaniards, on the other hand, resolutely affirmed that the terms of the peace excluded the English from the Indies.12 However, as was remarked in the instructions cited above, they were not able to bar out the English by force; and the latter not only continued their trade in the East, but, in spite of Spanish opposition,13 proceeded to colonize Virginia under a charter which allotted to the grantees a portion of America "not actually possessed by any Christian prince or people". 14

The treaty was not signed until August 18/28, after the arrival in London of the Constable of Castile, who had been detained in Flanders. It was confirmed by King James on the following day, and ratified by the King of Spain on June 15, 1605.

Text: MS. The original manuscript of the ratification by the King of Spain, June 15, 1605, is in the London Public Record Office, Museum, Case G. The ratification by the archdukes is in the Public Record Office, T. R., Diplomatic Documents, no. 1176; and the enrolled treaty is in the same depository, Treaty Roll, no. 216.

Text: Printed . T. Rymer, Foedera ( 1704- 1735), XVI. 585-596, 617-629; J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique ( 1726- 1731), tom. V., pt. II., pp. 32-36, and, more completely, pp. 625-631; J. A. de Abreu y Bertodano, Coleccion de los Tratados de Espana: Reynado de Phelipe III. ( 1740), I. 243-286; separate articles defining art. XXI. are in R. Winwood, Memorials of Affairs of State in the Reigns of Elizabeth and Janies I. ( 1725), II. 29; concerning German merchandise, in Abreu, loc. cit. Several early edi­

aliis bonis, navibus, rebus, et mercibus suis ad alia regna, loca, portus, et ad quemcumque vel quaecumque locum vel loca voluerint recedere, et omne genus commercii invicem exercere libere et licite valeant, juxta et secundum vim, formam, et effectum tractatus intercursus mercium de data vicesimi quarti diei mensis Februarii, anno domini mil­ lesimo quadringentesimo nonagesimo quinto, et articulorum subsequentium, durante provisione praesenti." Rymer, Foedera, XIII. 715, 716. The treaty of Feb. 24, 1495/6, is the well-known Intercursus Magnus. Ibid., XII. 578-591.
11 P. R. O., State Papers Foreign, Spain, bundle 10. Cf. the answer of James I. to the Venetian ambassador, Nov. 2, 1604. Cal. St. Pap., Venice, 1603- 1607, pp. 189-190; and Cecil's letter to Winwood, "For the matter of the Peace which is lately concluded, it was a very good judgment of Barnevelt, when he said, that Litera occidit, spiritus autem vivificat; for so treaties are commonly carried between great princes, where many things are left to interpretation for saving reputation to those that will make no quarrell for things done, though they never give consent thereunto by their treaty." Winwood, op. cit., II. 27.
12 Grotius, Annals ( 1665), p. 920; and cf. Doc. 29, introduction and note 5.
13 See the letters from Zufnga to the King of Spain and from the King of Spain to Zuñiga in A. Brown, Genesis of the United States ( 1890), I. 45, 46, 88-91, 97-99, 102- 104, etc.
14 The expression occurs in the preamble of the charter. The charter is printed in Brown, op. cit., I. 52 ff.

tions and translations of the text are listed in the British Museum Catalogue, under "England: Treaties". This appears to have been the first English treaty printed by royal authority.

Translations. Articles of Peace . . . 1604 (ed. R. Barker, 1605); A Gen­ eral Collection of Treatys ( 1732), II. 131-146; British Museum, Harleian MSS., 35.

References: Contemporary and early writings. A journal of the nego­ tiations by Sir Thomas Edmondes is in the London Public Record Office, Treaty Papers, 64; copies of the journal are in the British Museum. Harleian MSS., 35, and Add. MSS., 14033; several copies are mentioned in the Reports of the Commission on Historical Manuscripts, and one is printed in part in the appendix to the Eighth Report, pt. I., pp. 95-98; Calendar of State Papers, Venice, 1603- 1607, passim; Winwood, op. cit., II. 1 ff.; Works of Sir Walter Ralegh ( 1829), VIII. 299-316, "A Dis­ course touching a War with Spain, and of the Protecting of the Nether­ lands"; E. van Meteren, Histoire des Pays-Bas ( 1618), pp. 547-550.

References: Later writings. S. R. Gardiner, History of England, 1603- 1642 ( 1894- 1896), I. 206-217, 342; P. Laffleur de Kermaingatit, L'Ambassade de France en Angleterre sous Henri IV.: Mission de Christophe de Harlay, 1602-1605 ( 1895), ch. 3; L. Willaert, "Négocia­ tions Politico-Religieuses entre l'Angleterre et les Pays-Bas Catholiques (1598-1625)", II. "Intervention des Souverains Anglais en Faveur du Protestantisme aux Pays-Bas", in Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique, July, 1907, pp. 514 ff.

TEXT.15 Philippus Tertius, Dei gratia rex Castellae, Legionis, Aragonum, Utriusque Siciliae, Hierusalem, Portugaliae, Navarrae, Granatae, Toleti, Valentiae, Galleciae, Majoricarum, Hispalis, Sardiniae, Cordubae, Corsicae, Murtiae, Giennis, Algarbii, Gibraltaris, Insularum Canariae, necnon Indiartim Ori­ entalium et Occidentalium, insularum ac terraefirmae maris Occeani; archidux Austriae, dux Burgundiae et Mediolani, comes Abspurgi, Barchinoniae, Cantabriae, et Molinae Dominus, etc.: omnibus et singulis ad quos praesentes literae pervenerint, salutem. Cum tractatus quidam firmae amicitiae et pacis perpetuae ac commertii inter commissarios et deputatos nostros et serenis­ simorum principum Alberti et Isabellae Clarae Eugeniae, archiducum Aus­ triae, ducum Burgundiae, et Jacobi, Magnae Britanniae, etc., regis, fratrum et consanguineorum nostrorum charissimorum, Londini, vigesimo octavo die Augusti, stillo novo, anno Domini millesimo sexcentesimo quarto, concor­ datum et conclusum fuerit, cujus tenor sequitur: Noverint omnes et singuli quod post diuturnum et saevissimum bellorum incendium, quo Christianae provintiae per multos annos insigni jactura conflagrarunt, Deus, in cujus manu omnia posita sunt, ex alto respiciens et sui populi (cui ut pacem afferret et relinqueret, proprium sanguinem effundere non dubitavit) calamitates miseratus, potentissimorum Christiani imperii principum stabili conjunctionie, saevientem ignem potenter restinxit, et diem pacis, diem tranquillitatis, hujus­ que magis optatam quam speratam, misericorditer attulit. Devolutis enim, per ipsius Dei maximi gratiam, ad extirpanda discordiarum semina, Angliae

15 The following text is printed from the original manuscript of the ratification in the Public Record Office, Museum. Case G.

et Hiberniae regnis ad Serenissimum Jacobum Scotiae regem, sublatisque ideo illis dissensionum causis quae bella inter antecessores serenissimorum principum , Philippi III., Hispaniarum regis, et Alberti ac Isabellae Clarae Eugeniae, Austriae archiducum, ducum Burgundiae et Screnissimi Jacobi regis Angliae tamdiu aluerunt, animadverterunt dicti omnes principes (Deo corda illorum illuminante) nihil superesse cur odiis, quae nunquam inter ipsos extiterunt, certarent, vel armis, a quibus majores ipsorum semper abstinuerunt, contenderent, et ab antiquissimo ac supra hominum memoriam custodito foedere discederent, arctissimaque necessitudinis, quae praedicto serenissimo Regi Angliae cum serenissimis Austriaca et Burgundica familiis intercedit, vincula disrumperent, ac veterem amicitiam, novis semper ac indies cumulatis amoris ac benevolentiae officiis excultam, violarent. Propterea, audito de successione dicti Serenissimi Scotiae Regis ad regna Angliae et Hiberniae, missisque ex parte Serenissimi Regis Hispaniarum, Domino Joanne Taxio, comite Villaemedianae et, ex parte dictorum Serenissimoruni Archiducum, Domino Carolo, principe comite Arembergii, qui de regni suc­ cessione, nomine serenissimorum principum, respective, gratularentur dicto Serenissimo Regi Angliae, eaque legatione humanissime suscepta, legatisque amantissime receptis, certiores redditi fuerunt dicti Serenissimi Rex Hispa­ niaruni et Archiduces a suis legatis de propensa Serenissimi Regis Angliae voluntate, nedum ad observanda antiqua foedera, sed alia (si opus foret) arctiora et firmiora ineunda. Quare nihil ab ipsis praetermittendum esse putarunt, quo posset communis Reipublicae Christianae tranquillitas pro­ moveri, et populorum sibi commissorum utilitati prospici; et ut quamprimum et sedulo opus tam pium conficeretur, commissarios suos ac procuratores generales ac speciales constituerunt, cum amplissima facultate ad ineunda cum ipso serenissimo Rege Angliae ac stabilienda foedera, renovandaque jamdiu intermissa commercia, pacemque ac amicitiam perpetuo duraturam inter ipsos principes, confirmandam.

Quapropter, nos, Johannes Velaschius, Castellae et Legionis comestabilis, dux civitatis Friensis, comes Hari, dominus villarum Villalpandi et Pedratiae de la Sierra, dominus domus Velaschiae et Septem Infantium de Lara, cubicularius major Serenissimi Philippi III., Hispaniarum, etc., regis, ac suus in pertinentibus ad statum ac bellum consiliarius, ac preses Italiae, procurator et commissarius specialis a R[egia] C[atholica] M[ajestate] constitutus, ad praedicta et infrascripta omnia stabilienda et peragenda, cum amplissima facultate (ut patet in mandato regis, facto in Valladolid primo Octobris, anno 1603, manu propria dicti Catholici regis subscripto, et suo sigillo regio munito, de verbo ad verbum inferius registrando); et nobiscum, Joannes Taxius, comes Villaemedianae, a cubiculo regis et cursorum in regnis et dominiis Regis Catholici generalis praefectus, et a Regia Catholica Majestate ad tractatum pacis nominatus; et Alexander Rovidius, collegii Mediolanensis jurisconsultus et Mediolanensis provintiae senator, a nobis nomine S[uae] R[egiae] C[atholicae] M[ajesta] tis nominatus, et a nobis pariter, dum properantes in Angliam, superveniente valitudine, in Belgio distineremur, virtute facultatis regiae nobis concessae ad ipsam pacem, interea, cum eadem facultate et auctoritate quae nobis tributa fuerat, tractandam--una cum dicto Comite Villaemedianae--substitutus (ut patet mandato facto Bergis Sancti Winoci, decimo quinto Maii, 1604, inferius de verbo ad verbum registrando) omnes commissarii ex parte dicti Serenissimi Regis Hispaniarum; Carolus, princeps comes Arembergii, eques Ordinis Aurei Velleris, a consiliis rerum status, admiralius generalis; Joannes Richardotus, eques, Secreti Consilii preses et a rerum status consiliis; Ludovicus Verreycken, eques, primarius secretarius et audientiarius, serenissimorum principum Archiducum legati et deputati (ut patet mandato facto Bruxellis, die duodecimo mensis Aprilis, 1604, inferius quoque registrando); Thomas, comes de Dorset, baro de Buc­ hurst, thesaurarius magnus Angliae; Carolus, comes Nottingham, baro Howard de Effingham, capitalis justitiarius et justitiarius itinerans omnium forestarum citra Trentam, magnus admiralius Angliae et praefectus generalis classium et marium regnorum Angliae, Franciae, et Hiberniae, ac insularum et dominiorum eorundem; Carolus, comes Devoniae, baro de Mountjoy, locumtenens pro serenissimo Rege Atigliae, etc., in regno suo Hiberniae, munitionum bellicarum praefectus, gubernator oppidi, insulae, et castri Portis­ mout,--praenobilis Ordinis Garterii milites; Henricus, comes Northamp­ toniae, dominus Howard de Marneliil, custos et admiralius Quinque Portuum maritimorum; et Robertus, dominus Cecil, baro de Esingden, primarius dicti Serenissimi Regis secretarius, magister curiae Wardoriim et Liberationum,-- consiliarii e Secretioribus Consiliis Screiiissinii Regis Angliae deputati et commissarii pro dicto Serenissimo Rege Angliae (ut patet mandato facto ill palatio Suae Majestatis Westmonasterii, sub die nono Maii, stillo veteri, anno Domini 1604, inferius registrando).

Praemissis prius diligenti rerum omnium examine ac discusione, factisque pluribus sessionibus et conferentiis, ac post diuturnam disceptationem ad Oninipotentis Dei gloriam, totius Christiani orbis beneficium, subditorumque dictorum serenissimorum principum utilitatem et quietem, fuit per nos con­ clusum, stabilitum, ac concordatum prout infra:

1.16Primo, conclusum, stabilitum, et accordatum fuit et est, ut ab hodie in antea, sit bona, sincera, vera, firma, ac perfecta amicitia et confoederatio ac pax perpetuo duratura, quae inviolabiliter observetur, inter Serenissimuill Regem Hispaniarum et Serenissinios Archiduces Austriae, duces Burgundiae, etc., Serenissimum Regem Angliae eorumque haeredes et successores quos­ cumque, eorumque regna, patrias, dominia, terras, populos, homines ligeos, ac subditos quoscumque, praesentes et futuros, cujuscumque conditionis, dignitatis, et gradus existant, tam per terram quam per mare et aquas dulces; ita ut praedicti vassalli ac subditi sibi invicem favere, et mutuis prosequi officiis ac honesta affectiotie invicem se tractare habeant.

2. Cessetque imposterum omnis hostilitas ac inimicitia, offensionibus omni­ bus, injuriis, ac damnis quae (durante bellorum incendio) partes quoquomodo percepissent, sublatis ac oblivioni traditis; ita ut imposterum nihil alter ab altero, occasione quorumcumque damnorum, offensionum, captionum, aut spoliorum pretendere possit, sed omnium abolitio sit et censeatur facta, ab hodie in antea; omnisque actio extincta habeatur, salvo et praeterquam respectu captionum17 factarum a die vicesimo quarto Aprilis, 1603,18 citra (quia de illis debebit reddi ratio); abstinebuntque in futurum ab omni praeda, captione, offensione, ac spolio, in quibuscumque regnis, dominiis, locis, ac ditionibus alterutrius ubivis sitis, tam in terra quam in mari et aquis dulcibus. Nec per suos vasallos, incolas, vel subditos, aliquid ex praedictis fieri con­

16 The articles are paragraphed but not numbered.
17 Thus, in the enrollment. The ratification reads cautionum, which is, of course, wrong.
18 Cf. above, introduction and note 2.

sentient; omnemque pracdam, spolium, ac captionem, ac damnum quod inde fiat vel dabitur, restitui facient.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9. Item conventum ac stabilitum fuit et est, quo inter dictum Serenissimuni Regem Hispaniae ac dictum Serenissimum Regem Angliae ac cujuslibet eorum vassallos, incolas, et subditos, tam per terram quam per mare et aquas dulces, in omnibus et singulis regnis, dominiis, ac insulis, aliisque terris, civitatibus, oppidis, portubus, ac districtibus dictorum regnorum et domi­ niorum, sit [et] esse debeat commertium liberum in quibus ante bellum fuit commercium, juxta et secundum usum et observantiam antiquorum foederum et tractatuum ante bellum. Ita ut, absque aliquo salvo conductu, aliaque licentia, generali vel speciali, tam per terram quam per mare et aquas dulces, subditi et vassalli unius et alterius regis possint et valeant ad regna et dominia praedicta, eorumque omnium civitates, oppida, portus, littora, sinus, ac districtus, accedere, intrare, navigare, et quoscunque portus subire, in quibus ante bellum fuit commercium, et juxta et secundum usum et ob­ servantiam antiquorum foederum et tractatuum ante bellum, cum plaustris, equis, sarcinulis, navigiis, tam onustis quam onerandis, merces importare, emere, vendere in eisdem quantum voluerint commeatum, resque ad victum et profectionem necessarias justo pretio sibi assumere, restaurandis navigiis et vehiculis propriis vel conductis aut commodatis operam dare, illinc cum mercibus bonis ac rebus quibuscunque (solutis juxta locorum statuta teloniis ac vectigalibus praesentibus) tantum eadem libertate recedere, indeque ad patrias proprias vel alienas quomodocumque velint et sine impedimento recedere.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Et in omnium et singulorum fidem manu nostra propria subscripsimus. Londini, die vigessimo octavo Augusti stilo novo, et die decimo octavo ejusdem mensis stilo veteri, anno Domini millesimo sexcentesimo quarto. Joan de Velasco, condestable, El Conde de Villa Mediana, Alex[ander] Rovidius, Charles P. Co. D'Arenberg. Praeses Richardotus, L. Verreycken, T. Dorset, Nottingham, Densier [sic], H. Northampton, Ro. Cecil.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Dat. Vallisoleti, decimo quinto die mensis Junii, anno Domini millesimo sexcentesimo quinto.


Notandum19 praefatum Serenissimum Principem Jacobum, Magnae Bri­ tanniae, etc. regem, in ipso tractatu capitulorum praedictorum atque adeo in instrumento suo ratificationis eorundem, procuratoribus Domini mei Clementissimi Philippi, ejus nominis tertii, Hispaniarum, etc. regis, tradito, titulo usum esse Regis Angliae Scotiaeque, quem ex illo tempore in stilum Magnae Britanniae mutavit. Dominus Rex mandavit mihi.


