TURKEY, RUSSIA, AND THE BALKAN STATES.
Russians' interest in foreign affairs -- Gorchakov -- Denunciation of the Black Sea Convention -- Gorchakov's Circular -- FrancoGerman War -- Rapprochement of Russia and Prussia -- Protest of Great Britain against Denunciation -- The Treaty of London, 1871 -- Reasons for the changes made -- The European Commission of the Danube -- Turkey in the Concert of Europe -- Freedom from external interference -- The Andrassy Note -- Bulgarian Atrocities -- Conference of the Powers at Constantinople -Russo-Turkish War, 1877-8 -- Treaty of San Stefano -- Alliance of Great Britain and Turkey -- Treaty of Berlin -- Bulgaria acquires Eastern Rumelia -- Revolution of the Young Turks, 1908 -- Austrian annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina -Bulgarian Independence -- Turco-Italian War -- Balkan League -- First Balkan War -- Treaty of London, 1913 -- Second Balkan War -- Treaty of Bucharest -- European War, 1914 -Entente offer of guarantee to Turkey -- Goeben and Breslau -Turkey enters the War.
Texts: The Treaty of London ( 1871) -- The Treaty of Berlin ( 1878) -- The Treaty of London ( 1913) -- The Treaty of Bucharest ( 1913).
THE autocratic Tsar Nicholas I died on March 2, 1855, before the Crimean War was over. He was succeeded by his son Alexander II, under whom Russia entered on a period of peaceful development and legal and administrative reform. Such a period inevitably had the result of restoring to the Russian Government its feelings of dignity and self-respect, and of causing it to remember with feelings of humiliation the restrictions put upon its freedom by the Treaty of Paris. It was naturally felt to be unduly cramping to the powers of a great Empire that it should be prevented from having forts or arsenals on its own Black Sea coast, or from keeping naval forces in those waters. It should be borne in mind also, that the upper classes of Russia have for a long time been distinguished for the keen and lively interest which they take in the foreign affairs of their country. This is due to the fact that the autocratic Constitution of Russia to a great extent excluded the educated classes from participating in the internal government of their country. Their attention was therefore largely concentrated upon foreign policy, all the more since an active interest in this carried with it no such personal risks as were involved in too obvious an interest in the domestic affairs of government.
Alexander II had for his chief minister Prince Alexander Gorchakov, descended from an ancient and distinguished family. Gorchakov's knowledge of foreign affairs was unrivalled, and his prestige in the Chancelleries of Europe stood very high. In 1870-1 he was able to carry out the denunciation of the clauses of the Paris Treaty of 1856, which neutralized the Black Sea.
The moment chosen for this dramatic announcement was October 31, 1870, when France, who, with England, was the great upholder of the Treaty of Paris, was involved in the disastrous war with Germany, and had lost her great field armies at Sedan and Metz. Gorchakov's circular to the Powers of Europe, announcing the repudiation of the Black Sea Convention, was dated four days after the capitulation of Metz.
The grounds upon which Gorchakov based his denunciation of Articles XI, XIII, and XIV of the Treaty of Paris, and the Convention of the same date between Russia and Turkey embodying those Articles, were two: first, that the provisions of the Treaty of Paris had been broken in other respects; and second, that the neutralization of the Black Sea was unreasonable. The first contention was unproved, nor even, if true, would it necessarily have justified the breaking of the rest of the treaty. The second contention -- that the Black Sea neutralization was unreasonable --
was a fair ground for discussion, and for modifying the treaty by arrangement with the signatory and guaranteeing Powers. But Gorchakov took no such course. His circular of October 31, 1870, was simply a curt notice of denunciation.
The circular itself was not quite ingenuous. It contended that the changes which had taken place in Roumania were a breach of the Treaty of Paris. Article XXII of that treaty stated that 'the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia shall continue to enjoy under the Suzerainty of the Porte, and under the Guarantee of the Contracting Powers, the Privileges and the Immunities of which they are in possession'. These privileges had certainly been increased since the Treaty of Paris, for the two Principalities had united themselves into one, and had in 1866 elected a foreign Prince in place of the native Prince Alexander Couza. The Powers at first had objected to the election of a Prince belonging to a foreign Royal House, but they speedily acquiesced in the election of Prince Charles Antony, of the House of HohenzollernSigmaringen. This was no breach of the Treaty of Paris, which had secured to the Principalities their existing privileges, but could not be held perpetually to forbid the acquisition of new privileges. In any case, even if modification had taken place in the Treaty of Paris, this could be no ground for Russia arbitrarily modifying other clauses of it, without consulting the Powers who were responsible with her for the Treaty.