Philip III., by the grace of God king of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two, Sicilies, Jerusalem, Portugal, Navarre, Granada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, the Majorcas, Seville, Sardinia, Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Guinea, Algarve,

19 What follows is written in another hand, evidently that of the secretary, who signs it.

Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, also of the East and West Indies, and the islands and mainlands of the ocean sea, archduke of Austria, duke of Bur­ gundy and Milan, count of Hapsburg, Barcelona, and Biscay, and lord of Molina, etc. To all and singular to whom the present letters shall come, greeting. Whereas our commissioners and deputies and those of the most serene princes, Albert and Isabella Clara Eugenia, archdukes of Austria, dukes of Burgundy, etc., and of James, king of Great Britain, etc., our dearest brothers and kinsmen, agreed and concluded at London on August 28, n. s., A.D. 1604, a treaty of firm friendship and perpetual peace, and of commerce, whose tenor follows: Be it known to all and singular that after the long and very fierce fires of the wars that for many years have devastated Chris­ tendom, at great cost, God, in whose hands all things are, beholding from on high and pitying the calamities of his people (for whom, in order that he might bring them peace and leave it with them, he did not hesitate to shed his own blood) effectually extinguished the raging fire by a stable union of the most powerful princes of Christendom, and mercifully brought a day of peace and tranquillity--a thing wished rather than hoped for. For when, by the grace of Almighty God, and to extirpate the seeds of discord, the kingdoms of England and Ireland had devolved on James, the most serene king of Scotland, and those causes of dissension had on that account been removed which so long had nourished the wars between the predecessors of the most serene princes, Philip III., king of the Spains, and Albert and Isabella Clara Eugenia, arcbdukes of Austria, dukes of Burgundy, and the Most Serene James, king of England, etc., all the said princes considered (God illuminating their hearts) that there was no longer any reason why they should contend in hate, which never existed between them, or fight with arms, from which their ancestors had always abstained, or why they should withdraw from the very ancient alliance, observed beyond the memory of man, or should sever the very close bonds of friendship that existed between the aforesaid Most Serene King of England and the most serene families of Austria and Burgundy, or violate the ancient friendship, daily cultivated with new and additional offices of love and good-will. Therefore, notice being received of the succession of the said Most Serene King of Scot­ land to the kingdoms of England and Ireland, and the lord Juan Tassis, count of Villa Mediana, having been sent on the part of the Most Serene King of the Spains, and the lord Charles, prince-count of Arenberg, on the part of the said most serene archdukes, to congratulate, respectively, in the name of their most serene princes, the said Most Serene King of England on his succession to the throne, and those embassies having been most kindly accepted and the ambassadors most lovingly received, the said Most Serene King of the Spains and the archdukes were informed by their ambassadors that the Most Serene King of England was inclined not only to observe the ancient treaties, but, if necessary, to enter into others that should be closer and more binding. Wherefore they thought they should neglect no means of promoting the common tranquillity of Christendom and the interests of the people committed to their charge; and to accomplish so pious a work with all speed and diligence, they appointed general and special commissioners and procurators, with the fullest powers, to enter into and conclude treaties with the said Most Serene King of England, to renew long-interrupted commerce, and to confirm a perpetual peace and amity among the said princes.

Wherefore we, Juan de Velasco, constable of Castile and Leon, duke of the city of Frias, count of Haro, lord of the towns of Villalpando and Pedraza- de-la-Sierra, lord of the house of Velasco and of the Seven Lords of Lara, grand chamberlain of the Most Serene Philip III., king of the Spains, and his councillor in affairs of state and war, president of Italy, appointed by his royal Catholic Majesty procurator and special commissioner, with the fullest power to decide and complete all matters mentioned above and below (as appears in the royal commission executed in Valladolid October 1, 1603, signed personally by the said Catholic king and sealed with the royal seal and to be registered word for word below); and with us, Juan Tassis, count of Villa Mediana, gentleman of the king's chamber and postmaster general in the kingdoms and dominions of the Catholic king, and named by his Royal Catholic Majesty to treat for peace; and Alessandro Rovida, professor of law in the college of Milan and senator of the province of Milan, nominated by us in the name of his Royal Catholic Majesty and, while we on our way to England were detained in Flanders by illness, substituted by us by virtue of the royal commission granted to us for this peace, in order that he might treat meanwhile, together with the said count of Villa Mediatia, with the same power and authority that had been given to us (as appears in the commission executed at Bergues-St. Winoc, May 15, 1604, to be registered word for word below)--all commissioners on the part of the said Most Serene King of the Spains; Charles, prince-count of Arenberg, knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, councillor of state, and admiral general; Jean Richardot, knight, president of the privy council and councillor of state; and Louis Verreycken, knight, principal secretary and audiencer--ambassadors and deputies of the most serene princes, the archdukes (as appears by a commis­ sion executed at Brussels April 12, 1604, also to be registered below); Thomas, earl of Dorset, baron of Buckhurst, high treasurer of England; Charles, earl of Nottingham, baron Howard of Effingham, chief justice and justice in eyre of all forests on this side Trent, high admiral of England and captain general of the navies and seas of England, France, Ireland, and the islands and dominions thereof; Charles, earl of Devonshire, baron of Mount- joy, lieutenant in the kingdom of Ireland for the Most Serene King of England, etc., master of the ordnance, governor of the town, island, and castle of Portsmouth--knights of the most honorable Order of the Garter; Henry, earl of Northampton, Lord Howard of Marnhull, warden and admiral of the Cinque Ports; and Robert, lord Cecil, baron of Essingden, principal secretary of the said Most Serene King, master of the Court of Wards and Liveries--all lords of the Privy Council of the Most Serene King of En­ gland--deputies and commissioners for the said Most Serene King of England (as appears in the commission executed in his Majesty's palace at Westminster on May 9, o. s., A.D. 1604, to be registered below).

After diligent preliminary examination and discussion of the whole affair, after many sessions and conferences had been held, and after long-continued debate, it was agreed, settled, and concluded by us, for the glory of Almighty God, the benefit of all Christendom, and the advantage and quiet of the sub­ jects of the said most serene princes, as below:

1. First, it was and is agreed, settled, and concluded that from this day forward there shall be a good, sincere, true, firm, and perfect amity, league, and peace, to endure forever, and inviolably to be observed, both by land and sea and fresh waters, betwixt the Most Serene King of the Spains and the Most Serene Archdukes of Austria, Dukes of Burgundy, etc., and the Most Serene King of England, and all their heirs and successors whomsoever, and all their kingdoms, countries, dominions, lands, peoples, vassals, and subjects, present and future, of whatsoever condition, dignity, or rank they may be; so that the aforesaid vassals and subjects shall each favor the other, shall act one toward the other with mutual courtesies, and shall treat one another with sincere affection.

2. And that from henceforth all hostility and enmity shall cease, and all offenses, injuries, or damages which either part (during the period while war was waging) has sustained in any manner shall be offered and consigned to oblivion, so that hereafter neither party may make any claim against the other, because of any damages, offenses, depredations, or spoils, but that, from this day henceforth, all such claims shall be abolished and shall be considered as closed; and all actions [for the same] shall be considered as extinguished, except in regard to such depredations as are committed after April 24, 1603 (because of these a reckoning ought to be made); and each party shall hereafter abstain from all booty, depredation, offenses, and spoils, both by sea and land and fresh waters, in any of the kingdoms, dominions, places, or jurisdictions of the other, wherever they may be situated. Neither shall they [i. e., the aforesaid princes] consent that any of the aforesaid be done by their vassals, the inhabitants of their kingdoms, or their subjects; and they shall cause restitution to be made of all booty, spoils, depredations, and damages which shall hereafter be committed.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9. Item, it was and is agreed and settled that there shall be and ought to be free commerce between the said Most Serene King of Spain and the said Most Serene King of England, and the vassals, inhabitants of their kingdoms, and subjects of each of them, both by land and by sea and fresh waters, in all and singular their kingdoms, dominions, islands, other lands, cities, towns, ports, and straits of the said kingdoms and dominions, where commerce existed before the war, agreeably and according to the use and observance of the ancient alliances and treaties before the war: so that, without any safe conduct, or other special or general license, the subjects and vassals of both kings may, and shall have the power, both by land and by sea and fresh waters, to approach, enter, and sail to the aforesaid kingdoms and dominions, and to the cities, towns, ports, shores, bays, and straits of all of them; to enter any ports in which there was commerce before the war, agreeably and according to the use and observance of the ancient alliances and treaties before the war, with wagons, horses, packs, and boats, laden and to be laden, to bring in merchandise and, in these places, to buy and sell as much as they wish, and to procure for themselves, for a just price, supplies and commodities necessary for their sustenance and voyage, and attend to the necessary repair of boats and vehicles, whether their own, hired, or borrowed. They will be equally free to depart thence with their merchandise, goods, and all other commodities, on payment of the tolls and duties then in force, accord­ ing to the ordinances of the places; and they may go thence to their own or other countries, as they please, without hindrance.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

And in pledge of all and singular we have subscribed our names with our own hand. London, August 18/28, A.D. 1604. Juan de Velasco, constable.

the Count of Villa Mediana, Alessandro Rovida, Charles, prince-count of Arenberg, President Richardot, L. Verreycken. T. Dorset, Nottingham, Devonshire, H. Northampton, Robert Cecil . . .

Given at Valladolid, June 15, A.D. 1605.


It is to be noted that the aforesaid Most Serene Prince James, king of Great Britain, etc., in the treaty of the aforesaid articles itself, and hence in his instrument of ratification of them delivered to the representatives of my Most Clement lord Philip, king of the Spains, etc., third of his name, made use of the title, King of England and Scotland, which afterwards he changed to the style of Great Britain. The lord king has commanded me.


28. Truce between Spain and the United Netherlands, concluded at
Antwerp, April 9, 1609, Ratification by Spain, July 7, 1609.
[Ratification by the States General, April 11, 1609.]

By separately concluding the treaty of Vervins with Spain,1 Henry IV. of France had seemingly abandoned both his allies, England and the United Provinces, although, contrary to the treaty, he actually continued a limited aid to the Dutch;2 by signing the treaty of London3 the King of England had weakened the Dutch still further in their struggle with Spain. This defection of their allies, Spinola's military successes, and especially the proposals of Henry IV. to assume sovereignty over the Provinces, alarmed the great Advocate of Holland, Oldenbarnevelt, who with his followers dominated the States General, and inclined them to listen to the overtures for peace which in 1606 and early in 1607 came from the archdukes, the rulers of the southern provinces. On the other hand, a party led by Prince Maurice and Count William Lewis of Nassau, and including among its most ardent adherents those who had an interest in the East India and American trade, desired the continuance of the war. The merchants knew that Spain would demand the renunciation of the distant traffic as the price of peace, and even were the trade permitted it would be less profitable under conditions of peace than when conducted in armed vessels.

The hope of expelling the Dutch from the forbidden regions was believed by many to be the principal motive that induced Spain to treat.4 Within a few years Dutch trade beyond the oceans had attained great proportions. When peace negotiations began, the powerful East India Company, char­ tered in 1602, had seriously undermined the power of the Portuguese in the East; with Guinea, Brazil, Guiana, Punta del Rey, Cuba, and Hispaniola,

1 Doc. 23, last paragraph of introduction.
2 An excellent account of Franco-Dutch relations at this period is in Nouaillac, Villeroy, pp. 373 ff., and ch. 5.
3 Doc. 27.
4 Jeannin asserted that it was the principal motive, Négociations (ed. Petitot), III.
291, and cf. II. 95, 96, 199; Prince Maurice said the same, Bentivoglio, Relazione ( 1644), p. 111, Relations ( 1652), p. 106; Grotius says that the Spaniards declared that it was the main reason, Annales, lib. XVII.

the Dutch were also prosecuting an active trade.5 In consequence of their losses the Portuguese were earnestly petitioning Philip to end the war;6 and among the influences that inclined the Spanish government toward peace were reports of the project of a Dutch West India Company "that should with a strong fleet carry, at once, both war and merchandise into America", and drive the enemy thence. William Usselinx had been advocating the formation of this company for several years, and in 1606 his plan was approved by the States General and a draft charter submitted to the cities.7

In the peace parleyings held early in 1607, the United Provinces demanded the recognition of their independence as an indispensable preliminary step. To this demand the archdukes yielded by declaring in somewhat equivocal terms that they would treat with them for a peace or long truce "in the quality of and as holding them for free provinces and states over which they had no pretensions ".8 The archdukes, in their turn, asked for an eight months' armistice, which the United Provinces conceded, but on condition that Spain should confirm the armistice as well as the recognition of their independence.

It was not until October, 1607, that this recognition was received from Spain,9 and meanwhile negotiations were at a standstill. During this interim, however, representatives of those neighboring princes upon whom the Prov­ inces had formerly leaned were gathering at the Hague to watch or, if possible, to direct the negotiations. France was represented by Jeannin, president of the Parlement of Burgundy, by Buzanval,10 the regular resident at the Hague, and by De Russy; England, by Sir Ralph Winwood, who, in accordance with treaty provisions, had sat in the States General as Coun­cillor of State, and by Sir Richard Spenser.11 Denmark and several of the Protestant princes of Germany also sent envoys. A possible danger to the Dutch lay in the interest felt by Henry and Jeannin in the project of forming

10 Buzanval died in the autumn of 1607.
11 The instructions of the English commissioners are in Winwood, Memorials, II. 329-335.
5 Meteren, Histoire des Pays-Bas, p. 629. On the relations of the Dutch with America at this time, see reports by J. F. Jameson and G. L. Burr in "U. S. Commission on Boundary between Venezuela and British Guiana", Report and Papers ( 1897), I. 37 ff., 99 ff.; and articles by G. Edmundson in the Eng. Hist. Rev., XVIII. ( 1903) 642 ff., XXI. ( 1906) 229 ff. For further bibliographical indications respecting Dutch colonial trade, see C. de Lannoy and H. Vander Linden, L'Expansion Coloniale: Néerlande et Dane­ mark ( 1911), and, in addition, F. Rachfahl, "Die Holländische See- und Handels­ macht", etc., in Lenz-Festschrift ( 1910), pp. 39-88.
6 Grotius, op. cit., lib. XV.
7 Ibid., English translation ( 1665), p. 864; Jameson. Willem Usselinx, pp. 31-32, in Papers of the Am. Hist. Assoc., II.; G. M. Asher, Bibliographical and Historical Essay on New-Netherland ( 1854- 1867), p. 46.
8 This formula was embodied in the preamble of the truce.
9 The declaration, armistice, and confirmation are printed in Jeannin, Négociations, and thence in Dumont, Corps Diplomatique, tom. V., pt. II., pp. 83, 84. The Spanish ratification offered to the States in July, 1607, was not accepted by them.

French companies for trading in the East and West Indies; and in their belief that if Dutch merchants failed to obtain the India "navigation", they might be attracted to France.12 On the other hand, these statesmen realized how important the India trade was to the Dutch, and how much damage it had enabled and would enable them to inflict upon Spain, the common enemy.13

The States having accepted the Spanish confirmation, deputies were ap­ pointed by the principal parties to the negotiations. The archdukes' dele­ gates, who were also empowered to treat in the name of the King of Spain, were the Marquis Spinola, Secretary Don Juan de Mancicidor, President Richardot, the Audiencer Verreycken, and Father Neyen. The States were represented by Count William Lewis of Nassau and Walraven van Brederode, delegates at large, and by one delegate from each of the seven provinces, among whom Oldenbarnevelt played the leading rôle. On February 1, 1608, the archdukes' ambassadors reached the Hague, and a few days later con­ ferences began at the Binnenhof. The main points of dispute were the recognition of the independence of the United Provinces, the restitution of places held by them in Brabant and Flanders, toleration of the public exercise of the Roman Catholic religion in the United Provinces, and the India trade.

The debate on the India trade began on February 13, continued through many sessions, and was marked by great vehemence. Both sides regarded the question as vital. The Dutch believed the trade necessary to their exist­ ence. It drew money to them from other nations; maintained sailors and armed vessels without expense to the state; sapped Spain's strength; made them superior to her in sea-power; and caused the republic to be desired as a friend by other nations. By renouncing it they would betray the native princes who had aided them, and having once abandoned these they could never reinstate themselves. The Dutch had a right to the traffic, for in many parts where they traded the King of Spain exercised no authority, or was hated by the natives, or was unable to defend himself. To withdraw from a traffic which was allowed them by the laws of nature and of nations would prejudice their status as a sovereign power, and the principle of the freedom of the seas. Finally, the archdukes and Spain had agreed to treat on the basis of uti possidetis, and the Dutch were in possession of the India trade. They suspected that the negotiations had been begun for the purpose of weak­ ening them by obtaining their withdrawal from the navigation, after which Spain would try to reduce them again to her authority. If the Dutch would relinquish the trade, the archdukes offered to give up their title of sovereigns over all the Netherlands and to abstain from using the seal of the seventeen

12 Jeannin, ed. Petitot, II. 135-136, 204, 258, 322-323, III. 262, 280-284. See La Roncière, La Marine Française ( 1899, etc.), IV. 268 ff.; P. Laffleur de Kermaingant, L'Ambassade de France en Angleterre: Mission de Christophe de Harlay ( 1895), I. 288-293.
13 Jeannin, ed. cit., II. 136, 534. III. 290 ff., 296 ff., 305.

provinces; and Philip would reopen the trade with Spain.14 On the other hand, if Spain conceded the India trade to the States it might cause other rulers to demand the same liberty for their subjects, or to take it without demanding it; and the Dutch might undersell the Portuguese or oblige the king to give up the tribute that he levied on the Portuguese trade.15

At the end of February the States brought forward three alternative means of accommodation:16 peace, with free trade to those parts of the Indies not actually possessed by Spain; peace in Europe, and a truce in the Indies for a term of years with permission to trade during that period; trade to the Indies it at their peril" after the example of the French and English. The Catholic deputies totally rejected the first and third propositions but would submit the second to Spain if it were acceptably modified. They rejected a draft to the effect that whatever might happen in the Indies during or after the truce, peace should not fail to be perpetual as far south as the tropic of Cancer,17 for they wished to confine the dispute to the East Indies, and feared that by referring to the tropics, which encircled the earth, the West Indies, would seem to be comprised. They wished the States to declare expressly that they would abstain from going to the West Indies, and that in the East Indies they would not visit the places held by the Portuguese.18 The States, who meanwhile had tried to frighten their opponents by showing a renewed interest in the West India Company,19 finally drafted an acceptable article, stipulating that during nine years after the conclusion of the truce they might trade anywhere in the Indies except in places held by the King of Spain where they might go only with the consent of the governors or in case of necessity. Before the termination of the nine years, an attempt should be made to come to a lasting agreement.20 The West Indies were not specifically mentioned.21

In April this draft was despatched to the King of Spain for his considera­tion, and negotiations flagged; in August it was known that Spain insisted on the prompt withdrawal of the States from both the East and the West Indies and complete toleration for the public exercise of the Catholic religion in the Provinces as indispensable conditions of her recognition of the inde­pendence of the States.22 It was certain that peace was unattainable and negotiations were broken off.

14 For the debates on the India trade, see especially Deventer, Gedenkstukken, III.
178 ff., Meteren, Histoire des Pays-Bas, pp. 626 ff.; and Jeannin, ed. cit., III. 198 ff., 236, 239 ff., 251, 252, 287, etc.
15 Jeannin, ed. cit., III. 251-252.
16 Rodriguez Villa, Ambrosio Spinola, p. 217; Deventer, op. cit., III. 188-189; Jeannin, ed. cit., III. 287; Grotius, op. cit., lib. XVII.
17 Jeannin, ed. cit., III. 311; Deventer, op. cit., III. 196.
18 Deventer, op. cit., III. 198; Jeannin, op. cit., III. 315.
19 Jameson, op. cit., p. 35; Jeannin, ed. cit., III. 289; Grotius, loc. cit.
20 Meteren, ed. cit., p. 633 b; Grotius, loc. cit.; Jeannin, op. cit., III. 373, 374.
21 Jeannin, ed. cit., III. 326.
22 Meteren, ed. cit., p. 650 b; Jeannin, ed. cit., IV. 86.

This result could scarcely have been displeasing to Jeannin, who preferred a truce to a peace, since the former would leave the Dutch more dependent on France and suspicious of Spain. In concert with the English ambassadors, and in spite of the bitter opposition of Prince Maurice and the Zeelanders, he persuaded the States to revive negotiations in behalf of a truce, and to employ the French and English ambassadors as intermediaries.

In February, 1609, the French and English ambassadors opened their con­ ference with the deputies of the archdukes at Antwerp. The principal point of difficulty was the India trade. The Catholic deputies would not have the word Indies in the treaty, lest other governments should demand the same concession, and thought it sufficient to proclaim the truce general. Henry IV. saw an advantage in omitting the term Indies, since if it were used the King of Spain would make a distinction between the East and West Indies, excluding the Dutch from the latter. The French statesmen were inclined to minimize the value that this trade would have for the Dutch when carried on in accordance with agreement and not par hostilitè.23 Yet Jeannin labored for the end desired by the States, not because France wished to strengthen the States unduly, but because she was unwilling to restore Spain to her former strength, or to play into the hands of the English, who were believed to desire the trade for themselves.24 After much discussion it was agreed that the second article should declare a general truce without mention of the Indies. The fourth article contained a concession of the India trade, veiled by circumlocutions :--traffic was permitted in Spain's European lands and in any other of her possessions where her allies were permitted to trade; outside these limits (i. e., in the Indies) subjects of the States could not traffic with­out express permission from the king in places held by Spain; but in places not thus held they might trade upon permission of the natives, without hindrance from the king or his officers. In order to make the meaning of this fourth article unmistakable, Jeannin further insisted on inserting the fifth article, which declared that owing to the time that must elapse before news of the truce could reach the forces and ships "outside the stated limits" the truce would not begin there until a year from the date on which the treaty was signed. This the Catholic deputies conceded with great reluctance.25 The agreement that Spain would not hinder the subjects of the States in their trade with other princes and peoples "outside the limits" was also strength­ ened by a special and secret treaty, to be considered as forming part of the principal treaty, in which the name Indies was again avoided. The name,

23 Jeannin, ed. cit., V. 214, 233, 234, 237.
24 Ibid., 235-238, 321. Henry was also jealous of the settlement of the English in Virginia. On March 28, 1609, Villeroy wrote to Jeannin that they had heard "que le roi d'Angleterre a dessein de s'accroître et établir en ces pays-là, et que dès à présent il a envoyé des colonies entières pour fortifier les siens en un lieu qu'ils nomment la Virginia; de quoi notre Roi n'est sans martel qui aiguise son appétit en ces affaires."
Ibid., V. 321-322.
25 Ibid., p. 242.

however, appeared in an act signed by the French and English ambassadors, which certified that the archdukes' deputies had agreed that just as the Dutch should not traffic in places held by the King of Spain in the Indies without his permission, so subjects of the King of Spain should not traffic in places held by the States in the Indies without their permission; and secondly, that the States' deputies had declared that if their native allies in the Indies were molested, they would aid them, and that such action should not be a violation of the truce.

Other principal points of dispute were adjusted as follows: the independ­ ence of the States was acknowledged; the exercise of the Catholic religion in the Provinces was not conceded; the States were left in enjoyment of the places that they occupied in Brabant and Flanders; and they kept a tax on vessels passing through the Scheldt to Antwerp.

Toward the middle of March, after the success of the negotiations had become assured, Jeannin acquainted the States General with what had passed in the conferences at Antwerp, and with the articles as agreed to by the deputies of the archdukes, persuaded them suitably to recognize the services of Prince Maurice and of his house,26 and promised that if Spain disturbed the India commerce the kings of France and England would deem it a rupture of the truce.27 Toward the end of the month, the deputies of the States General, who with one exception28 were the same as those of the preceding year, met with the deputies of the kings and of the archdukes at Antwerp, and on the ninth of April the treaty and the additional acts were signed in that city. They were ratified a few days later by the States General at Bergen-op-Zoom, and by the archdukes, and after an interval of three months by the King of Spain, who added that he hoped that during the truce the States would treat the Catholics well.29

Text: MS. The original manuscript of the ratification by the King of Spain is in the Rijksarchief at the Hague, Secrete Casse, Spaignen en de Ertzhertogen, casse B, loquet A, no. 24.

Text: Printed. French. Authorized editions were issued by Velpius in Brussels and by Jacobsz in the Hague in 1609. They do not include the secret treaty and the ambassadors' certificates, which are published together with the text in P. Jeannin, Négociations ( 1st ed., 1656; in Petitot, Collection des Mémoires, toms. XI-XV., 1821- 1822, V. 365-383), and thence in J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique ( 1726- 1731), tom. V., pt. II., pp. 99-102, and in J. A. de Abreu y Bertodano, Coleccion de los Tratados de España: Reynado de Phelipe III. ( 1740), I. 458-489. A

26 Ibid., pp. 292-303, 305, 310, 311.
27 Grotius, op. cit., lib. XVIII.; Jeannin, op. cit., V. 302.
28 Cornelius Renessen was substituted for Nicholas Berk, deputy for Utrecht.
29 See below, p. 267.

recent edition of the text with some cognate documents is in V. Brants, Recueil des Ordonnances des Pays-Bas, Règne d'Albert et Isabelle, 1597- 1621, tom. I. ( 1909), pp. 402-411. Dutch. Groot Placaet-Boeck van de Staten Generael ( 1658- 1796), I. cols. 55-72.

References: Contemporary and early writings. P. Jeannin, Négociations, 1st ed., 1656; in Petitot, Collection des Mémoires, toms. XI-XV., and other editions; M. L. van Deventer, Gedenkstukken van J. van Olden­ barnevelt ( 1860- 1865), III. 71-312--a diary of the negotiations for the truce from Feb. 1, 1608, to Mar. 4, 1609, is on pp. 168-239; R. Winwood, Memorials of Affairs of State in the Reigns of Elizabeth and James I. ( 1725), II. 298-492, III. 1-17; A. Rodriguez Villa, Ambrosio Spinola ( 1904), pp. 150-255, 627-651, 667, 704, 705; Recueil des Lettres Mis­ sives de Henri IV., tom. VII. ( 1858), passim (ed. by M. Berger de Xivrey in Collection de Documents Inédits sur l'Histoire de France);
Lettres d'Henry IV. et de Messieurs de Villeroy et de Puisieux à Mr. Antoine Le Fevre de la Boderie, 1606-1611 ( 1733), 2 vols., passim; Resolutien of the States of Holland ( 1772- 1798), vols. for the years 1607- 1609, passim; Cardinal G. Bentivoglio, "Relatione del Trattato della Tregua di Fiandra", in Opere . . . cio è Relatione di Fiandra, etc. ( 1644), pp. 99-130, also in Collezione de' Classici Italiani ( 1802- 1850), CLXXXIV. 255-339; English translation, entitled Historical Relations of the United Provinces and of Flanders ( 1652), pp. 95-127;
E. van Meteren, Histoire des Pays-Bas ( 1618), livs. XXVIII.-XXX.; Hugo Grotius, Annales et Historiae de Rebus Belgicis ( 1657, etc.), libs. XV.-XVIII., English translation ( 1665), pp. 858-974; Dominicus Baudius, Induciarum Belli Belgici Libri Tres ( 1st ed., 1613, 3d ed., 1629); Calendar of State Papers, Venice, 1603- 1607, passim, and id., 1607- 1610, passim; Kroniek van Historisch Genootschap te Utrecht, Jaarg. 28, 1872 ( 1873), pp. 226-239, 242-283, 363-375; G. Groen van Prinsterer , Archives de la Maison d'Orange-Nassau ( 1835, etc.), 2e sér., II. 369 ff.

References: Later writings. J. L. Motley, The United Netherlands ( 1904), vol. IV., cc. 46-52; P. J. Blok, Geschiedenis van her Nederlandsche Volk ( 2d ed., 1912, etc.), II. 346-362, abridged English translation, History of the People of the Netherlands ( 1898- 1912), III. 304-314, German translation, Geschichte der Niederlande ( 1902, etc.), III. 623-655, in Heeren und Ukert, Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten ( 1829, etc.) ; J. F. Jameson, Willem Usselinx, pp. 22-46, in Papers of the American Historical Association, II. ( 1887) ; M. Philippson, Heinrich IV. und Philipp 111. ( 1870- 1876), III. 67-252; J. Nouaillac, Villeroy ( 1909), pp. 461-477; J. P. Arend et al., Algemeene Geschiedenis des Vaderlands ( 1840, etc.), III. (2), 244-344.

Comme ainsi soit que les Serenissimes Archiducqz, Albert et Isabella Clara Eugenia, etc., ayent dez vingt-quatriesme d'Apvril, seize cens et sept, fait une trefve et cessation d'armes pour huict mois avec Illustres Seigneurs les Estatz Generaulx des provinces Unies des Pays Bas, en qualité et comme

30 From the original manuscript of the Spanish ratification in the Rijksarchief at the Hague, Secrete Casse, Spaignen en de Ertzhertogen, casse B, loquet A, no. 24.

les tenans pour Estatz, Provinces, et Pays libres, sur lesquelz ilz ne pre­ tendoyent rien, laquelle trefve debvoit estre ratiffiee avec pareille declaration par la Majesté du Roy Catholicque, en ce qui le povoit toucher et lesdites ratiffications et declarations delivrees ausdits sieurs Estatz trois mois apres icelle trefve, comm'il s'est fait par lettres patentes du dix-huictiesme de Septembre audit an, et oultre ce donne procuration specialle ausdits sieurs Archiducqz du dixiesme de janvier, seize cens huict, pour tant en son nom comme au leur, faire tout ce qu'ilz jugeroyent convenable pour parvenir a une bonne paix, ou trefve a longues annees, en suyte de la quelle procuration, lesdits sieurs Archiducqz auroient aussi, par leurs lettres de commission du xxvii du mesme mois, nommé et deputé comimissaires pour en conferer et traicter esdits noms et qualitez, et a cest' occasion consenty et accorde que ladite trefve fut prolongee et continuee par diverses fois, mesme le xxe de May jusques a la fin de la dite annee, XVIC huict, mais apres s'estre assemblez plusieurs fois avec les deputez desdits sieurs Estatz, qui avoient aussi procu­ ration et commission d'eulx, datee du ve de febvrier audit an, ilz n'auroient peu demeurer d'accord de la dite paix, pour plusieurs grandes difficultez survenues entr' eulx, au moyen de quoy les sieurs ambassadeurs des Roys Treschrestien et de la Grande Bretaigne, des Princes Electeurs Palatin et de Brandenbourg, Marquiz d'Ansbach, et Landtgrave de Hessen, envoyez sur le lieu de la part desdits sieurs roys et princes pour ayder a l'advancement d'ung si bon oeuvre, voyans qu'ilz estoient prestz de se separer et rompre tout traité, auroient proposé une trefve a longues annees, a certaines conditions contenues en ung escript, donné de leur part aux ungz et aux aultres, avec priere et exhortation de s'y vouloir conformer. Sur lequel escript plusieurs aultres difficultez estans derechef survenues, en fin ce jourd'huy neufiesme du mois d'Apvril, mil six cens et neuf, se sont assemblez Messire Ambrosio Spinola marquiz de Benaffro, chevalier de l'Ordre de la Thoison d'Or, du conseil d'estat et de guerre de sa dite Majeste Catholicque, mestre de camp, general de ses armees, etc.,

Messire Jehan Richardot, chevalier, sieur de Barly, du conseil d'estat, chief president du conseil privé de leurs Altezes, etc., Jehan de Mancicidor, du conseil de guerre et secretaire de sa dite Majesté Catholicque, reverend pere frere Jehan Neyen, commissaire general de l'Ordre de St.-Francois es Pays-Bas, et Messire Loys Verreyken, cheva­lier, audiencier et premier secretaire de leurs dites Altezes, en vertu des lectres de procuration desdits sieurs Archiducqz, pour traitter, tant en leurs noms qu'au nom dudit sieur Roy Catholicque, la teneur de laquelle procuration est cy apres inseree, avec celle dudit sicur Roy, d'une part, et Messire Guillaume Loys, conte de Nassau, Catzenellebogen, Vianden, Dietz, etc., sieur de Bilsteyn, gouverneur et capitaine general de Frize, ville de Groen­ ingen et Ommelanden, Drente, etc., Messire Walrave, sieur de Brederode, Vianen, viconte d'Utrecht, sieur d'Ameyden, Cloutingen, etc., les sieurs Cornille de Gendt, sieur de Loenen et Meynerswyck, viconte et juge de l'empire, et de la ville de Nyemegen, Messire Jehan d'Oldenbarnevelt, cheva- lier, sieur de Tempel, Rodenrys, etc., advocat et garde du grand seel, chartres, et registres de Hollande et Westfrize, Messire Jacques de Malderee, chevalier, sieur des Heyes, premier et representant la noblesse aux Estatz et conseil de la conté de Zelande, les sieurs Gerard de Renesse, sieur van der Aa, de Streeffkercken, Nyeuwlekkerlandt, etc., Gellius Hillama, doeteur es droitz, conseillier ordinaire du conseil de Frize, Jehan Sloeth, sieur de Salick, drossard du pays de Vollenhoo et chastellain de la seigneurie de Cunder, et Abel Coenders de Helpen, sieur en Faen et Cantes, au nom desdits sieurs Estatz, aussi en vertu de leurs lettres de procuration et commission, cy apres semblablement inseree, d'autre, lesquelz avec l'intervention et par l'advis de Messire Pierre Jeannin, chevalier, baron de Chagny et Montjeu, conseillier du Roy Tres-chrestien en son Conseil d'Estat et son ambassadeur extra- ordinaire vers lesdits sieurs Estatz, et Messire Elye de la Place, chevalier, sieur de Russy, viconte de Machault, aussi conseillier audit Conseil d'Estat, gentilhomme ordinaire de la chambre dudit sieur roy, bailly et capitaine de Vitry le Francois, et son ambassadeur ordinaire resident pres lesdits sieurs Estatz, Messire Richard Spencer, chevalier, gentilhomme ordinaire de la Chambre Privee du Roy de la Grande Bretaigne et son ambassadeur extra- ordinaire vers lesdits sieurs Estatz, et Messire Rodolphe Winwood, chevalier, ambassadeur ordinaire, et conseillier dudit sieur Roy au Conseil d'Estat des Provinces Unies, sont demeurez d'accord en la forme et maniere que s'ensuyt: 1.

1. Premierement, lesdits sieurs Archiducqz declarent tant en leurs noms que dudit sieur Roy, qu'ilz sont contens de traicter avec lesdits sieurs Estatz Generaulx des Provinces Unies en qualite et comme les tenans pour pays, provinces, et estatz libres, sur lesquelz ilz ne pretendent rien, et de faire avec eulx, es noms et qualitez susdites, comme ilz font par ces presentes, une trefve, aux conditions cy apres escrites et declarees.

2. 2. Asscavoir, que ladite trefve sera bonne, ferme, loyalle, et inviolable, et pour le temps de douze ans, durant lesquelz il y aura cessation de tous actes d'hostilité, de quelque facon qu'ilz soyent, entre lesdits sieurs roy, archiducqz, et Estats Generaulx, tant par mer, aultres eaues, que par terre, en tous leurs royaulmes, pays, terres, et seigneuries, et pour tous leurs subjects et habitans, de quelque qualité et condition qu'ilz soyent, sans exception de lieux ny de personnes.

3. 3. Chacun demeurera saisy et jouyra effectuellement des pays, villes, places, terres, et seigneuries, qu'il tient et possede a present, sans y estre trouble ny inquieté, de quelque faqon que ce soit, durant ladite trefve; en quoy on entend comprendre les bourgs, villages, hameaux, et plat pays qui en dependent.

4. 4. Les subjectz et habitans es pays desdits sieurs roy archiducqz, et Estatz, auront toute bonne correspondence et amitie par ensemble, durant ladite trefve, sans se resentir des offences et dommaiges, qu'ilz ont receu par le passé. Pourront aussi frequenter et sejourner es pays l'ung de l'aultre, et y exercer leur trafficq et commerce en toute seureté, tant par mer, aultres eaues, que par terre. Ce que toutesfois ledit sieur roy entend estre restrainct et limité aux royaulmes, pays, terres, et seigneuries, qu'il tient et possede en l'Europe et aultres lieux et mers ou les subjectz des roys et princes qui sont ses amis et alliez ont ledit trafficq de gré a gré. Et pour le reguard des lieux, villes, portz, et havres qu'il tient hors les limites susdits, que lesdits Sieurs Estatz et leurs subjectz, n'y puissent exercer aulcun trafficq, sans la permission expresse dudit sieur roy.

Bien pourront ilz faire le dit trafficq, si bon leur semble, es pays de tous aultres princes, potentatz, et peuples, qui le leur vouldront permettre, mesme hors lesdits limites, sans que ledit sieur roy, ses officiers, et subjectz, qui dependent de luy, donnent aulcun empeschement a ceste occasion ausdits princes, potentatz, et peuples, qui le leur ont permis ou permettront, ny pareillement a eulx ou aux particuliers, avec lesquelz ils ont fait et feront ledit trafficq.

1. 5. Et pour ce qu'il est besoing d'un assez long temps pour advertir ceulx qui sont hors lesdits limites avec forces et navires de se desister de tous actes d'hostilité, a esté accordé que la trefve n'y commencera que d'aujourd'huy en ung an. Bien entendu que si l'advis de ladite trefve y peult estre plustost, que deslors l'hostilité y cessera, mais si apres le dit temps d'un an quelque hostilité y estoit commise, le dommage en sera reparé sans remise.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ainsi faict et conclu en la ville et cité d'Anvers, ledit neufiesme jour d'Apvril, mit six cens et neuf, et signé par les seigneurs ambassadeurs des Roys Tres Chrestien et de la Grande Bretaigne, comme mediateurs, et les deputez des seigneurs archiducqz et estatz, etc.

Su Magestad haviendo visto lo contenido en esta scritura de tregua y capitulacion que le hassido embiada por sus muy charos y amados hermanos, los Serenissimos Archiduques Alberto y Isabel Clara Eugenia, cerca de la tregua otorgada en nombre de su Magestad, por su poder y en el de sus Altezas, por si mismos, con los Estados Generales de las Provincias Unidas de los Payses Baxos, haviendolo bien y maduramente considerado declara que loá, aprueva, confirma y ratifica la dicha tregua en quanto la cossa le puede tocar y manda que se guarde y cumpla enteramente por su parte lo contenido en la dicha scritura y capitulacion por todo el tyempo que la dicha tregua durare y assi lo certifica y, sperando que durante la tregua han de hazer los dichos Estados de las Provincias Unidas buen tratamyento a los Cattolicos que entre ellos residen, promete y assegura. En fee y palabra real de guardar lo y cumplirlo puntualmente y no hazer cossa en contrario. En testimonio de lo qual su Magestad ha firmado la presente y hechola sellar con su sello. Segovia a siete de Jullio de mill y seyscientos y nueve años.


Por mano del rey nuestro señor.