The other point in which Gorchakov said the Paris Treaty had been broken was in the clause which declared the Straits closed to foreign ships of war when the Porte was at peace. 'Repeatedly,' ran the circular, 'and under various pretexts, Foreign Men-of-War have been suffered to enter the Straits, and whole Squadrons, whose presence was an infraction of the character of absolute Neutrality attributed to those waters, admitted to the
ASPIRATIONS OF THE BALKAN STATES IN 1912
(Bosnia, Serbia, Montenegro, Roumania, Bulgaria)
Frontiers of States in 1912: Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Russia, Greece, Italy
Black Sea.' 1
No facts were advanced to show that such breaches of the Treaty of Paris had taken place, nor even if proved could they have justified Russia in denouncing the restrictive clauses, as by Article XIV of the Paris Treaty, Russia had bound herself with the rest of the Powers to this effect: 'It (i. e. the Black Sea Convention] cannot be either annulled or modified without the assent of the Powers signing the present Treaty.'
Gorchakov further contended in the circular of October 31, 1870, that the restrictions were unreasonable, and based upon an unjustifiable distrust of the Russian Government. The restrictions, he wrote, were unreasonable, because, 'while Russia was disarming in the Black Sea, . . . and likewise loyally deprived herself of the possibility of taking measures for an effectual Maritime Defence in the adjoining Seas and Ports, Turkey preserved her privilege of maintaining unlimited Naval Forces in the Archipelago and the Straits; France and England preserved their power of concentrating their squadrons in the Mediterranean'. In the same way it was pointed out that the Straits were only closed by the Treaty of Paris when the Porte was at peace. In time of war, the Porte could let the navies of any hostile Power into the unguarded Black Sea, to the undefended coast of Russia. This danger was all the greater, as steamships had replaced sailing ships in the navies of the world since the Treaty of 1856. A swift attack upon Russia's unprotected Black Sea coast might be arranged at any moment.
Stated thus, the neutralization of the Black Sea appeared to be not altogether fair to Russia, and Gorchakov had a good case with which to approach the signatory Powers with proposals for its amendment. Unfortunately he took no such course, and therefore struck a blow at the respect for treaties and the public faith of Europe.
For the purposes of Russia, the time was well chosen.
1 Hertslet, vol. iii, No. 429, p. 1894.
France, as before mentioned, was already invaded, and had lost both fortresses and armies; the Empire had fallen, and Paris had been invested. Obviously the French Provisional Government had no attention to spare for the Eastern Question. Victorious Germany might have thrown its weight on the side of justice, and have striven for the maintenance of the Treaty of Paris or for its modification by consent of the signatories. But the Prussian Government, far from doing this, actually favoured Russia's individual denunciation of the Black Sea Convention. Gorchakov and Bismarck had been friends since 1851, when Gorchakov was Russian minister to the Diet of the Germanic Confederation at Frankfort. In 1858 Bismarck was sent to Petrograd as Prussian ambassador, and remained there four years. Gorchakov, as Minister of Foreign Affairs, naturally came into still closer relations with Bismarck. When Gorchakov became Imperial Chancellor in 1863, there was quite a rapprochement between the Governments of Russia and Prussia. The benevolent neutrality and friendship of Russia was exceedingly useful to Bismarck, when carrying out his very delicate and risky arrangements with regard to Schleswig-Holstein in 1863 and 1864. This largely explains the inactivity of Great Britain during that crisis. In the same way, Russian friendship gave Prussia a free hand in the war with Austria in 1866, and helped to keep Napoleon III inactive. In 1870, when Prussia invaded France, the Russo-Prussian rapprochement helped to ensure the neutrality of Austria, which was confidently expected by Napoleon III to intervene on his behalf. In return for these very substantial benefits, Bismarck could do no less than give Russia a free hand with regard to the Black Sea Convention. Austria was in no condition to oppose the Russo-Prussian understanding, Italy was too busy completing her unity by the occupation of Rome ( September 20, 1870). Great Britain's protest ( November 10, 1870) was therefore of little avail, though put with all the logic and cogency which distinguished Lord Granville's dispatches. The Black Sea Convention was denounced, yet at the same time Russia was induced to submit the matter to discussion at a Congress of Powers held at London in 1871. Although the mischief had been already done, the Powers attempted some sort of vindication of the principle of treaty-obligation. They converted Russia's denunciation into a solemn treaty ( March 13, 1871), and so put it upon a regular footing.
The Treaty annulled Articles XI, XIII, and XIV of the Paris Treaty of 1856, and the separate and purely consequential Black Sea Convention of the same date; Article XI interdicted the Black Sea to the Flag of War of any nation; Article XIII prohibited the maintenance of military or maritime arsenals on the coasts; Article XIV declared the annexed Black Sea Convention to have the same force as if embodied in the Treaty, and also that the Paris Treaty could not be changed without the consent of the signatory Powers. These Articles were replaced by a fresh one 1 which retained the principle of the closure of the Straits to foreign war-ships, but which differed from the provisions of the 1856 Treaty in three important respects: (1) it made no mention of the neutralization of the Black Sea, where accordingly Russia could build navies and fortify ports; (2) it permitted Turkey to open the Straits to foreign ships of war, if the Porte should consider such a course necessary in order to fulfil the stipulations of the Paris Treaty of 1856, in so far as these stipulations were still in force; (3) the statement that the Treaty could only be modified with the consent of the signatory Powers was omitted.
The reasons for these differences between the Treaties of 1856 and 1871 were probably somewhat as follows:
1. That Russia should' be able to fortify its own coast on the Black Sea, and to maintain warships there, was only reasonable; otherwise, during a war with Turkey, the
1 Article II of the Treaty of March 13, 1871.
Black Sea coast of Russia would be exposed without defence to foreign ships of war, which the Porte could let through the Dardanelles. It is true that the Treaty of Paris, by interdicting the Black Sea to the ships of war of any Power (Article XI), intended to protect Russia from such a contingency. But a state of war between Russia and a majority (including Turkey) of the signatory Powers would bring the Treaty of Paris practically into abeyance, and would expose Russia's Black Sea coast to immediate attack. Moreover, there was some inconsistency between Article XI of the Treaty of Paris, which neutralized the Black Sea, and Article I of the annexed Convention (having the same force as the Treaty of Paris), which allowed the Porte to admit foreign ships of war to the Dardanelles and Bosphorus, when the Porte itself was at war. It was of no use to neutralize the Black Sea in one Article, and in another to authorize Turkey to pass ships of war into it. The Treaty of 1871 was therefore consistent and reasonable: it left Article I of the Black Sea Convention in force, i. e. the Straits were to remain closed to foreign ships of war while the Porte was at peace; and in order that the south coast of Russia and her commerce in the Black Sea might not be at the mercy of the Turks during war, Russia was authorized to fortify herself there, and maintain a navy. Turkey, of course, was given the same authorization. 2. Turkey was not merely authorized to pass foreign ships of war through the Straits in time of war, but also (Article II of the 1871 Treaty) in time of peace, in case the Sublime Porte should judge it necessary in order to secure the execution of the stipulations of the Treaty of Paris of the 30 March 1856'. It is very difficult to see what stipulations are referred to, but the new rule was probably made to prevent Russia from contending (as she did in her circular of October 31, 1870) that the Treaty of Paris had been broken, if Turkey, bona fide, admitted a foreign war-ship into the Straits, with a view, for instance, to the protection of foreign subjects, during some local disturbance. 3. The stipulation of the 1856 Treaty (Article XIV) that it could not be changed without the consent of the signatory Powers was omitted, probably because such a statement was otiose, and seemed to imply that treaties which contained no such stipulation could be changed by one party without the consent of the other party or parties. 1 Finally, the Treaty of 1871 contained certain Articles about the Danube. The Paris Treaty of 1856, 2 it will be remembered, set up a European Commission, to undertake necessary works in the channels below Isatcha. A Riverain Commission was also set up (on paper), consisting of representatives of the riparian Powers, to deal with the whole course of the river. The European Commission was to do its work and to be dissolved when the work was completed, as was expected to happen within two years. But it had not been dissolved, and the Riverain Commission never came into existence. The Treaty of 1871 extended the duration of the DanubeEuropean Commission to the year 1883, and by Article XVI it provided for the assembling, wrongly referred to as re-assembling, of the Riverain Commission. But the Riverain Commission still remained in abeyance. While the life of the European Commission has been extended from period to period, the execution of works above its boundary (Braila) has been carried out separately by the States which are directly interested. The Treaty of Paris, 1856, was accepted by the Turks as a great charter of liberty, securing the Porte from any interference from the troublesome Powers of Europe. For by the treaty the Powers had guaranteed the independence and territorial integrity of Turkey, had admitted
1 Cp. the Declaration signed at London, January 17, 1871 (see above, p. 11.)
2 Article XVI.
her to the Concert of Europe (i.e. had put her upon the same footing as any other European State), and had solemnly stated that they had no right 'to interfere, either collectively or separately, in the relations of His Majesty the Sultan with his subjects, nor in the Internal Administration of his Empire' (Article IX).