Secret Treaty.31
Comme ainsi soit que par l'article quatrième du traité de la trefve fait ce mesme jour entre la Majesté du Roy Catholique, les Serenissimes Archiducs d'Autriche d'une part, et les sieurs Estats Generaux des Provinces-Unies, d'autre, le commerce accordé ausdits sieurs les Estats et à leurs sujets, ait esté restreint et limité aux royaumes, pays, terres, et seigneuries que ledit sieur roy tient en l'Europe et ailleurs, esquels il est permis aux sujets des roys et princes qui sont ses amis et alliez d'exercer ledit commerce de gré à gré; et outre ce, ledit sieur roy ait declaré qu'il n'entendoit donner aucun empesche­ ment au trafic et commerce que lesdits sieurs les Estats et leurs sujets pourront avoir cy-après en quelque pays et lieu que ce soit, tant par mer que par terre, avec les potentats, peuples, et particuliers qui le leur voudront permettre, ny pareillement à ceux qui feront ledit trafic avec eux, ce que toutesfois n'a esté couché par escrit audit traité. Or est-il, que ce mesme jour, neufvième

31 The text of the secret treaty could not be found in the Rijksarchief at the Hague. it is printed here from Jeannin, Négociations (ed. 1656), pp. 638-639. From the same source it is printed in British Guiana Boundary, Arbitration with the United States of Venezuela: Appendex to the Counter-case on behalf of Her Britannic Majesty, Foreign Office print ( 1898), pp. 323-324, where it is accompanied by an English translation.

Avril mil six cents neuf, qui est celuy auquel ladite trefve a esté accordée, les sieurs Marquis Spinola, President Richardot, Mancicidor, frere Jean de Neyen, et Verreiken, au nom et comme deputez tant dudit sieur Roy que Archiducs, en vertu du mesme pouvoir à eux donné et sous la mesme promesse de faire ratifier en bonne et deuë forme ce present escrit avec le traité general et dans le mesme temps, out promis et prometent au nom dudit sieur Roy et de ses successeurs pour le temps que ladite trefve doit durer, que Sa Majesté ne donnera aucun empeschement, soit par mer ou par terre, ausdits sieurs les Estats ny à leurs sujets, au trafic qu'ils pourront faire cy­ après es pais de tous princes, potentats, et peuples, qui le leur voudront permettre, en quelque lieu que ce soit, mesme hors les limites cy-dessus designés, et par tout ailleurs, ny pareillement à ceux qui feront ledit trafic avec eux, et d'effectuer tout ce que dessus de bonne foy, en sorte que ledit trafic leur soit libre et assuré, consentans mesme afin, que le present escrit soit plus autentique, qu'il soit tenu comme inseré au traité principal, et faisant partie d'iceluy. Ce que lesdits sieurs Deputez les Estats ont accepté. Fait à Anvers les an et jour susdits.



Certificate of the French and English ambassadors concerning the "limits", and commerce with the Indies.32

Nous soubzsignez ambassadeurs des Roys Treschrestien et de la Grande Bretaigne certiffions a tous quil apartiendra, que par l'article troisiesme du traité faict ce jourd'huy entre les deputes des sieurs Archiducz et Estatz Generaux des Provinces Unies, on a entendu d'une part et d'autre, et nous l'avons ainsi compris, que tout ce que les dits sieurs Estatz tiennent en Brabant et en Flandre aussi bien que autre provinces dont ils jouissent leur doibt demourer en tous droictz de superiorité, mesme le marquisat de Bergue sur le Zoom, les baronnyes de Breda, Graves, ect ce qui y est joint et uny avec tous les bourgs, villages, hameaux, et territoire en dependant. Cer­tiffions aussi les deputez des dits sieurs archiducz avoir consenty et acordi tout ainsi que les dits Estatz et leurs subjetz ne pourront trafficquer aux portz, lieux et places tenues par le Roy Catholicque aux Indes, s'il ne le permet, quil ne sera loisible non plus a ses subjetz de trafficquer aux portz, lieux, et places que tiennent les dits sieurs Estatz en dites Indes, si ce n'est avec leur permission. Et outre ce que les deputez des dits Estatz ont declaré plusieurs fois en notre presence [et] des deputez des dits Archiducz, si on entreprend sur leurs amis et alliez en dits pays quilz entendent les secourir et assister, sans qu'on puisse pretendre la trefve estre enfreinte et violee a cest occasion.

Faict a Anvers le neufiésme jour d'Avril mil six cens et neuf.



His Majesty having examined the contents of this instrument of truce and agreement, which has been sent him by his very dear and beloved brother and sister, the Most Serene Archdukes of Austria, Albert and Isabella Clara

32 From the original manuscript in the Rijksarchief. An English translation is in the app. to the British Counter-case (referred to in note 31), p. 324.

Eugenia, in regard to the truce executed with the States General of the Low Countries in the name of His Majesty by his authority, and in the name of their Highnesses by their own authority, and having considered it well and maturely, declares that he commends, approves, confirms, and ratifies the said truce, in so far as the matter can pertain to him; and he orders that the contents of the said instrument and agreement be completely observed and executed on his part for the whole time during which the said truce is to last. Accordingly, he affirms it, and, in the hope that during the truce the said States of the United Provinces will show good treatment to the Catholics who live among them, he gives his promise and assurance, on his royal faith and word, to observe and execute it faithfully, and not to violate it in any way. In testimony of which, His Majesty has signed the present and has had it sealed with his seal. Segovia, July 7, 1609.


By the hand of the King our lord.


29. Treaty of Guaranty between the United Netherlands, France, and Great Britain, concluded at the Hague, June 7/17, 1609. Ratification by the States General, June 6/16, 1609. [Ratifi­ cation by France July 16, and by Great Britain July 10/20, 1609.]

Among the matters treated of at the Hague during the summer of 1607 were alliances between France and the United Netherlands, and England and the United Netherlands, to guarantee the observance of the peace then being negotiated between the States General of the United Provinces and Spain.1 The Dutch greatly desired these alliances; and the French, and ultimately the English, were ready to become their confederates if safeguarded against a consequent embroilment with Spain.

By the defensive alliance concluded on January 23, 1608,2 the King of France promised to help the States to obtain a satisfactory peace with Spain, to protect them against its infringement, and, if necessary for this purpose, to send them 10,000 infantry for as long as required. In return the States agreed, if the king were attacked, to supply him with 5000 infantry or with ships of war, equipped and manned, and of not less than 200 or 300 tons burden. Neither party, after having received aid from the other, should make a treaty with an aggressor without the other's consent. The similar treaty between England and the United Provinces, signed June 16/26, 1608, provided that in case of violation of the peace, the King of England should aid the States with 20 well-equipped ships of from 300 to 600 tons, and with 6000 infantry and 400 cavalry, yearly. If any of England's dominions were attacked, the States should send the king an equal naval force, and assist him yearly with 4000 infantry and 300 cavalry.3 This Anglo-Dutch alliance was obnoxious to the King of Spain,4 who, during the negotiations, remon­ strated against England's occupation of Virginia, perhaps in order to impress

1 See Doc. 28, introduction.
2 The ratification by the States on Jan. 25, 1608, is printed in Jeannin, Négociations, ed. cit., III. 148-157, and thence in Dumont, Corps Diplomatique V. ( 2), 89-91.
3 The ratification by the States, June 17/27, 1608, and by the King of Great Britain, July 20/30, 1608, are in T. Rymer, Foedera ( 1704- 1735), XVI. 667-673; the protocol is in L. van Aitzema, Saken van Staet en Oorlogh ( 1669- 1672), I. 13, 14, and thence in Dumont, op. cit., V. ( 2), 94, 95.
4 Winwood, Memorials, II. 403, 404, 408, 413 ff.

the Dutch as well as the English with the reality of his intention to retain a monopoly of the Indies.5

When the peace conferences at the Hague failed, and were followed by negotiations for a long truce, the Dutch wished the former guaranties to be extended to the observance of the truce, and, in particular, to the concession of trade in the Indies. On account of some obscurity in the article granting this trade, caused by the determination of the Spaniards to avoid naming the Indies, the English king and council hesitated to give the desired guaranty. They finally consented however, because of the agreement of the archduke's deputies to declare to the deputies of the States, in the presence of the French and English ambassadors, that the article gave the Dutch liberty to trade to the Indies, which, during the truce, the King of Spain did not intend to impede.6

5 A. Brown, Genesis of the United States ( 1890), I. 88 ff., Cal. St. Pap., Venice, 1607- 1610, p. 102.
6 Winwood, op. cit., II. A-481-483, 489-491, III. 2. The text of the certificate of the Archduke's declaration was incorporated in the instructions of Oct. 28, 1645, for the States' representatives at Münster. It is as follows:

16. Nous ambassadeurs des Roys Tres-Chrestien et de la Grande Bretagne, et nous deputés de Messieurs les Estats Generaux des Provinces Unies des Pays Bas, certiffions par ces presentes, qu'estans ce jour d'huy dernier du mois de Mars 1609, assemblés en cette ville d'Anvers, avec les sieurs deputés du Roy Catholique et des Serenissimes Archiducs Albert et Isabella, grand differant se seroit meu pour les com­ merces des Indes, que les deputés desdits Sieurs Archiducs vouloient bien consentir de gré à gré au nom dudit Sieur Roy, és mots et termes contenues és articles quatre et cin­ quiéme de la trefve, qu'ils disoyent n'estre suffisans pour exponer ledit commerce en ce que mention expresse n'y fut faite des Indes, dont ils s'abstenoient d'user pour certains respects, qui ne sont d'aucun prejudice auxdits Sieurs les Estats, mais regardent seulement le contentement particulier dudit Sieur Roy, qui entend les en laisser joüir par effect, en toute liberté pendant la trefve, sans y donner aucun empeschement soit à leurs subjects et à ceux qui trafiqueront avec eux, ou aux princes et peuples qui leur permettront ledit traficq en leur pays; ce que toutesfois nous deputés desdits Sieurs les Estats, ne voulions accepter, requerans que les Indes fussent nommement exprimés, et l'article couché si intelligiblement, qu'il n'y eust aucune ambiguité ny pretexte pour y faire difficulté l'advenir. Ayans lesdits deputés, tant des archiducs que des Estats, priez nous ambassadeurs des Roys Tres-Chrestien et de la Grande Bretagne qui estions presens à leur dispute, de vouloir ayder à composer ce different, comme avions fait ceux advenus és autres articles du traitté, à quoy nous serions volontiers employé essayans de persuader aux deputés des archiducs de faire l'expression dont ils estoient requis, puisqu'en la subsistance de la chose ils estoient d'accord et affirmoyent avec grands serments, que ledit Sieur Roy d'Espagne avoit accordé iceluy commerce de bonne foy, et en intention de n'y jamais contrevenir, remonstrans d'autre part aux deputés des Estats qu'ils avoyent aussi subject de se contenter de l'expression contenuë auxdits articles quatre et cinquiéme comme estans suffisants, sans qu'il soit besoin d'y adjouster ce qu'ils desirent de plus: mais les uns et les autres perseverans en leur opinion, en sorte que ledit traitté sembloit devoir estre rompu à cét occasion; enfin nous deputés desdits Sieurs Estats aurions declaré estre contens d'accepter lesdits articles pourveu que lesdits Sieurs Roy Tres-Chrestien et de la Grande Bretagne, ci-devant priés de la part des Estats de se vouloir rendre guarands de l'observation de la trefve avec asseurance de leur secours en cas d'infraction, consentent de s'obliger specialement pour l'observation dudit commerce comme promis et accordé par lesdits articles aussi valablement, que si le mot des Indes y estoit exprimé, ce que les deputés des archiducs auroient derechef declaré estre veritable; et que ledit Sieur Roy entendoit garder de bonne foy ce qu'ils promettoient en son nom, et nous ambassadeurs susdis promis et consenti à cét occasion de faire iceluy traitté de guarantie en la [forme] susdite pour estre bien informés que leurs Majestés auront agreable, tout ce que ferons, pour parvenir

The joint treaty of guaranty, signed by the representatives of France, England, and the United Netherlands on June 7/17, 1609, confirmed the treaties of guaranty signed separately by each king in the preceding year, as mentioned above; it specified that the aid promised by the earlier treaties should be supplied, if, during the truce, the Dutch should be troubled by the Spaniards or Flemish in the Indian trade, or if Indian princes should be molested for permitting the Dutch to traffic within their territories. Any question as to the infringement of the truce should be decided by the two kings together with the States. During the truce the States should not make any treaty with the King of Spain or the archdukes without the kings' con­ sent; nor the kings with any prince to the prejudice of the States or of their liberty.

Text: MS. The original agreement is in the London Public Record Office, State Papers Foreign, Treaties, no. 294; the original manuscript of the ratification by the States General is in the same depository, T. R., Diplo­ matic Documents, no. 1179.

Text: Printed. P. Jeannin, Négociations (in Petitot, Collection des Mémoires, tom. XI.-XV., 1821- 1822), V. 485-488; L. van Aitzema, Saken van Staet en Oorlogh ( 1669- 1672), I. 16; F. Leonard, Recueil des Traitez de Paix ( 1693), V. 14-16; J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique ( 1726- 1731), tom. V., pt. II., p. 110.

References: Contemporary and early writings. R. Winwood, Memorials of Affairs of State in the Reigns of Elizabeth and James I. ( 1725), II. 369 ff., 481-483, 488-492, III. 1-3, 5, 17, 65; P. Jeannin, Négociations, ed. cit., III. 218, 219, 234, V. 171, 212-215, 245-318, passim, 404, 443, 468; Cal. St. Pap., Venice, 1607- 1610, pp. 96, 102, 260, et passim.

Les Estatz Generaulx des Pays Bas Unis a tous ceulx qui ces presentes lettres verront, salut. Comme, en vertu des pouvoirs respectivement donnez par les Treshaults, Tresexcellents, et Trespuissants Roys, Treschrestien, etc.,

à la conclusion de ladite trefve, dont les deputés des Estats se sont contentés, et ont par effect arresté de conclure le traitté d'icelle trève, ce qu'ils n'eussent autrement fait, ayans ensemblement nous ambassadeurs susdits et deputés des Estats, dressé et signé le present acte, que certifions et affirmons à tous qu'ils appartiendra estre veritable sur nostre foy et honneur.

"Fait à Anvers les an et jours susdit. Estoit signé, P. Joannijn, Elye de la Place, Russi, Ri: Spencer, Rodolphe Winwood, Guilleaume Louis Comte de Nassau, W. de Brederode, Cornelis van Gent, Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, R. Malderée, G. V. Renesse, G. Hillama, Johan Sloeth, Ab. Coenders." L. van Aitzema, Verhael van de Neder­ landsche Vrede-handelingh in Saken van Staet en Oorlogh, III. 53, and VI. (2), 206.
The text and the English translation are in British Guiana Boundary, Arbitration with the United States of Venezuela: The [British] Counter Case (Foreign Office, 1898), app., pt. 2., pp. 328, 329.

7 The following text printed from the original manuscript of the ratification, P. R. O., T. R., Diplomatic Docs., no. 1179.

et de la Grande Bretaigne, etc., et nous, a noz communs deputez, ilz ayent, le dixseptiesme jour de Juing dernier passé, conclu et arresté entre eulx, aulx noms de leursdites Majestez et des nostres, le traicté dont la teneur ensuit:

Comme ainsi soit que les Roys Treschrestien et de la Grande Bretaigne se soyent employez des long temps avecq grand soing et affection pour faire cesser la guerre des Pays Bas par une paix perpetuelle, et pour n'y avoir peu parvenir ayent depuis proposé une trefve á longues annees, dont le succes eust esté aussi peu heureulx, si, pour oster toute defiance aulx Estatz Generaulx des Pays Bas Uniz, leurs Majestez ne leur eussent offert de s'obliger á l'observation d'icelle trefve, et de leur donner assistence et secours au cas qu'elle fust enfreinte et violee, mesmes s'ilz estoient troublez et empeschez au commerce des Indes, que les deputez des Archiducqz leur accordoient de gré á gré par ladite trefve au nom du Roy Catholicque, sans neantmoins l'exprimer nommeement, ainsi que lesdits sieurs Estatz le de­ mandoient pour leur plus grande seureté, eulx faisants á cest occasion reffus de l'accepter, si ladite promesse de garentie, faicte de bouche par les ambassa­ deurs desdits sieurs Roys en presence mesme des deputez desdits sieurs Archiducqz, ne les y eust induict, de l'accomplissement de laquelle promesse lesdits sieurs Roys ayants esté priez, requis, et sommez, et y voullans satisfaire de bonne foy, ce jour d'huy dixseptiesme jour de Juing, mil six cens et neuff, se sont assemblez Messire Pierre Jeannin, chevalier, baron de Chagny et Montjeu, conseiller dudit sieur Roy Treschrestien en son Conseil d'Estat, cet son ambassadeur extraordinaire vers lesdits Sieurs Estatz, et Messire Elye de la Place, chevalier, sieur de Russy, viconte de Machault, aussi con­ seiller audit Conseil d'Estat, gentilhomme ordinaire de la chambre dudit sieur Roy et son ambassadeur ordinaire resident pres lesdits sieurs Estatz, au nom et comme ayants charge de Treshault, Trespuissant, et Tresexcellent prince Henry quatriesme, par la grace de Dieu roy de France et de Navarre, messire Richard Spencer, chevalier, gentilhomme ordinaire de la chambre privée dudit sieur Roy de la Grande Bretaigne et son ambassadeur extra­ ordinaire vers lesdits sieurs Estatz, et messire Rodolphe Winwood, chevalier, ambassadeur ordinaire et conseiller dudit sieur roy au Conseil d'Estat des Provinces-Unies, aussi au nom et comme ayants charge de Treshault, Tres­ puissant, et Tresexcellent prince Jacques, par la grace de Dieu roy de la Grande Bretaigne, etc.; et les sieurs Cornille de Gent, sieur de Loenen et Meynerswyck, viconte et juge de l'Empire et de la ville de Nymmegen, messire Johan d'Oldenbarnevelt, chevalier, sieur de Tempel, Rodenrys, et advocat et garde du grand seel, chartres, et registres de Hollande et Westfrize, messire Jacques de Malderee, chevalier, sieur des Heyes, et premier et representant la noblesse aulx Estatz et Conseil de la conté de Zelande, les sieurs Gerard de Renesse, sieur vander Aa, de Streeffkercken, Nyeuleckerlant, etc., Ernestus d'Aylua de Heerwey et grietman d'Oostdongerdeel, Johan Sloeth, sieur de Sallick, drossard du pays de Vollenhoe et chastellain de la seigneurie de Cunder, et Abel Coenders de Helpen, sieur en Faen et Cantes, au nom des Haults, puissants, et illustres sieurs, les Estatz Generaulx des Pays Bas Uniz, lesquelz, en vertu de leurs pouvoirs, et avec promesse de faire ratifier respectivement le contenu en ces presentes auxdits sieurs roys et Estatz dans deux mois prochains, ont consenty et accordé ce que s'ensuit:

Asscavoir, que les traictéz faictz separement avec lesdits Sieurs Estatz Generaulx par ledit sieur Roy de France, le xxiiie de Janvier seize cens et huict, et par ledit sieur Roy de la Grande Bretaigne le xxvie Juing au mesme an, pour l'observation de la paix, qu'on pretendoit lors faire, ensemble les conventions, promesses, et obligations reciprocques y contenues pour la deffence et conservation mutuelle de leurs royaulmes, pays, terres et seigneuries, seront entretenues et gardees pour le temps que ladite trefve doibt durer, tout ainsi que si elles estoient repetees et inserees de mot á aultre au present traicte.