It is true that the Sultan had also in Article IX of the Treaty of Paris proclaimed 'his constant solicitude for the welfare of his subjects', and 'his generous intentions towards the Christian population of his Empire', and had referred to the Firman (the Hatti-Hamouin) 1 which he had issued in the previous month, laying down an excellent scheme of reform. But this Firman, 'emanating spontaneously from his Sovereign will,' was not itself a part of or annexed to the Treaty of Paris, and so the Powers had no legal ground on which to force the Sultan to observe it. Accordingly, during the following twenty years, the internal administration of the Turkish Government and its attitude towards its Christian subjects do not appear to have improved. When in August 1875, an insurrection of the Christians in Herzegovina broke out, the Eastern Question was again revived in its acutest form.
There is no doubt that the condition of the Christian provinces of Turkey was sufficiently bad to justify some pressure being put on the Porte by the Powers of Europe. Yet, as the Porte was not slow to point out, the Powers had bound themselves, by Article IX of the Treaty of Paris, not to interfere in the internal affairs of Turkey. Moreover, there was another difficulty in the way of concerted action by the Powers: they all wished Turkey to reform its administration, but they did not all wish Turkey's independence or territory to be decreased. It was, especially, the view of the British Government, that the maintenance of the Turkish Empire was necessary to the Balance of Power in the Near East.
1 February 18, 1856; Hertslet, vol. ii, No. 263. Yet in some degree, circumstances were propitious for bringing pressure to bear on Turkey, in such a way as might have prevented war. The three great Empires, Austria, Russia, and the new German Empire, were at this time acting in accord. The Russian and German Chancellors had long been friends, and acted in concert in important matters of State, 1 and Austria had learned to acquiesce in the facts of 1866 and 1870, to recognize that the leadership of Germany had passed to Prussia, and that her great interests now lay in the south-east. Thus Count Andrassy, the Austrian Chancellor, was able in January 1876 to draw up, in concert with Russia and Germany, the now famous 'Andrassy Note', demanding that Turkey should establish complete religious toleration within her dominions, do away with the system of taxfarming, and set up a mixed Commission of native Christians and Mohammedans to superintend the execution of the reforms. 2 To this Note Great Britain and France also gave their adherence. But when in May ( 1876) at Berlin the ministers of the three Empires drew up a much firmer Note -- the Berlin Memorandum -- the British Government declined to take part in it, being very suspicious of anything likely to prove 'contrary to the Treaty Rights of the Porte or subversive of the Sultan's authority'. 3 The British Government at this time hoped that Turkey might be induced to reform itself without coercion. The clear intention of the English Premier Disraeli to maintain the independence of Turkey might have prevented the war between Russia and the Porte, had not the Turks themselves, by their brutal conduct while repressing the Bulgarian insurrection in May 1876, succeeded in alienating the sympathy of a great portion of the British people. The knife of the Circassian and Bachi-Bazouk had severed
1 See p. 317 2 The complete Note is in Hertslet, vol. iv, No. 456. 3 Ibid., Nos. 461, 462.
Austria, Hungary, Russia, Ottoman Empire, Greece
Serbia, Montenegro (acquisitions in 1913), Roumania, Bulgaria
(Treaty of London, May 30, 1913; retroceded to Turkey Sept. 29, 1913); Albania
the bond with Great Britain which had saved Turkey in 1854.' 1
Serbia and Montenegro declared war on Turkey in July 1876. The Russian Government openly proclaimed its sympathy with them. Yet the Tsar Alexander II assured Great Britain that he had no intention of acquiring territory: that all he desired was concerted action to induce Turkey to carry out reforms. Great Britain, agreeing to this, proposed a Conference of the Powers at Constantinople. This took place in December and January 1876-7, and a sensible scheme of reform was drawn up. But to ensure that the reforms would not be put off indefinitely by the Porte, it was also proposed that they should be put into effect by an international commission and gendarmerie. The Turkish Government refused this, pointing out that interference by an international commission with the administration of the Ottoman Empire would be a direct breach of the Treaty of Paris. After receiving this answer, the Powers (in order to keep the adherence of England) proposed a milder document to the Porte, omitting any mention of an international commission, but stating that if reforms were not carried out, the Powers would decide in common on the means to be pursued. The Porte regarded this document also as being against the Treaty of Paris. So as no effective guarantees for reform were to be gained by peaceful means, Russia declared war on April 24, 1877.
The war did not last very long, but there was much hard fighting before the Russian Army entered Adrianople on January 20, 1878. Even before this happened, the Porte had recognized its defeat, and had asked the other Powers of Europe to mediate. Constantinople lay at the mercy of the Russians, and the fear which had haunted British statesmen for nearly a century seemed only too likely to be realized. For a few weeks it looked as if war
1 Fyfe, Modern Europe, 1895, p. 1029.
between Russia and England could not be averted; on February 6, 1878, the British fleet went through the Dardanelles into the Sea of Marmara. Fortunately the more peaceful counsels prevailed, and a breathing-space was secured by both sides agreeing for the time being to hold their hands. Thirteen days after the British fleet passed the Dardanelles, the Russian ambassador in London communicated the following message to Lord Derby, the English Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs: ' Prince Gorchakov authorizes me by telegraph to declare to your Excellency that the Imperial Cabinet maintains its promise not to occupy Gallipoli nor to enter the lines of Bulair. The Imperial Cabinet expects in return that no English troops should be landed on the Asiatic or European coast.' 1
Meanwhile Turkey and Russia were in negotiation. On March 3, at the village of San Stefano, on the European shore of the Sea of Marmara, the well-known Treaty of San Stefano was concluded.
For years this treaty has acted as a kind of magnet to the Bulgarian people, for it was they who would have benefited by it, not Russia. The Bulgarians till 1878 were merely a subject race of Turkey, governed by Turkish officials, without any autonomy, and hardly conscious themselves that they were a people. The Treaty of San Stefano would have made them a large State, tributary to Turkey indeed, but as large as the mediaeval Bulgarian Empire, the memory of which is kept so green among them as a spur to their ambition. Bulgaria under the Treaty of San Stefano would have stretched from the Danube to the Aegean, and would have included practically all Macedonia, except Salonika. The other Powers, however, objected. Austria did not relish the idea of a powerful Slav State lying across her path to the Aegean. Great
1 Count Schouvaloff to the Earl of Derby, February 19, 1878. Hertslet, vol. iv, No. 517.
Britain feared that the big Bulgaria would be merely a client State of Russia. To settle these difficulties a congress was suggested. Russia accepted the proposal, and accordingly the famous Congress of Berlin came together on June 13, 1878. In this Congress Great Britain sat as the ally of Turkey. On June 4, Disraeli had concluded a treaty with the Sublime Porte. According to this, Turkey gave over to Great Britain the occupation and administration of Cyprus. Britain, on her part, engaged in the future to defend Turkey's position against Russia in Asia. 1
The Treaty of Berlin was concluded on July 13, 1878. Every Article of it is of the highest importance, and although it has subsequently been, in many respects, modified, broken and changed, it still remains the groundplan of the States-system of South-East Europe. In order to appreciate its importance it is necessary not merely that each Article should be carefully studied, but that the previous history of each Balkan State that was then recognized or established should be fully understood.
The first alteration of the Treaty of Berlin came in 1886. The new State of Bulgaria extended only from the Danube to the Balkans. Eastern Rumelia, the fertile plain to the south of the Balkans, was a Turkish province under a native Christian Governor. In 1886, however, a revolution broke out in Philippopolis, in favour of union with Bulgaria. Prince Alexander of Battenberg, the Prince of Bulgaria, then led his army into Philippopolis and hoisted the national flag. 2 The Turkish Government never formally admitted the cession of Eastern Rumelia, but the province was in fact incorporated with Bulgaria,
1 Convention of Constantinople, June 4, 1878; Hertslet, vol. iv, No. 524; Mowat, Select Treaties, pp. 78-9. Before the Congress met, Russia and Great Britain had also settled their differences by a Secret Convention signed on May 30. It was abstracted from the Foreign Office by a copying clerk, and was published in the Globe newspaper on June 14, the day after the Congress had assembled.