Et auront lieu lesdites obligations et assistence de secours, non seulement en cas d'infraction de trefve es limites specifiez par le quatriesme article du traicte de celle trefve, mais aussi si lesdits sieurs Estatz ou leurs subjectz sont troublez et empesschez pendant ledit temps au commerce des Indes, de la part desdits sieurs Roy Catholicque ou Archiducqz, leurs officiers et sub­ jectz; et sera aussi entendu ledit trouble et empeschement, tant s'il est faict aulx subjectz desdits sieurs Estatz qu'à ceulx qui ont faict ou feront ledit commerce avec eulx, ou bien si les princes et peuples qui leur auront donne la permission d'exercer ledit trafficq en leur pays estoient a cest occasion molestez, eulx ou leurs subjectz, pourveu toutesfois que, pour obliger lesdits sieurs roys a donner ce secours, le jugement desdits empeschements soit faict par advis commun d'eulx et desdits sieurs Estatz. A quoy ilz promettent apporter la diligence et sincerité requise pour faire reparer le dommage aulx interessez, et repoulser la violence dont on auroit usé contr' eulx. Pourront toutesfois lesdits sieurs Estatz, s'il y a de la longeur en ladite deliberation, pourveoir a la seurete de leurs affaires et subjects, comme ilz trouveront convenir.

En recognoissance de laquelle garentie, et du secours que lesdits Estatz ont desja receu desdits sieurs Roys, ils leur promettent de ne faire aulcun traicte durant icelle trefve avec lesdits sieurs Roy Catholicque ou Archiducqs, sans leur advis et consentement, et pareillement lesdits sieurs Roys de ne faire aulcun traicte avec quelque prince ou potentat que ce soit, au prejudice de celuy-cy et de leur liberte, de la conservation de laquelle et de leurs Estatz ilz auront soing comme de leurs bons amys et alliez. Ainsy faict, accorde, conclu, signé, et cachetté par lesdits sieurs ambassadeurs et deputez. A la Haye, l'an et jour susdits. Et estoit signé, P. Jeannin, Elye de la Place-Russy, Ri. Spencer, Rodolphe Winwood, Cornelis van Gent, Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, J. de Malderee, G. v. Renesse, Ernestus Aylua, Johan Sloeth, Ab. Coenders, et cachette des armes desdits sieurs ambassadeurs et deputez respectivement.

Nous ayants ledit traicte aggreable en tous et chacuns ses poinctz et articles, avons iceulx en general et en particulier acceptez, approuvez, ratiffiez, et confirmez, acceptons, approuvons, ratiffions, et confirmons, et le tout promettons [de garder], entretenir, et observer inviolablemet sans jamais [aller] ou venir au contraire, directement ou indirectement, en quelque sorte et maniere que ce soit, soubz l'obligation et hypotecque de tous les biens et revenuz desdits Provinces Unies en general et en particulier, presens et advenir.

En tesmoing de quoy nous avons faict sceller ces presentes de nostre grand seel, et signer par nostre greffier. A la Haye, ce seizièsme jour de juillet, l'an seize cens et neuff.

Par ordonnance desdits Sieurs Estatz Generaulx.

Treaty of alliance between Denmark and the United Netherlands, concluded at the Hague, May 14, 1621. Ratification by the States General, August 9, 1621. [Ratifications not exchanged.]

Christian IV. of Denmark included among his ambitious aims the develop­ ment of Danish commerce, not only within European waters, but beyond the seas. In 1616 he founded an East India Company after the Dutch pattern,1 and two years later negotiated with the Dutch for privileges in the East India trade. The Dutch commissioners employed in these negotiations deprecated any attempt on the part of the Danes to undermine the Dutch company or to make common cause with Spaniards or Portuguese against them; they refused to infringe the monopoly of Eastern commerce granted by the States General to their own company, or to allow Dutch seamen to serve on foreign ships. On the other hand, they consented to the Danes' undertaking explora­ tions in unoccupied lands in the East and agreed to order the Dutch in those regions to treat them as friends. They attempted to divert the attention of the Danes from the East by referring to the West Indies, and even went so far as to hand them a project for a Danish West India Company.2

A few months later Dr. Jonas Charisius, Danish ambassador at the Hague, was instructed to establish friendship and union between the Danish and Dutch East India companies, and to recruit in the Netherlands ships' officers for the voyages to Guinea, the West Indies, and Terra Australis.3

The need of mutual political support seemed for a time to outweigh com­ mercial rivalry. At the close of 1620, when the twelve years' truce with Spain4 was about to expire and the Catholics were winning victories in the Palatinate and Bohemia, the States General joined the German Protestant Union in urging King Christian, who although a Lutheran had shown a lean­ ing toward Spain, to help the Protestant cause. The king and Rigsraad were compliant. Christian was anxious to separate the Dutch from their allies,

1 Ch. de Lannoy and H. Vander Linden, L'Expansion Coloniale: Néerlande et Dane­ mark ( 1911), pp. 402 ff.
2 Arend et al., Algemeene Geschiedenis, III. ( 3), 31, 35-39, 587.
3 G. W. Kernkamp, Verslag van een Onderzoek in Zweden, Noorwegen, en Dene­ marken naar Archivalia ( 1903), pp. 207-208. In the minds of most men at this time, the term Terra Australis referred, not to Australia but to a southern continent which was supposed to bound the Indian Ocean on the south.
4 Doc. 28.

Sweden and the Hanse towns, and to win their aid in procuring his son's succession to the archbishopric of Bremen.5 In February, 1621, he sent the Danish chancellor, Jacob Ulfeldt, to the Hague to negotiate an alliance.6 This was concluded on May 14, following, but in general and provisional terms that left the most important points undecided. The eighth and final article of the treaty, which stipulated for the further consideration of unde­ termined matters, including the question of navigation and trade in the East and West Indies, is given below. In spite of objections from the ambassa­ dors of some of the Hanse towns, the treaty was ratified by the States General on August 9, 1621. The ratification, given to the Dutch commissioners appointed for the Bremen conference,7 was, however, never exchanged, since the King of Denmark failed to ratify the instrument.8

Text: MS. An original manuscript of the protocol is in the Ryksarchief at the Hague, Secrete Casse, Denemarcken, casse C, loquet O, no. 4.

Text: Printed. The ratification by the States General is printed in L. van Aitzema , Saken van Staet en Oorlogh ( 1669- 1672), I. 41-42; and thence in J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique ( 1726- 1731), tom. V., pt. II., pp. 399- 402. A text of the treaty will doubtless be included in the work now being edited by L. Laursen at the expense of the Carlsbergfond-- Traités du Danemark et de la Norvège: Danmark-Norges Traktater, 1523-1750 ( 1907, etc.).

Translation: A French translation of the Dutch ratification is in Dumont, loc. cit.

References: Contemporary and early writings. Letters from and to Sir Dudley Carleton, Knt., during his Embassy in Holland from January, 1615/6 to December, 1620 ( 2d ed., 1775), pp. 244, 250, 253, 311; Reso­ lutien of the States of Holland for the years 1618, 1621, and 1622, passim; G. W. Kernkamp, Verslag van een Onderzoek in Zweden, Noorwegen, en Denemarken naar Archivalia ( 1903), pp. 207, 208, 240, 241, 276, 324.

References: Later writings. J. P. Arendet al., Algemeene Geschiedenis des Vaderlands ( 1840, etc.), III. ( 3), 31, 35-39, 586-609, 648-658; Niels Slange , Geschichte Christian des Vierten, Königs in Dännemark (ed. J. H. Schlegel, 1757- 1771), III. 87 ff., 92 ff., 124, 165-172; F. C. Dahlmann , cont. by D. Schäfer, Geschichte von Dänemark ( 1840, etc.), V. 392, in Heeren and Ukert, Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten; P. J. Blok , Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche Volk ( 2d ed., 1912, etc.), II. 511, or, German trans., Geschichte der Niederlande ( 1902, etc.), IV. 284, 285, in Heeren and Ukert's above-mentioned series.

5 Arendet al., loc. cit., pp. 589 ff.
6 Ulfeldt's proposals to the States General and the answer of the latter are printed in the Kronijk van het Historisch Genootschap te Utrecht, Jaarg. 22 ( 1866), pp. 481-488, and are summarized in the Resolutien of the States of Holland, Mar. 9-Apr. 8, 1621, pp. 20, 21, 24, 25, and cf. pp. 27, 28.
7 Doc. 31, introduction.
8 Arendet al., loc. cit., p. 657; manuscript instructions for the conference at Bremen. cf. Doc. 31, note 2.

Aldewijle de durchluchtigste ende grottmachtige koning ende heere, heere Christian der Vierte, tott Dennemarcken ende Norwegen, der Wenden ende Gotten koning, hertogh tott Schleswich, Holstein, Stormarn, ende der Ditmarschen, grave tott Oldenburch ende Delmenhorst, etc., ende die Hoge Mogende Heeren Staten General der Vereinigden Nederlanden, van langen tijden herwaertz in goede, uprechte, ende nhabuijrliche frundtschap ende correspondentz geleefft ende gestaen hebben, soe hebben beijder deelen nu een tijtt lang herwaerts (considererende de constitutie ende gelegentheitt van de tegenwoirdige tijden ende saecken van geheele Christenh[eit] ende insonderh[eit] vant interesse, soe de eene ahn des anderen status conserva­ tionem, welstandt, ende prosperiteit is hebbende) noch naerder bij sich bedacht ende overwogen, om hun nauwer tsaemen the doen, ende the ver­ binden, begerende uth rechten zele ende Christlichen vornemen ende ijver, tott hett welvarren vant gantze gemeene evangelische wesen, ende beijder deelen eigene staten, the contracteren ende verdragen, over eene sincere ende mutuele frundtschap, alliance, ende verbondt, tott conservatie ende defensie van heure respective staten ende underdanen, in voegen, datt hochst ende hochg[emel]te deelen, beijder sijdts, unlangs nae rijpe ende ernstige delib­ eratie hebben gegeven last ende commissie, the weeten, hochstg[emel]te sijne Kon [incklijcke] Ma[jestei]t ahn den edlen gestrengen Heere Jacob van Uleveldt zu Urop, derselven rijcks cantzler ende rhatt, oich amptman tott Nijborch, in krafft sijner overgeleverden credentz brieff in dato den xi. Februarij lestleden ther eenre, ende die Hoge Mogende Heeren Staten Generael der Vereinigde Nederlanden, die edle, gestrenge, ernveste, wijse, sehr discrete heeren, Gysbert van Boetzeler, heere then Boetzeler, erffschenck dess furstendombs Cleve, amptman ende dijckgrave tuschen Maes ende Wael, Jacob van Wassenaer ende Duvenvoirde, heere van Updam, Heinsbroeck, Spierdijck, Suijtwijck, lieutenant admirael van Hollandt ende Westfrieslandt, Hugo Muys van Holij, ridder, baillieu ende dijckgrave des Landts van Stryen, Reinier Pauw, oudt burgerm[eeste]r ende raedt der stadt van Amsterdam, Jacob Magnus, ridder, heere van Berg-Ambacht, Melissant, etc., Arent van Zuijlen van Nievelt, heere tott Gerestein ende Teckop, Marck van Licklama tott Nieholtt, grietman over Stellingwerff Oostende, Boldewijn Sloot, rent­ meister generael van domeinen des landes van Vollenhoe ende der heer­ lich[eit] Cuijnder, ende Gosen Schaffer, tott Uthhuijsen ende de Mehden Hoveling, raedt der stadt Groningen, derselven gedeputeerde, ende alle mede gecommitteerden in haere Ho: Mog: vergaederinge, ther andere sijden, then einde deselve solden moegen confereren, communiceren, ende delibereren over die openinge ende middelen, dienende om voort the setten ende int werck the stellen dit heijlsaem goedt werck, ende te brengen tott een goede conclusie, tott weicken eijnde dan die welg[emel]te gesandte ende gedeputeerden ahn wedersijden, om hun in alles getrouwelick the quijten, then lesten over een gekoemen sijnde, geconcludeert ende gearresteert hebben, up hett welbe­ hagen, verbeteringe, modificatie, ende aggreatie van Hochstg[emel]te Sijne Kon[incklijcke] Ma[jestei]tt ende Heeren Staten Generael, dese nhafolg­ ende poincten ende articulen:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9 The text is taken from the original manuscript in the Rijksarchief at the Hague, Secrete Casse, Denemarcken, casse C, loquet O, no. 4.

8.Ende sal dit tractaet ofte verbondt behorlich geconfirmeert ende geaggreert worden deur sijne hochstg [emelt]e Ma[jestei]tt ende de Ho [oge] Mog[enden] Heeren Staten Generael voorn[oemt] in den tijtt van drije maenden, ofte soo veele eer als 't selve sal konnen geschieden. Ende sullen beyde deelen, mitt den eersten, up tijtt ende plaetze soe ende daert sijne hochstg[emelt]e Ma[jestei]tt believen sall, mitt een ander in naerder com­ municatie ende handel treden, umme the weeten mitt watt macht ende middelen de partijen malcanderen sullen moeten assisteren, soo wanneer d'een ofte d'ander mitt openbaren oirloch in sijne rijcken ofte landen angevochten worden; ende up de forma, maniere, ende quantiteit vandien, als mede vanden tijtt up dewelcke deselve beginnen ende aenfangen sall loop the nehmen, gelijck oick vande restitutie vandien, oft deselve behoiren sall the geschieden, ende hoe verre. Ende alsoe inde conferentie vermaen is gedaen van eenige havenen, daer men niet gewoon en solde sijn the handelen, sal in de voorg[ehade] bijeenkompste mede getracteert worden, umme deselve then wedersijden uth the drucken, ende daeraf voirts the moegen verdragen, sulcx als then meesten besten van beijde de partijen bevonden sal worden te behoiren, sullende oick mede in de voorn[oemde] bijeenkompste naerder communicatie ende handel vallen over de navigatien ende trafficquen inde Oost- ende West-Indien, daervan de welg[emel]te heere gesandte10 mede meldinge heftt gedaen. Up welcken allen, getracht sal worden bij beijde deelen behoirlicke satisfactie ende contentenient elckanderen the geven, ist doenlick.

Aldus gedaen, geslooten, geaccordeert, ende bij tins undergeschreven geteijckent in des Gravenhage tip den xiiii Maij in den jaere XVIc een en twintich.


Since the most serene and very powerful king and lord, Lord Christian the Fourth, king of Denmark and Norway, of the Vandals and Goths, duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, and Ditmarsh, count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst, etc., and the High and Mighty lords, the States General of the United Netherlands, have for a long time lived and stood in good, sincere, and neighborly friendship and correspondence; and since both parties, for now a long time (considering the constitution and opportunity of the present times and affairs of all Christendom, and particularly the interest that each state has in the conservation, well being, and prosperity of the other) have taken into closer consideration and have resolved, in order to bring and bind them closer together (desiring it out of righteous zeal and Christian in­ tention and diligence, for the welfare of all the Evangelical Community, and the states of both parties) to contract and agree concerning a sincere and mutual friendship, alliance, and league for the conservation and defense of their respective states and subjects, therefore the aforesaid parties, on both sides, have, lately, after ripe and earnest deliberation, given charge and com­

10 Jacob Ulfeldt.

mission--to wit, his aforesaid royal majesty to the noble and austere lord Jacob van Ulfeldt of Urup, chancellor and councillor of the said kingdom and bailiff of Nyborg, by virtue of his letter of credence, dated February 11 last, on the one part, and their High and Mighty Lords, the States General of the United Netherlands, to the noble, austere, honorable, wise, and discreet lords, Gysbert van Boetzelaer, lord of Boetzelaer, hereditary cupbearer of the principality of Cleves, bailiff and dike-grave between Maas and Waal, Jacob van Wassenaer and Duvenvoorde, lord of Obdam, Heinsbroeck, Spierdijck, and Zuidwijk, lieutenant admiral of Holland and West Friesland, Hugo Muys van Holy, knight, bailiff and dike-grave of the country of Stryen, Reinier Pauw, ex-burgomaster and councillor of the city of Amsterdam, Jacob Magnus, knight, lord of Berg-Ambacht, Melissant, etc., Arent de Zuylen van Nievelt, lord of Gerestein and Teckop, Marcus van Lycklama of Nijeholt, lord of Stellingwerf Oostende, Boldewijn Sloet, receiver general of the domains of the country of Vollenhoven and of the lordship of Cuynder, and Goozen Schaffer, of Uithuizen and Meeden, councillor of the city of Groningen, their deputies and also deputies in the assembly of their High Mightinesses, on the other part--in order that they might confer, communi­ cate, and deliberate, respecting the overtures and means serving to advance and execute so salutary a work, and bring it to a good conclusion. For which purpose, the said ambassador and deputies on both sides, in order to acquit themselves faithfully in all things, having finally reached an agreement, have concluded and agreed, subject to the pleasure, correction, modification, and approval of his aforesaid royal majesty and the lords States General, on the following points and articles:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8. This treaty or alliance shall be duly confirmed and ratified by his Majesty, aforesaid, and by their High Mightinesses, the lords States General, aforesaid, in three months, or as much sooner as is possible. Both parties shall enter into further conversation and conference, at the first opportunity, at a time and place pleasing to his said Majesty, in order to determine with what forces and means they shall be obliged to help each other, whenever either is attacked with open war in his realms or lands; and to determine the form, manner, and quantity of the forces, and when they shall begin to be sent; and also in respect to their restitution, whether it should be made, and to what extent. And since reference has been made in the conference to some harbors where it has not been customary to trade, this matter shall also be treated of in the intended conference, in order that both sides may express their opinions about it, and come to such agreement as shall be found most acceptable to both parties. Another subject of discussion in the afore­ said conference shall be navigation and trade in the East and West Indies, which the said ambassador has also mentioned. In respect to all the above, both parties shall endeavor to give one another due satisfaction and contentment, if possible.

Thus done, concluded, agreed, and signed by us the underwritten at the Hague, on May 14, 1621.



Recess signed by the Commissioners of Denmark and the United Netherlands at Bremen, September 30/October 10, 1621.

The conference stipulated by the eighth article of the treaty of the Hague1 was held at Bremen in August and September, 1621, between the Danish commissioners, Jacob Ulfeldt and Holger Rosenkrantz, and the Dutch com­ missioners, led by Reinier Pauw of Holland. The principal subjects of discussion were (1) reciprocal financial aid, and (2) trade relations in Europe and in both Indies.

The instructions 2 to be followed by the Dutch commissioners, in case the Danes introduced the question of the Indian trade, distinguished between the East and West Indies. With reference to the East Indies, the commis­ sioners were to declare that neutral lands were open to Danish traders, but that places fortified by the Dutch East India Company, or districts in which the company had treaty rights, were closed to the Danes, as to all others. With reference to the West Indies, the commissioners were to urge that the King of Denmark and his subjects might, like anyone else, take shares in the recently formed Dutch West India Company, and thus participate in directing its policy. The article finally agreed to--which differed somewhat from the

1 Doc. 30.
2 The instructions are preserved in the Ryksarchief at the Hague and have the same pressmark as the text. The paragraph concerning the West Indies is as follows: "Ende wat aengaet de handelinge oft traficque op West-Indien, alsoo Hare Ho: Mo: goetgevonden hebben deselve te begrijpen in eene generale compaignie, die volgende het octroy daertoe verleent, hier te lande werdt opgerecht, in welcke generale compaignie een yeder vrijstaet soodanige capitalen ende sommen van penningen te participeren als hem goetduncken sal, soo ist hoochstgedachte Sijne Ma[jestei]t ende desselffs onder­ saten oock vrij ende open daerinne soo veel te herederen, als deselve geraden sullen mogen vinden. Sullende Sijne Ma[jesteit] ende desselffs ondersaten oock behoorlijck erkent ende geaccommodeert werden inde kennisse, directie, ende 't beleyt der saecken, sulcx ende in conformité als 't voorsz. octroy daarvan is medebrengende oft anders­ sints soo men in tijden ende wijlen opt selve stuck metten anderen naerder sal connen overeencomen ende verdragen."

Translation: "And as to that which concerns commerce or trade to the West Indies since their High Mightinesses have consented to comprehend the same in a general company, which, in accordance with the charter granted thereto, has been erected in this country, in which general Company each free state shall hold as much capital and money as it shall think good--so his abovementioned Majesty and his subjects are also free to invest as much therein as they shall find convenient. His Majesty and subjects would also be suitably recognized and received into the knowledge, direction, and man­ agement of affairs, like and according as the aforesaid charter requires, or otherwise as at the time it shall be possible mutually to agree and contract."

Dutch instructions--implied the right of the Danes to acquire possessions in the neutral land of both the Indies, and prohibited subjects of one power from trading in the Indian possessions of the other, and from aiding the enemies of the other in those regions. In regard to the West Indies the Danes were inclined to question the good faith of the Dutch, probably because the States General had promised in the forty-fifth article of the Dutch West India Company's charter that they would in no way diminish the privileges of the company by any treaty with any neighboring power.3

Although the articles on financial help and European trade presented great difficulties, all the commissioners signed three articles, on September 30/ October 10, and referred them to their principals for ratification. Prince Maurice advocated their acceptance, but Amsterdam and Hoorn refused to confirm them; nor were they ratified by Denmark.4

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Text: MS. An original manuscript is in the Ryksarchief at the Hague, Secrete Casse, Denemarcken, casse C, loquet O, no. 4, and another manu­ script, in the Rigsarkiv at Copenhagen, is mentioned in G. W. Kernkamp, Verslag van een Onderzoek in Zweden, Noorwegen, en Denemarken naar Archivalia ( 1903), p. 324.

Text: Printed. L. van Aitzema, Saken van Staet en Oorlogh ( 1669- 1672), I. 42-44. The text will doubtless be included in L. Laursen, Traités du Danemark et de la Norvège: Denmark-Norges Traktater, 1523-1750 ( 1907, etc.).

References : See Doc. 30, references.

Nademael, van wegen den durchluchtichsten ende grootmachtichsten coninck ende heere, heere Christian den Vierden, zu Danemarcken, Nor­ wegen, der Wenden, unnd Gotten coninck, hertogen zu Schlieswich, Holsten, Stormarn, unnd Diettmarschen, grave zu Oldenburch unnd Delmenhorst, etc., als oock van wegen de Hooge ende Mogende Heeren Staten-Generael der Vereenichde Nederlanden, wij, Jacob van Ulfelt zu Urup ende Holger Rosencrants zu Rosenholm, ende wij, Reynier Pauw, Marck van Lijclama zu Nieholt, Sweer van Haersolte zu Harst, unnd Goosen Schaffer zu Wutthusen, unnd mede respective gecommitteerde unnd gesanten, om het tractaet van vrintschap ende alliantie van den 14en May lestleden, tusschen Hoochgemelte Hare Co[nincklycke] Ma[jesteit] ende Hare Ho[oge] Mo[gentheden], op

3 Arendet al., Algemeene Geschiedenis, III. (3), 656. The text of the charter is printed in the Groot Placaet-Boeck, vol. I., cols. 565-578, and thence, with an English translation, in A. J. F. van Laer, Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, pp. 86-115.
4 Arendet al., op. cit., pp. 657, 658; Resolutien of the States of Holland for 1622, pp. 24, 90, 185, etc.
5 The text is from the original manuscript in the Ryksarchief at the Hague, Secrete Casse, Denemarcken, casse C, loquet O, no. 4.

aggreatie, modificatie, ende verbeteringe beyder deelen in den Hage doenmael gesloten, wijder in etlijcke doenmaels noch niet affgehandelde poincten ende artickelen te readsumieren ende voltrecken, nu hier tot Bremen versamelt geweest sijn; daerbenevens over d'selve artickelen nyet alleen een geruyme tijt conferentie geholden hebben, dan ooch aen onsen aldergenedichsten coninck ende Hare Hooch Mogentheden onse besoigneerde gelangen laten, ende haere voor ditmael eyntelicke resolutie daerop ontfangen ende ingeno­ men, is evenwel over die beyde artickelen van handel ende wandel ende van de mutuele gelthutpe eenige differentie verbleven, van wegen Haare Ma [jesteit], wij, gesanten ende gecommitteerde, persisterende bij d'artickelen soo d'selve hiernae ingestelt zijn, tot aenneminge van de welcke wij, gesanten van Hare Ho[oge] Mo[gendheden], ons niet wijder hebben vermocht in te laten als ons gerescribeert was daerbij dan wij oock persisterende veroor­ saeckt zijn desen te laten berusten tot naerder erweginge van onse Heeren principalen. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hebben derhalven Hare Co[nincklycken] Ma[jestei]ts wij, gecommitteer­ den ende gesanten, die articulen soo alhier gereassumeert unnde tractiert,-- soo wel die beyde van handel ende wandell daer 't poinct van verbodene havenen niet inbegrepen, ende van die mutuele gelthulpe, de welcke noch eeniger maten different verbleven, alsoock die artickel van vertrouwlijcke vruntschap, bij de navigatien unnd negotiatien op beyde Indiën, etc., over de weicke geen verschil en valt--soo ende dergestalt schriftelijck vervatet ende Hare Ho[gen] Mo[gendheden] gesanten overgegeven, als Hare Co[ninck­ lycke] Ma[jesteit] de selvige, neffens alle andere in voriger unnd jegen­ woordiger tractation accordeerden artickelen, eyntelijck te aggrieren, genadichst gesinnet; jedoch dat de artickel van gelthulpe als die maer temporeel ende te veranderen, in een besonder instrument gestelt ende geaggrieert werden.

Ende luydeii die artickelen van woorde te woorde alsoo:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2. Sall oock goede vertrouwliche vruntschap unnd correspondentz seyn unnd blijven tusschen beyder deelen, landen, unnd ondersaten, bij alle navi­ gatien, negotiatien, ende traffijcken, te lande ende te water, met schepen ende goederen, op alle rijcken, landen, eylanden, unnd plaetsen in Oost- unnd West- Indien, Africa, Guinea, Terra Australis,6 unnd alle solche uuytlandische faerten; yedoch dat eenes yederen gerechticheyt aen die landen, eylanden, unnd plaetsen, die hij, off durch forten tot sijne defentie, in heeft unnd holdet, off deur eenige derzelver landen, koningen, princen, ofte oversten, speciale contracten unnd verbundteniszen, die commerszien, defentien, unnd derge­ lijcken aengaende, erlanget, unnd possideert hier mitt, in allen gants niet benomen unnd praejudicieert werde; anders sall alle wege dat eenedeel dem anderen allen vrundtschap unnd beforderunge bij alle occasien die sich op solche navigatieti unnd trafijcken voorvallen mochte erzeygen unnd beweysen; ende jo geene dem anderen in eenige wegen als sie in hen off zu rugge reysen, off oock in de selve landen, daer zij ein ander antreffen muegen, geene wederwillen, ongelegentheyt off verhinderingen toe, voegen; doch dat oock geen deel des anderen, opentlijcke aen de selve oorden, vijanden, eenige behulffp off thoevoer, heimlijck off opentlijck, sick te doen onderstahn,

6 See Doc. 30, note 3.

die desen opgerechten verbont tegen sijn mochte; unnd als het sick thoe droege dat eynes ofte andere deels, schepen unnd luyden, durch sturm, onweder, ofte andere noot, in eenige der selven van den anderen deel bereyts occupieerden unnd possideerden landen, havenen, unnd revieren, ingedrungen werden mochten, alsdan sullen sie eynander alle goede freuntschap unnd bevorderingh erzeygen unnd beweysen, unndt haer nootdruftich refraichisse­ ment te erlangen, unnd wat van nooten sein werd te repareren, vergunnen. Doch dat hier onder niet gemenet wert dat aen sulcke oorden eenige ladinge, handelinge, unnd traffijcken toegelaten sijn sullen.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Van deseii recessen sijn twee exemplaren, d'een in de Duytsche ende d'ander in de Nederlantsche spraecke, gemaeckt ende geschreven, de welcke in de woorden wel verschillen, maer voor soo veel in den sin, substantie, en meninge over een comen, soo nae men sulcx heeft connen doen, hier naer respective onderteeckent zijn in Bremen, den 30en September, stylo vetery, ende den 10en October, stylo novo, XVIC, een ende twintich.


Whereas, in the name of the most serene and very powerful king and lord, Lord Christian the Fourth, king of Denmark, Norway, the Vandals and Goths, duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, and Ditmarsh, count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst, etc., and likewise in the name of the High and Mighty lords, the States General of the United Netherlands, we, Jacob van Ulfeldt of Urup and Holger Rosenkrantz of Rosenholm, and we, Reinier Pauw, Markus van Lyclama of Nyeholt, Zweder van Haersolte of Haerst, and Goozen Schaffer of Uithuizen, their respective deputies and envoys, have now assembled here in Bremen to consider the treaty of friendship and alliance of May 14 last, concluded at the Hague between His Royal Majesty and Their High Mightinesses, aforesaid, upon the agreement and with the modifications and amendment of both parties; and further to frame and com­ plete some points and articles which were left unsettled; and [whereas we] have not only conferred for a long while about these articles, but have sent our results to our most gracious king, and to Their High Mightinesses, and have received their resolution thereupon, nevertheless some differences remained in respect to the articles about trade and about mutual financial help; for we, ambassadors and deputies of His Majesty, insisted on the articles as they are given below, and we, ambassadors of Their High Mighti­ nesses, unable to go beyond our instructions in accepting these, insisted that they be left for the further consideration of our principals. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

We, therefore, commissioners and envoys of His Royal Majesty, have drawn up and negotiated these articles--both of trade, omitting the matter of prohibited harbors, and of mutual financial help, in regard to which some differences persisted, and likewise the article of confidential friendship, respecting navigation and trade to both the Indies, about which there is no disagreement--and we have delivered them in writing, together with all the other articles agreed to in the earlier and present negotiations, to the ambassadors of Their High Mightinesses, in the form that His Majesty was finally graciously disposed to agree to, except that the article about financial help, as more temporary and subject to alteration, is given and agreed to in a separate instrument.

The articles, word for word, are as follows:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2. A good and trustworthy friendship and correspondence shall also be and remain between the countries and subjects of both parties in all navigation, trade, and traffic, by land and water, with ships and goods, to all realms, lands, islands, and places in the East and West Indies, Africa, Guinea, Terra Aus­ tralis, and all such foreign voyages. But the right of each power in the lands, islands, and places that it either possesses and holds by forts for its defense, or else obtains and possesses through any kings, princes, or rulers of those lands, by special agreements and treaties concerning commerce, defense, and the like, is hereby in nowise detracted from or prejudiced. But each party shall in every way show and testify to the other all friendship and assistance on all occasions that may arise in such navigation and trade, and neither shall inflict upon the other any injury, vexation, or hindrance, in any way, be it in journeying to or fro or in the said lands where they may encoun­ ter one another. And neither party shall venture, secretly or openly, to render to the public enemies of the other in those regions any aid or supplies that might be contrary to this established alliance. And if it should happen that ships and men of one or the other party be forced by storm, tempest, or other necessity into lands, havens, and districts already occupied and pos­ sessed by the other party, then they shall show and testify all good friendship and assistance to one another and allow them [aliens] to obtain needed refreshment and whatever is necessary for repairs. But it is not meant by this that any lading, trade, or traffic shall be permitted in those regions.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Two copies of these recesses, made and written, one in the German language, the other in the Dutch, which differ in wording but are as nearly as possible alike in substance and meaning, are both signed at Bremen on September 30, o. s., October 10, n. s., 1621.


Treaty between the United Netherlands and France, concluded at Compiègne,
June 10, 1624.
Ratification by the King of France, September 4, 1624.
[Ratification by the States Gen­ eral, July, 12, 1624.]

At the beginning of the year 1621, when the twelve years' truce between the United Provinces and Spain1 was drawing to a close, the States General attempted to renew their alliances with France and England that terminated with the truce.2 The French court, however, deeply offended by the treat­ ment accorded to Oldenbarnevelt, remained unfriendly, until, early in 1624, a change of ministers in France brought in a new foreign policy, expressive of Richelieu's aims.3 Profiting by this turn of affairs, the States General sent an embassy to negotiate a league. The ambassadors were instructed to ask for aid, preferably financial, for the war against Spain, and to propose the formation of a French West India Company, which should co-operate with the Dutch West India Company in winning booty and conquests from Spain in the seas west of the Cape of Good Hope and on the American coasts.4 The Dutch desired this co-operation as a protection against the "powerful force . . . put to sea . . . by Spain . . . for the purpose of crushing [their] company in its infancy ", and also as a means of forestalling the international difficulties likely to follow from the erection of rival West India companies in France and England.5 Conferences began at Compiègne on April 22.6 The French commissioners wished to reduce the articles to writing quickly; the Dutch desired further instructions from the Hague. At the fourth meeting, the French produced written articles stipulating, among other things, that the Dutch should join the French in voyages to the East as well as to the West Indies. This proposal was unacceptable to the States General, the more so, as the alliance of the Dutch and English East India companies7 had led to continual dissensions, culminating in the "massacre" of Amboyna in February, 1623. Since no definitive agreement respecting the East and West India commerce could be reached, the treaty merely stipulated that these

1 Doc. 28.
2 Cf. Doc. 29, introduction.
3 Cal. St. Pap., Venice, 1623- 1625, XVIII., pp. 139 (no. 179), 248 (no. 307).
4 Arendet al., op. cit., III. ( 4), 25.
5 Brodhead, Documents, I. 29.
6 Arendet al., loc. cit., p. 26.
7 The text of this treaty is given in English in A General Collection of Treatys ( 1732), II. 188-196.

navigations should form the subject of later negotiations by the French ambassador at the Hague. The treaty further provided that a loan should be made by the king to the States General, to be repaid after the conclusion of a Dutch-Spanish peace or truce, which should be made only with the advice of the king; that if the king should need money or go to war, the States should aid him with half the amount of his loan to them, or with men and ships; that within six months the States should guarantee the western part of the Mediterranean8 against the depredations of the corsairs of Algiers and Tunis, and restore French ships and goods taken by the pirates in those waters and found in Dutch ports; and that commissioners of the Admiralty, who should have no interest in the war-ships or prizes they adjudged, should decide French claims within three months. A special article permitted the exercise of the Catholic religion to Frenchmen in the house of the French ambassador in the Netherlands.

The treaty was concluded on June 10. It is curious that Richelieu says in his Mémoires that it was concluded on July 20, and that the Dutch agreed thereby "que non-seulement ils ne donneront point d'empêchement, mais toute assistance, à nos marchands trafiquans aux Indes orientales et occi­ dentales; leur laisseront le choix des côtes pour y trafiquer en toute sûreté et liberté, et les associeront avec eux en leurs navigations èsdits pays".9 Doubtless Richelieu is also responsible for the same false account of the treaty given in the Mercure François.10

On December 9, when the French ambassador, d'Espesses, presented his letters of credence at the Hague, he recommended the pretensions of the East India Company of Dieppe;11 but neither the desire of the French to share Dutch trade in the East, nor the desire of the Dutch to organize with the French against Spain on the western seas, was carried into effect.

Text: MS. The original manuscript of the protocol and the ratification by the King of France are in the Ryksarchief at the Hague, Secrete Casse, casse A, loquet S, nos. 36 and 37. No original manuscript of the treaty was found by the editor in the Paris archives, but several copies are in the archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Paris, Correspondance Politique, Hollande, vol. IX., ff. 270-352. ____________________
10 Tom. X. ( 1625), pp. 492-495. I. Disraeli, Life and Reign of Charles I. ( 1851), I.
viii, says that Richelieu supplied accounts of state documents, including treaties, to the Mercure François.
11 Aitzema, op. cit., I. 357. An account of the French East India companies is given in P. Bonnassieux, Les Grandes Compagnies de Commerce ( 1892), pp. 254 ff.
8 Aitzema (op. cit., I. 288) interprets " la met du ponent " thus.
9 Michaud and Poujoulat, Nouvelle Collection, 2e sér., tom. VII., p. 297.

and in J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique ( 1726- 1731), tom. V., pt. II., pp. 461-463. The protocol is in F. Leonard, Recueil des Traitez de Paix ( 1693), V. 25-28. The text in Aitzema and in A. van Wicquefort, L'Histoire des Provinces Unies ( 1719), II. 624-627, omits the words et occidentales from the fifth article.

Translation: Dutch . Aitzenia, op. cit., I. 287-290.

References: Contemporary and early writings . Aitzema, op. cit., I. 284, 351-355; J. R. Brodhead, Documents relative to the Colonial History of New York ( 1853- 1883), I. 29-33; Calendar of State Papers, Venice, 1623- 1625, pp. 139 (no. 179), 219 (no. 274), 248 (no. 307), 299 (no. 375), 314 (no. 394) ; Resolitien of the States of Holland for the year 1624, pp. 9, 10, 16, 20, 62, 65, 73, 74, 78, 79; Cardinal de Richelieu, Mémoires, liv. XV. ( 1624) in Michaud and Poujoulat, Nouvelle Collec­ tion des Mémoires ( 1836- 1839), 2e sér., tom. VII., pp. 295-297.