2 See Act for modifying Articles XV and XVII of the Treaty of Berlin, April 5, 1886 ( Hertslet, No. 611).
and Rumeliots took their seat in the Sobranye, the Parliament, at Sofia. In the same year Russia denounced Article LIX of the Berlin Treaty, which declared Batoum to be purely a port of commerce.
The Berlin settlement was not seriously questioned again till 1908. In the previous year the Revolution of the Young Turks had occurred. Turkey became in theory a constitutional monarchy, with strong military and nationalistic aims. Austria did not wait for further developments, but on October 3 suddenly announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, contrary to Article XXV of the Treaty of Berlin. On October 5, Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria proclaimed the complete independence of his principality (the tribute to Turkey, as a matter of fact, had never been paid), and erected it into a kingdom. On September 29, 1911, the Italian Government began a war with Turkey, ending with the annexation of Tripoli by the Treaty of Lausanne, October 18, 1912. 1
In 1912 the First Balkan War broke out. The Balkan League or Union of Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, and Montenegro was formed early in 1912, through the efforts of King Ferdinand of Bulgaria and the eminent Cretan politician, Eleutherios Venizelos, who in 1910 had been chosen by King George of Greece as Premier of the Greek Government. The States of the Balkan League presented certain demands to Turkey with regard to the territory and the administration of Macedonia, which the Porte did not concede, and accordingly war began on September 30, 1912, nearly three weeks before the Peace between Turkey and Italy was concluded over the Tripolitana.
The course which the war took was a surprise to Europe, and a surprise even to the Balkan States themselves, for they conquered more land from Turkey than, apparently, they had arranged to divide. Bulgaria took Adrianople and penetrated down to the lines of Bulair which defend the
1 See Mowat, Select Treaties, pp. xliii-iv and pp. 83-7, 116-19.
Gallipoli Peninsula from the mainland. The Serbians won most of Macedonia, and the Greeks entered Salonika. At one time it looked as if the Bulgarians might take Constantinople, but they were stopped at the Chatalia lines. The usual difficulty was found in breaking off the war and adjusting the claims of the Allies. An international conference was invited to London by Sir Edward Grey, the British Foreign Minister, and simultaneously the plenipotentiaries of the Balkan States and Turkey met at London. These conferences ended with the Treaty of London, May 30, 1913, according to which Turkey ceded to the Balkan Allies all her territory (except Albania) to the west of the line Enos-Midia, and also the Island of Crete. 1
The next step was to arrange for the division of this territory among the Allies themselves. The negotiations for this ended in the Second Balkan War, of Bulgaria against Greece and Serbia, begun on June 30 ( 1913). The war was stopped by the intervention, after July 9, of Roumania against Bulgaria. The Conference of Peace was held at Bucharest. In the meantime Turkey had quietly re-occupied Adrianople on July 20. 2 The Treaty of Bucharest was concluded on August 10, 1913. Bulgaria did not lose much at the hands of the Balkan Allies. Roumania extended her Dobruja frontier, but Bulgaria was extended down to the Aegean at Dedeagach. Serbia got a great part of Macedonia; Greece got Salonika and Kavalla. The Powers who had arranged the Treaty of London thus saw their arrangements set aside. Great Britain did not recognize the validity of the Treaty of Bucharest. When, however, Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in the European War on October 12, 1915,
1 See p. 112.
2 Bulgaria retroceded Adrianople to Turkey by the Treaty of Constantinople, September 29, 1913. ( Nouveau Recueil, 3me série, tome viii.)
the attitude of Great Britain, France, and Russia towards the Treaty of Bucharest naturally changed.
The European War, which began on August 2, 1914, was not intended, as far as the Allies were concerned, to involve any further modification of the Treaty of Berlin, or any change in the territorial position of Turkey. On August 22, 1914, Great Britain, France, and Russia, on condition of Turkey observing neutrality, engaged to 'give a joint guarantee in writing that they will respect the independence and integrity of Turkey', and 'that no conditions in the terms of peace at the end of the war shall prejudice this independence and integrity'. 1 Turkey, however (against the Treaty of Paris, 1856, and the Treaty of London, 1871), had already, on August 11, admitted the German warships Goeben and Breslau into the Dardanelles without interning them. On September 10, the Porte sent Notes to the European Governments announcing that the Capitulations by which Turkey's behaviour to foreigners within her territory was governed, were abolished. All the Powers protested against this. 2 On October 29 the Turkish fleet sank a Russian gunboat at Odessa and bombarded Feodosia. This act of war dissolved the Convention of Constantinople by which Great Britain had allied herself to Turkey and received the administration of Cyprus. 3 The island was accordingly declared to be annexed to Great Britain'on November 5, 1914.