References: Later writings. J. P. Arendet al., Algemeene Geschiedenis des Vaderlands ( 1840, etc.), III. ( 4), 23-31, 63; P. J. Blok, History of the People of the Netherlands ( 1898- 1912), IV. 11-13; Calendar of State Papers, Venice, 1623- 1625, preface, pp. xlvi, xlvii; G. W. Vreede, Inleiding tot eene Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Diplomatie ( 1856, etc.), II. ( 2), 50 ff.

Louis, par la grace de Dieu roy de France et de Navarre, a tous ceulx qui ces presentes lettres verront, salut. Les commissaires par nous depputez et ceulx de noz tres chers et grandz amis, les Sieurs les Estatz Generaulx des Provinces Unyes des Pays-Bas, ayans, en vertu des pouvoirs a eulx respec­ tivement donnez, resolu et arresté en nostre nom et des dictz Sieurs les Estatz Generaulx, a Compiegne, le dixiesme jour de juin aussy dernier, le traicté et articles d'alliance et confederation qui ensuivent:

Comme ainsy soit que tres hault, tres puissant, et tres excellent Prince Louis XIIIe, par la grace de Dieu roy treschrestien de France et de Navarre, ayant cy devant esté prié et requis par ses tres chers et bons amys, allies, et confederez, Messieurs les Estatz Generaulx des Provinces Unyes du Pays- Bas, de les vouloir assister sur ce qu'ilz auroient faict representer a Sa Majesté par leurs ambassadeurs l'estat de leurs affaires avec les consequences tres dangereuses qui en peuvent arriver au prejudice du general de la Chres­ tienté et de ceulx mesmes qui penseroient en profiter, Sa dite Majesté desirant tesmoigner aus dictz Sieurs les Estatz, ses tres chers et bons amys, la souvenance qu'elle veult avoir de la bonne volonté que le feu Roy Henry le grand, son tres honnoré seigneur et (que Dieu absolve), leur a souvent faict paroistre pour leur bien, repos, et advantaige, et continuer la sienne a son imitation, attendant que Sa dite Majesté puisse par effect asseurer la tran­ quilité publicque et particulierement celle des Pays-Bas, tres importante a la manutention de la paix universelle de la Chrestienté, tousjours desirée et affec­ tionn par Sa dite Majesté comme doibt faire ung roy tres-chrestien, tel que Dieu la constitué, Sa dite Majesté a nommé, choisy, et depputd Monsieur le duc de Lesdiguieres, pair et connestable de France, et les Sieurs Marquis

12 The text is from the original manuscript of the French ratification in the Ryksar­ chief at the Hague.

de la Vieuville, chevalier des ordres de Sa Majesté, conseiller en son conseil d'estat, mareschal de ses campes et armées, l'un de ses lieutenans-generaulx au gouvernement de Champaigne, et surintendant de ses finances, et de Bullion, conseiller en ses dictz conseils d'estat et finances, pour avec les Sieurs Henry d'Essen, conseiller de Gueldres et Zutphen, etc., Nicolas de Bouchorst, sieur de Noortwijck, etc., Adrian Pauw, chevalier, sieur de Heemstede, etc., et Gedeon de Boetzeler et d'Asperen, seigneur et baron de Languerack et du Saint Empire, au nom et en qualité d'ambassadeurs extra­ ordinaires de Messieurs les Estatz Generaulx des Provinces Unyes du Pays- Bas, adviser et traicter des moiens plus convenables a cest effect, lesquelz reciproquement, en vertu des pouvoirs a eulx donnez, dont coppie sera inserée en fin des presentes, ont, apres plusieurs conferances, convenu et arresté les articles qui ensuivent:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5. Quant au trafficq des Indes Orientales et Occidentales, en sera traicté sur les lieux par l'ambassadeur de Sa Majesté selon et suivant les memoires et instructions qui luy seront baillez a cest effect.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Lesquelz articles et traictez pour les susdictes trois annees, sy tant la guerre dure, seront ratiffiez bien et deuement par lesdictz sieurs les Estatz Generaulx dans deux mois du jour et datte des presentes, et iceulx avec la ratiffication presentez a Sa Majesté par leur ambassadeur ordinaire resident prez icelle, pour estre pareillement lesdictz articles et traictez ratiffiez par Sadite Majesté quinze jours aprés, et delivrez ausdictz sieurs les Estatz.

[Here follow the full powers granted by the King of France to his com­ missioners on April 18, 1624; and those issued by the States General of the United Provinces to their commissioners on March 18, 1624.]

En foy de quoy nous, susdits commissaires et ambassadeurs soubz signez, avons esdits noms signé ces presentes de nos seing ordinaire et a icelles faict apposer le cachet de noz armes. A Compiegne ce jourdhuy dixiesme juing, mil six cent vingtquatre. Escrit signé Lesdiguieres, La Vieuville, Bullion, H. van Essen, Nicolaes de Bouchorst, Adrian Pauw, et G. de Boetzeler et d'Asperen.

[Here follows the separate article concerning religion referred to above, p. 286.]

Lequel susdit traicté et articles ayans esté approuvez, confirmez, et ratiffiez par les dictz Sieurs les Estatz a La Haye, le xiie juillet en suivant, Nous, apres avoir faict veoir le tout en nostre conseil pour satisfaire a ce qui est requis de nostre part sur ce subject, avons iceluy agreable en tous et chacuns les poinctz et articles qui y sont contenuz et declarez, et iceulx en general et en particulier, tant pour nous que pour noz heritiers, successeurs, royaumes, pays, terres, seigneuries, et subjectz, acceptez, approuvez, ratiffiez, et confirmez, acceptons, approuvons, ratiffions, et confirmons, et le tous pro­ mettons en foy et parolle de roy et soubz l'obligation et hipotecque de tous et chacuns noz biens presens et a venir, garder observer, et entretenir inviol­ ablement sans aller n'y venir jamais au contraire directement ou indirectement, en quelque sorte ou maniere que ce soit. Car tel est nostre plaisir. En tesmoing dequoy nous avons signé ces presentes de nostre propre main et a icelles faict mettre et apposer nostre seel. Donné a St. Germain en Laye le iiiie jour de Septembre, l'an de grace mil six cens vingt quatre et de nostre reigne le quinziesme.


Par le Roy.


33. Treaty of offensive and defensive alliance between the United Netherlands and Great Britain concluded at Southampton, September 7/17, 1625. Ratification by the States General, December 14, 1625. [Ratification by the King of Great Britain, December 20/30, 1625.]


On account of James I.'s bias toward Spain and his eagerness to marry his son to the Spanish infanta, the Dutch, after the expiration of the truce of Antwerp,1 were unable to form an alliance with England until 1624, when all hopes of the Spanish match had vanished. Even then, although the Dutch ambassadors offered James the opportunity of joining in an enterprise of the Dutch West India Company, and promised him all the fortresses or places that the united fleets might conquer,2 James was unwilling to pledge himself to declare war on Spain. The Anglo-Dutch alliance, concluded on June 5/15, 1624, was defensive merely.3

After the death of James, March 27/April 6, 1625, the chief object of Charles's foreign policy was to restore to his brother-in-law, Frederick, elector palatine and king of Bohemia, the electorship, and both the Palatinates, which had been occupied by the forces of Spain and of the German Catholic League. Hence Charles aimed at alliances and war on the Continent. The House of Commons, however, preferred a naval war against Spain.4 In the opinion of Buckingham and Charles, the naval operations should be conducted in accordance with the old Elizabethan methods, but more openly.

As in 1596, the English government sought aid from the States.5 In a convention signed at the Hague on August 2, 1625, the Dutch agreed to add twenty ships to the English fleet of eighty-two vessels.6 Not till October did the united force sail, and it failed ingloriously to accomplish its purpose of taking Cadiz and intercepting the plate fleet.7 Meanwhile (July-September),

1 Doc. 28.
2 Arendet al., Algemeene Geschiedenis III. ( 3), 749 ff. Cf. also the States' proposal to France in 1624, Doc. 32, introduction.
3 The text is in Dumont, Corps Diplomatique, tom. V., pt. II., pp. 458-461.
4 Debates in the House of Commons in 1625 (ed. S. R. Gardiner for the Camden Soc., new ser., vol. VI., 1873), p. iii.
5 Cf. Doc. 23.
6 The treaty is in Dumont, op. cit., p. 478.
7 See The Voyage to Cadiz in 1625, a journal by John Glanville, ed. Rev. A. B. Grosart for the Camden Soc., new ser., vol. XXXII. ( 1883).

a Dutch embassy led by the celebrated Francis van Aerssen, lord of Sommels­ dijk, was negotiating with Buckingham and other English commissioners an alliance that should be closer and more comprehensive than that of 1624. The States' representatives displayed great skill. Desiring a league with England they wished to avoid offending France,8 with whom the States had lately signed a treaty.9 By carefully adjusting their relations to each of these powers, they hoped to guard their own independence. They even went so far as to suggest to the French ambassador that a large French fleet should capture the treasure-ships, so that England might not obtain the exclusive advantage of the existing equipment.10

Since both powers desired an alliance they came to terms with comparative ease. The treaty, concluded at Southampton on September 7/17, provided for an offensive and defensive league "for the purpose of attacking the King of Spain in open war in all his realms . . . in all places, on this side and beyond the line, by land and sea ". The league was to continue so long as the King of Spain should make war upon the United Provinces or so long as he and his allies should occupy the electoral dignity or estates of the Palatinate, or for at least fifteen years. During this period the confederates were not to treat separately for peace. Interested powers should be received into the alliance. The confederates should equip one or more fleets to invade the enemy's ports and destroy his commerce in Europe and the two Indies. Other articles dealt with the operations, composition, command, and mutual relations of the fleets; the division of prizes; rights of ships of either power in the ports of the other; contraband, here first defined by treaty, and trade with Spain and its dominions. Letters of marque and reprisal against the subjects of either confederate were annulled. Articles 27-33 and 35-38 related to land forces and operations; article 34 permitted the King of England to buy ships, arms, etc., in the United Provinces. The treaty was ratified by the States General on December 14, 1625, and by Charles I. on December 20/30.11

The treaty entirely failed to adjust satisfactorily the maritime relations of the signatory powers. The Dutch complained bitterly that it debarred them from a lucrative trade with Spain and that their ships and goods continued to be arrested and seized by the English.12

Among the interests endangered by England's interference with Dutch shipping was the American trade of the Dutch West India Company, includ­

10 Arendet al., op. cit., III. ( 4), 102.
11 Aitzema, Saken van Staet, I. 473.
12 P. R. O., Treaty Papers, Holland ( 1625-1627), no. 43: "Summary of what the ambassadors of the States General proposed to the Privy Council ", Dec. 9/19, 1625, and "Remonstrance to the Privy Council by Ambassadors of the States General", July 21/31, 1626. Cf. also the "Remonstrance" of the Dutch ambassador, Jan. 20/30, 1626, printed in Documents illustrating the Impeachment of the Duke of Buckingham in 1626, ed. S. R. Gardiner for the Camden Soc., new ser., vol. XLV. ( 1889), pp. 47-53.
8 Cal. St. Pap., Venice, 1625- 1626, vol. XIX., p. 161.
9 Doc. 32.

ing that with New Netherland. This plantation was regarded by the English as an intrusion into their domain. In 1622, the English government, acting through its representative at the Hague, required of the States that the colony should not be advanced further and that certain ships destined thereto should be stayed.13 In 1624 it ordered the detention of a Dutch ship, then riding in Plymouth harbor and bound to New Netherland.14 To prevent such interfer­ ence the Dutch West India Company "made humble suite unto his Majestie, that their shipps employed thether [i. e., to the west coast of Africa and the coasts of America], either in trade of marchandize, or on warrfare for the weakening of the common ennemy, might quietly pass on their intended voyages, both outward, and homeward bound, without anie molestation, stay, or hinderance, by his Majesties owne shipps, or those of his subjects, employed with letters of marque, to the southward or elsewhere". Where­ upon, on September 5, 1627, Charles I. ordered that "the said West India Companie, their captaines, masters, marriners, shipps, and prizes by them taken, or to be taken hereafter, upon the said enemy; and all their goods and other things, whatsoever to them belonging; shall have free ingrees, egress, and regresse into and out of all his Majesties ports, havens, roads, and creekes, as by the articles of the treaty, made at Southampton, the 7th of Sep­ tember, 1625, more at large appeareth". Articles 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 23, and 24 follow, together with all injunction to all his Majesty's officers and subjects to observe them.15

In contravention of this order, as the Dutch Company alleged, one of their ships from New Netherland was detained in all English harbor in 1632, upon the ground that its rich cargo of beaver skills was bought within British territory.15a The struggle between English and Dutch for control of the region north of Virginia grew more and more serious. For a time however the relations of their respective colonies planted on those shores were rendered more friendly by the conclusion of this treaty of Southampton. It was among the causes that led the governor and council at Manhattan, in March, 1627, to write a friendly letter to the authorities at Plymouth, suggesting the establishment of mutual trade, and it was one of the reasons that induced Bradford to accept that proposal,16 although a monopoly of the trade from 40° to 48° had been granted to the Council of New England.

By signing the treaty of Madrid,17 Charles flagrantly violated the treaty of Southampton.

13 J. R. Brodhead, Documents relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York ( 1853- 1883), III. 6-8.
14 Acts of the Privy Council of England, Colonial, I. 82; Brodhead, op. cit., III. 12.
15 Acts of the Privy Council, Colonial, I. 119; Brodhead, op. cit., III. 12, 13.
15a Brodhead, op. cit., I. 45 ff.; G. L. Beer, Origins of the British Colonial System, 1578-1660 ( 1908), p. 178.
16 Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation (ed. W. T. Davis, 1908). pp. 223-227, in J. F. Jameson, Original Narratives of Early American History.
17 Doc. 35.

Text: MS. Original manuscripts of the protocol and ratification are in the London Public Record Office, State Papers Foreign, Treaties, no. 296.

Text: Printed L. van Aitzema, Saken van Staet en Oorlogh ( 1669- 1672), I. 469-473; J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique ( 1726- 1731), tom. V., pt. II., pp. 478-481; State Papers collected by Edward, Earl of Clarendon ( 1767- 1786), I. 27-33.

Translations: English. A General Collection of Treatys ( 1732), II. 248- 258. Dutch. Aitzema, op. cit., I. 473-476.

References: Contemporary and early writings. Verbaal van de Ambassade van Aerssen, Joachimi, en Burmania naar England, 1625, in Werken uitgegeven door het Historisch Genootschap te Utrecht, nieuwe reeks, no. 10 ( 1867); L. van Aitzema, op. cit., I. 468 ff.; Resolutien of the States of Holland for the year 1625, pp. 50, 52, 56, 61, 63, 64, 140, 143, 158-159, et passim; Calendar of State Papers, Venice, 1625- 1626, vol. XIX., pp. 68 (no. 93), 161 (no. 235), 165 (no. 244), 175 (no. 260), 194 (no. 282), 203 (no. 296), 225 (no. 333).

References: Later writings. J. P. Arendet al., Algemeene Geschiedenis des Vaderlands ( 1840, etc.), III. ( 4), 90-108; G. Edmundson, Anglo- Dutch Rivalry during the First Half of the Seventeenth Century ( 1911), ch. 4; S. R. Gardiner, History of England, 1603-1642 ( 1894- 1896), VI. 6; P. J. Blok, History of the People of the Netherlands ( 1898- 1912), IV. 22-24; G. W. Vreede, Inleiding tot eene Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Diplomatie ( 1856- 1865), II. ( 2), 77 ff.

Les Estats Generaulx des Provinces Unies du Pais Bas, a tous ceux qui ces presentes verront, salut. Comme ainsy soit que le septiesme jour de Septembre, l'an present XVIc vingt cinq, un traité d'alliance de ligue offensive et defensive ayt este faict et accorde a South Hampton entre les seigneurs commissaires du Serenissime Roy de la Grande Bretaigne au nom dudit roy et ses royaumes et les ambassadeurs par nous envoyez a sadite Majeste en nostre nom et de nostre Republicque, dont la teneur s'ensuit:

Comme ainsy soit que pour d'un commun effort rompre le progres des injustes usurpations du Roy d'Espaigne, et ses ambitieuses entreprises, par lesquelles il trouble journellement le repos et estats des roys et princes de l'Europe, et particulierement celuy des Provinces Unies des Pays Bas, Treshault Tres excellent et Trespuissant Prince Charles, par la grace de Dieu Roy de la Grande Bretaigne, France, et Irlande, defenseur de la foy, etc., auroit esté instamment requis de la part de Hauts et Puissants Seigneurs les Estats Generaux desdites Provinces Unies des Pays Bas, par le moyen de Messires François d'Aerssen, chevalier, sieur de Sommelsdyck de la Plate, Albert Joachimi aussi chevallier, sieur a Oostende et Oedekenskerck, et Rienck de Burmania a Fervert, grietman de Ferweradeel, ambassadeurs vers saditte Majesté de la part desdits Seigneurs Estats, d'entrer avec eux en une confederation plus estroicte, et en ligue offensive et defensive contre

18 The text is from the original manuscript of the Dutch ratification in P. R. O., Treaties, 296.

ledit Roy d'Espaigne et ses adherens, sadite Majesté de la Grande Bretaigne, etc. en continuation de l'affection et soing que les roys et reynes ses predeces­ seurs, et notamment le feu roy de glorieuse memoire, son treshonoré seigneur et pere, ont tousjours eu de la conservation et subsistence desdites Provinces, contre ledit Roy d'Espaigne, et ennemis de leur liberté, comme aussi des assistences et grands secours qui leur ont esté donnés de temps en temps, tant par la dame Reyne Elisabeth, que par ledit Seigneur Roy, pere de Sa Majesté; pour ces causes, et pour le passioné desir qu'a sadite Majeste à l'entier restablissement de son trescher frere Frederic, serenissime prince electeur Palatin du Rhin, en ses estats, possessions, et dignitez hereditaires, dont il á esté injustement depossedé par ledit Roy d'Espaigne, et ses adherens, Sa Majeste ayant nommé et constitué les Seigneurs Jacques, baron Ley, son grand thesorier d'Angleterre, George, duc de Buckingham,19 son grand admiral d'Angleterre, Guilliaume, comte de Pembrock,20 chambellan de son hostel, Jacques, comte de Carlile,21 Henry, comte d'Hollande,22 Edouard, baron Conwey,23 premier secretaire d'Estat, Fulke, baron Brooke,24 Robert Naunton, chevalier maistre des Gardenobles,25 Albert Mourton nagueres chevalier26 et l'autre des premiers Secretaires, et Richard Weston chevalier, chancelier de son Exchequier, ou six d'iceux, tous et un chacun d'eux Conseillers en son Conseil d'Estat et privé, et iceux garnis de pouvoir suffisant dont copie sera inserée à la fin de ce present traitté, pour avec lesdits sieurs ambassadeurs desdits Seigneurs Estats, munis aussi de pouvoir suffisant, dont copie sera pareillement inserée après celle desdits seigneurs commissaires de sadite Majeste, traitter, convenir, et conclure, d'une ligue offensive ou defensive entre sadite Majesté et lesdits Seigneurs Estats, contre ledit Roy d'Espaigne et ses adherens: lesquels commissaires de sadite Majesté, et ambassadeurs desdits Seigneurs Estats, apres plusieurs assemblées et deliberations tenues sur ce suject, ont convenu, conclu, et arresté les poincts et articles qui s'ensuivent:

1. Premierement, il y aura alliance de ligue offensive et defensive entre sadite Majesté d'une part, et lesdits Seigneurs Estats d'autre part, afin d'assaillir le Roy d'Espaigne a guerre ouverte, en tous ses royaumes, terres, subjects, et droicts, en tous lieux, deçá et delá la ligne,27 par mer et par terre.

2. Laquelle dicte alliance durera si longuement que le Roy d'Espaigne continuera de pretendre par guerre, voyes de faict, et autres ambitieuses menées, sur la liberté et droicts desdites Provinces Unies, et que la dignité electorale, terres, et autres estats patrimoniaux du Palatinat, demeureront occupez par luy, ou par ses adherens; au moins pour le terme de quinze ans.

3. Et ne pourront sadite Majesté de la Grande Bretaigne, etc., ny lesdits Seigneurs Estats, traitter avec ledit Roy d'Espaigne, ny ses adherens, dans edit terme de quinze ans prochain venants, a commencer du jour de la presente convention, de paix, trefve, suspension d'armes,28 ny entrer en aucune autre

19 George Villiers.
20 William Herbert, lord chamberlain.
21 James Hay.
22 Henry Rich.V
23 Edward Conway.
24 Fulke Greville, first Lord Brooke.
25 Master of the Court of Wards.
26 Sir Albertus Morton died the day before the conclusion of the treaty.
27 The equator.
28 For the measures taken by England to enforce both the prohibition of trade with Spain and also article 20 of this treaty, dealing with contraband, see Documents relating to Law and Custom of the Sea, ed. by R. G. Marsden for the Navy Records Society, I. ( 1915) 404, 405.

negociation tendante à pareille fin, directement ou indirectement, ny aussi quitter ou renoncer à la presente alliance, que de l'advis, et consentement commun. Et seront sadite Majesté et lesdits Seigneurs Estats, tenuz se declarer sur la continuation de la presente alliance, un an auparavant que lesdits quinze ans viendront a expirer.

4. Seront receus en cette alliance tous les roys, princes, republiques, villes, et communautez, interessez en cette cause, qui le desireront, à condition equi­ table; lesquels seront requis solennellement par deputation expresse de ce faire, par sadite Majesté, et lesdits Seigneurs Estats, separement, ou ensem­ blement, dans trois mois apres la conclusion du present traitté, et plustost [si] faire se peut.29

5. Il y aura bonne et sincere correspondence pour la defense mutuelle des royaumes, estats, et subjects, l'un de l'autre, entre sadite Majesté et lesdits Seigneurs Estats, qui demeureront respectivement tenus de procurer a leur possible, le bien, seureté et advantage l'un de l'autre comme aussi d'advancer le dommage, affoiblissement et ruine dudit Roy d'Espaigne, leur ennemy commun.

6. Lequel commun ennemy, sadite Majesté et lesdits Seigneurs Estats seront obligez d'attacquer de toute leur puissance, par mer et par terre, et feront à cette fin tous les ans equipper et entretenir, une, deux, ou plusieurs flottes, au moyen desquelles ils le feront envahir et infester par descente d'armée en terre ferme, ou par autres aggressions, en tous ses ports, et isles, avec tant de vigueur, que la communication de la mer, le commerce parmy l'Europe, le negoce des deux Indes, et principalement le retour annuel de ses flottes, luy en puisse demeurer couppé et retranché.

7. Et afin d'entreprendre tel desseing avec ordre, et une despense reiglée et partagée, sans la laisser toute a la charge de sadite Majesté ou desdits Seigneurs Estats seuls, il a esté dict et convenu, que sadite Majesté de la Grande Bretaigne, etc., tiendra un bon nombre de vaisseaux equippez, et armez en guerre, aux costes et isles d'Espaigne, pour en tenir d'ordinaire bouchées les entrées des rivieres de Lisbone, de St. Lucar, et la Baye de Cadiz, autant que faire se pourra; comme seront pareillement lesdits Seigneurs Estats tenus de leur part, de faire aux costes de Flandres, pour en tenir les ports fermez, et la mer libre de pirateries, a leur possible.

8. Mais si en outre il est trouvé bon, pour faire une plus gaillarde impres­ sion, et occuper plus sensiblement ledit Roy d'Espaigne en ses propres royaulmes et estats, de mettre une grande flotte en met, avec un desseing reiglé et concerté entre sadite Majesté et lesdits Seigneurs Estats, en tel cas lesdits Seigneurs Estats seront tenus de contribuer une quatriesme partie du nombre des vaisseaux que sadite Majesté a cette fin fera armer, et jetter en mer, montez et munitionnez, pour pareil temps, [et] proportionnez à la mesme grandeur et port de ceux de sa Majesté.

9.Sa Majesté aura le commandement sur toute telle flotte, par son Admiral, ou Vice Admiral, subsecutivement, toutes fois il a esté convenu et accordé que l'Admiral et Vice Admiral qui commanderont la flotte desdits Seigneurs Estats, quand ils seront conjoincts avec celle de sadite Majesté pourront

29 By the treaty of the Hague Nov. 29/Dec. 9, 1625, Denmark was brought into an alliance with England and the States "for the preservation of the liberty, rights, and constitutions of the empire", and it was provided that the rulers of France, Sweden, Venice, Savoy, the Electoral Princes, and others should be invited to join the league. Aitzema, op. cit., I. 480-481; Dumont, op. cit., tom. V., pt. II., pp. 482-483.

arborer une seconde baniere, assister avec quelques vieux capitaines, et avoir voix à toutes les tenues et deliberations du conseil de guerre, et que les commandemens qui se feront sur ladite flotte desdits Seigneurs Estats par l'Admiral ou Vice Admiral de sadite Majeste se feront mediatement, et par l'entremise de l'Admiral ou Vice Admiral desdits Seigneurs Estats, lesquels dits Admiral ou Vice Admiral desdits Seigneurs Estats, auront aussi toute justice sur leurs officiers, soldats, et mariniers, quand ils auront dispute entre eux. Mais s'il arrivoit quelque dispute ou controverse entre quelques uns de la flotte de sadite Majesté et de celle desdits Seigneurs Estats, le different sera examiné et decidé selon les loix, et ordonnances, par l'Admiral ou Vice Admiral de sadite Majesté au conseil de guerre.

10. Aux exploits de guerre qui se feront pour forcer quelques havres, monter des rivieres, assaillir les navires ennemis, ou aux aultres actions de pareil danger, et nature, il sera gardé cest ordre: qu'il ne sera employé plus grand nombre des navires desdits Seigneurs Estats que proportionné à celuy de sadite Majesté, selon la quantité du secours, si, d'un commun con­ sentement des chefs, de part et d'aultre, il n'est aultrement resolu.

11. Si l'une ou l'autre flotte venoit en mer à avoir besoing d'aide, et assistence de vivres, munitions, voiles, ou autres appareaux, les Admiraux les en feront secourrir, s'il y a moyen, a prix raisonnable, oú a la charge d'en faire rendre autant au retour des flottes a l'option de ceux qui l'auront demandé.

12. Si ces flottes, ainsi conjointes, et armées, font quelque prinse sur les ennemis communs, en mer ou par terre, d'hommes, de navires, d'or, d'argent, de marchandises, et d'aultres meubles, sera incontinent fait un estat et registre de toutes telles prinses, en presence et par le moyen des officiers des deux flottes ensemble, de bonne foy, et sans en rien cacher, ou destourner: lesquels seront par apres equitablement partagez, a proportion du nombre et du port des vaisseaux que sadite Majesté et lesdits Seigneurs Estats auront reellement et de faict fourny, pour parformer leur flotte commune, nonobstant qu'il pourroit arriver, que lors de la prinse, nul des navires de sa Majesté, ou vice versa, desdits Seigneurs Estats, s'y seroit rencontré, pourveu que telles prinses ayent esté faictes par une partie des vaisseaux de30 la flotte commune.

13. Mais sy sadite Majesté de la Grande Bretaigne, etc., trouvoit bon de faire embarquer à ses despens une bonne armée, et la descendre quelque part à terre au pays de l'ennemy, afin d'y faire invasion, et occuper quelque ville, ou assiette forte à y loger sadite armée en seureté et lieu commode pour advantager ses desseings, il est accordé, que les occupations qui de cette sorte se feront en terre ferme, appartiendront, et demeureront purement et simple­ ment à sadite Majesté, nonobstant que la flotte desdits Seigneurs Estats y pourroit avoir assisté et aydé.

14. Bien entendu toutes fois, que si a telle descente et execution, les sub­ jects desdits Seigneurs Estats entreviennent qu'ils auront aussi leur part aux butins et meubles proportionnée de leur nombre à celuy des subjects de sadite Majesté, a laquelle seule demeureront tous les acquests immeubles, des isles, villes et terres.

15. Ceux qui auront commission de sadite Majeste de la Grande Bretaigne, ou desdits Seigneurs Estats, pourront en vertu de cette alliance, poursuivre,

30 The manuscript of the ratification has et instead of de. The latter reading, which is that of the protocol and of the treaty as printed by Aitzema, is doubtless correct.

combattre, prendre, et emmener par tout leurs ennemis, en quelques endroicts qu'ilz viennent a les rencontrer, mesmes aux rades, emboucheures de rivieres, et aux ports de mer, de part et d'autre: a la charge que ceux qui auront esté prins aux rades, emboucheures et auxdits ports, ne pourront estre emmenez, devant que d'en payer les droicts, devoirs, et coustumes, a ceux qu'il apparti­ endra: lesquels ports et rades de sadite Majesté et desdits Seigneurs Estats seront ouverts et libres aux navires de guerre et marchands, de part et d'aultre, qui y pourront entrer, demeurer, sortir, et rader, sans nul empeschement. Se reigleront neantmoins iceux navires selon les loix, droicts, et coustumes des lieux.

16. Si par tempeste, poursuite de pirates, ou par quelque autre contrainte et meschef, aucuns navires marchands prennent port dans le pays de l'obeis­ sance de sadite Majesté ou desdits Seigneurs Estats, iceux s'en pourront retirer librement à leur volonté, sans pource estre tenus de descendre, trocquer, ou vendre leurs marchandises, ny d'en payer aucuns droits.

17. Les capitaines commandans les navires de guerre de sadite Majesté, ou desdits Seigneurs Estats, et envoyez en mer avec des commissions privées de leurs souverains, n'estans point compris au corps de ladite flotte commune, pourront pareillement en toute seureté mener aux ports et rades de sadite Majesté et desdits Seigneurs Estats, leurs prinses, faictes sur les ennemis communs, et les en retirer par apres franchement à leur plaisir, pour les conduire au lieu qu'ilz doibvent par leur commission, sans estre tenus de notifier leursdits prinses aux officiers du lieu, ou leur en payer aucuns droicts, mais à la charge toutes fois de monstrer leurs commissions, s'ils en sont requis par iceux.

18. Si durant la presente confederation aucuns navires, par tempeste, ou autre mesadventure, viennent a s'eschoüer, ou se perdre, sur les costes de sadite Majesté de la Grande Bretaigne, etc., ou sur celles desdits Seigneurs Estats, tels navires ou leurs debris pourront estre reclamez et repetez dans l'an, par ceux ausquels ilz appartiendront de droict, ou en ayans cause et procuration d'eux, et leur seront rendus, sans autre forme de proces, payans selon les droicts et coustumes des lieux.

19. Si sur telle ou pareille occurrence, il arrivoit dispute entre les subjects de part et d'autre, les officiers des lieux seront obligez de leur faire et admin­ istrer bonne et courte justice, sans trainer, et entretenir les parties en longueur, par aucune formalité de proces.

20. Toutes marchandises de contrebande, comme sont munitions de bouche et de guerre, navires, armes, voiles, cordages, or, argent, cuivre, fer, plomb, et semblables, de quelque part qu'on les voudra porter en Espaigne, et aux autres terres de l'obeissance dudit Roy d'Espaigne, et de ses adherens, seront de bonne prinse, avec les navires et hommes qui les porteront.

21. Sadite Majesté fera instance envers les autres roys, princes, estats, villes, et communautez neutres, de faire defense à leurs subjects de traffiquer, tant que la presente guerre durera, aux royaulmes et autres possessions dudit Roy d'Espaigne, et de ses adherens, afin de ne leur laisser encourir, a leur escient, aucun dommage.

22. Ce que ne venant à s'obtenir de leur gré, il est convenu, que les navires qui se trouveront a la mer, suspects de prendre leur route devers l'Espaigne, les Isles, oú autres estats dudit Roy d'Espaigne, et de ses adherens, seront obligez d'ammener, pour estre recognus et visitez, sans pour ce les pouvoir retarder ou endommager.

23. Le negoce, ou commerce, sera cependant ouvert et permis par tout ailleurs, aux royaulmes, villes, terres et pays des alliez, et des princes, et amiz neutres, sans interruption, ny destourbier.

24. Pareillement pourront sadite Majesté et lesdits Seigneurs Estats se faire fournir aux pays l'un de l'autre, de toutes sortes de munitions, d'armes, cordages, voiles, et victuailles, pour le necessaire equipage de leurs flottes, sans pour l'achept, ou transport, estre tenus payer d'avantage que ceux du pays auquel ces emploites auront esté faites.

25. Sa Majesté traittera lesdits Seigneurs Estats en amis et voisins alliez avec elle d'une alliance si estroicte, en ce qui concerne la traitte d'artillerie et balles ou boulets a canon, leur permettant d'achepter et transporter hors de ses royaumes et dominions, telle proportion d'artillerie et boulets pour l'usage de la flotte commune, que l'on pourra departir commodement, a tel prix et aux mesmes conditions que les autres alliez de sa Majesté ou ses propres subjects ont accoustumé de l'avoir.

26. Et avenant que par cy apres, sadite Majesté et lesdits Seigneurs Estats separement, ou ensemblement, viendroient à descouvrir de nouveaux moyens, et expediens propres pour endommager plus puissamment ledit31 Roy d'Espaigne, par mer, que ceux desquels il est convenu en ce traitté, et demandoient d'adjuster leurs entreprises avec commune deliberation et advis, il est accordé qu'ils en communiqueront et concerteront par leurs ambassa­ deurs, quand bon leur semblera, ou par deputation, et envoy expres s'il est trouvé utile et à propos.

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

39.32Toutes lettres de represailles, marque, arrests et autres semblables, qui ont esté cy devant octroyées et decernées contre les subjects de l'un33 ou l'autre des confederez, pour quelque cause que ce soit, n'auront lieu de part et d'aultre, ains sont des maintenant, et demeureront nulles et de nul effect, et pour l'advenir n'en seront aucunes octroyées, mais justice sera rendue et administrée, ainsy que de droit appartiendra.

40. Par la presente alliance, ny par aucunes paroles y contenues, generales, oú speciales, n'est pas compris ou entendu, qu'il y ait aucune innovation, inter­ ruption, ou changement en la liberté de la navigation, et commerce, es royaumes, estats, et pays de sa Majesté, desdits Seigneurs Estats, et autres roys, princes, villes, amis, alliez et neutres, ny aussi aux loix et coustumes des admirautez, payemens de daces, imposts, subsides, devoirs, de part et d'aultre, ny aux droicts appellez coustomes en Angleterre: Ains à esté convenu34 et accordé, que ladite liberté, droits, daces, imposts, loix, coustumes et payemens susdits demeureront en leur pleine, et entiére force, et vertu, comme ils estoyent le jour precedent de la conclusion du present traitté.

Lesquelles conventions, pactions et articles cy dessus contenus, et chascun diceux ont este traictez, stilpulez, accordez, et passez, entre lesdits Seigneurs Commissaires de sadite Majesté, et lesdits Sieurs ambassadeurs desdits

31 The manuscript reads lesdits.
32 The following provision was modified by King Charles's "protest", made at Titchfield on Sept. 9/19, in which he declared that unless, within eighteen months, the States did justice in regard to the Amboyna massacre, he would be free to issue letters of reprisal to his subjects or to use his own forces to avenge them. Aitzema, op. cit., I.476-477.
33 The ratification reads une; the protocol, un.
34 The protocol and Aitzema's text read expressement convenu.

Seigneurs Estats Generaulx, soubs le bon plaisir de sadite Majeste et desdits Seigneurs Estats Generaux, promettans de bonne foy, et' s'obligeans en vertu de leurs commissions respectivement, qui seront inserées à la fin du present traitté que dans trois mois prochainement venans, ou plustost, si faire se peult, ilz feront fournir, scavoir les Seigneurs Commissaires de sadite Majesté aux Sieurs Ambassadeurs desdits Seigneurs Estats, et lesdits Sieurs Ambassa­ deurs desdits Seigneurs Estats aux Seigneurs Commissaires de sadite Majesté, la declaration speciale de la volonté de leurs Souverains sur iceluy traitté, ou lettres de ratification en forme suffisante et vallable.

En foy et tesmoingnage de toutes lesquelles pactions, conventions, et articles, lesdits Seigneurs Commissaires et Sieurs Ambassadeurs, ont signé ce present traicté, et a iceluy apposé le seel de leurs armes. Faict en la ville de South Hampton ce septiesme jour de Septembre l'an mil six cents vingt cinq, stile d'Angleterre.

[Here follow the powers granted by Charles I. to his commissioners, August 25, 1625, and by the States General to their commissioners on June 12, 1625.]

Estoit signé Jaques Ley, G. Buckingam, Pembrock, Carlile, Hollande, E. Conwey, Rich. Weston, Francoy d'Aerssen, Alb. Joachimi, et R. v. Bur­ mania. Plus bas au dessoubs des signatures estoit cachette des cachets des armes respectivement desdits Seigneurs commissaires et ambassadeurs.

Nous ayants ledit traitte agreable en tous et chacuns ses points, avons iceux points en general et en particulier acceptez, approuvez, ratifiez, et confirmez, les acceptons, approuvons, ratifions et confirmons par ces presentes, pro­ mettans les garder, entretenir, et observer inviolablement, sans aller ne venir au contraire, directement ou indirectement, en quelque sorte et maniere que ce soit, soubs l'obligation et hypotheque de tous les biens et revenus desdites Provinces Unies en géneral et en particulier, presens et advenir. En tesmoing de quoy nous avons faict seeler ces presentes de nostre grand seel, parapher et signer par nostre greffier a la Haye le xiiiime de Decembre l'an XVIc vingt cinq.

T. VARUER v [idi]t.
Par ordonnance desdits Seigneurs Estats Generaux.

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