On December 19, of the same year, Egypt was declared to be a British Protectorate. 4
1 Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet, Correspondence respecting Turkey, Parliamentary Papers, Cd. 7628 ( 1914), p. 9. 2 Sir L. Mallet to Sir E. Grey, ibid., p. 23.
3 3 June 4, 1878; see above, p. 326, and Mowat, Select Treaties, p. 78.
4 Ibid., p. 95.
TREATY BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN, AUSTRIA, FRANCE, GERMANY (PRUSSIA), ITALY, RUSSIA, AND TURKEY,
FOR THE REVISION OF CERTAIN STIPULATIONS OF THE TREATIES OF 30TH MARCH 1856,
RELATIVE TO THE Black Sea AND Danube.
SIGNED AT LONDON, 13TH MARCH, 1871. 1
ARTICLE I. Articles XI, XIII, and XIV of the Treaty of Paris of the 30th March 1856, as well as the special Convention concluded between Russia and the Sublime Porte, and annexed to the said Article XIV, are abrogated, and replaced by the following Article.
ARTICLE II. The principle of the closing of the Straits of the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus, such as it has been established by the separate Convention of the 30th March 1856, is maintained, with power to His Imperial Majesty the Sultan to open the said Straits in time of Peace to the Vessels of War of friendly and allied Powers, in case the Sublime Porte should judge it necessary in order to secure the execution of the stipulations of the Treaty of Paris of the 30th March 1856.
ARTICLE III. The Black Sea remains open, as heretofore, to the Mercantile Marine of all Nations.
ARTICLE IV. The Commission established by Article XVI of the Treaty of Paris, in which the Powers who joined in signing the Treaty are each represented by a delegate, and which was charged with the designation and execution of the works necessary below Isaktcha, to clear the Mouths of the Danube, as well as the neighbouring parts of the Black Sea, from the sands and other impediments which obstruct them, in order to put that part of the River and the said parts of the sea in the best state for navigation, is maintained in its present composition. The duration of that Commission is fixed for a further period of 12 years, counting from the 24th April, 1871, that is to say, till the 24th April, 1883, being the term of the Redemption of the Loan contracted by that Commission, under the Guarantee of Great Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary, France, Italy, and Turkey.
ARTICLE V. The conditions of the re-assembling of the Riverain Commission, established by Article XVII of the
1 State Papers, vol. lxi, p. 7; Hertslet, vol. iii, No. 439.
Treaty of Paris of the 30th March 1856, shall be fixed by a previous understanding between the Riverain Powers, without prejudice to the clause relative to the 3 Danubian Principalities; and in so far as any modification of Article XVII of the said Treaty may be involved, this latter shall form the subject of a special Convention between the co-signatory Powers.
ARTICLE VI. As the Powers which possess the shores of that part of the Danube where the Cataracts and the Iron Gates offer impediments to navigation reserve to themselves to come to an understanding with the view of removing those impediments, the High Contracting Parties recognise from the present moment their right to levy a Provisional Tax on Vessels of commerce of every flag which may henceforth benefit thereby, until the extinction of the Debt contracted for the execution of the Works; and they declare Article XV of the Treaty of Paris of 1856, to be inapplicable to that part of the River for a space of time necessary for the repayment of the debt in question.
ARTICLE VII. All the Works and Establishments of every kind created by the European Commission in execution of the Treaty of Paris of 1856, or of the present Treaty, shall continue to enjoy the same Neutrality which has hitherto protected them, and which shall be equally respected for the future, under all circumstances, by the High Contracting Parties. The benefits of the immunities which result therefrom shall extend to the whole administrative and engineering staff of the Commission. It is, however, well understood that the provisions of this Article shall in no way affect the right of the Sublime Porte to send, as heretofore, its Vessels of War into the Danube in its character of Territorial Power.
ARTICLE VIII. The High Contracting Parties renew and confirm all the stipulations of the Treaty of the 30th March, 1856, as well as of its annexes, which are not annulled or modified by the present Treaty.
ARTICLE IX. The present Treaty shall be ratified, and the Ratifications shall be exchanged at London in the term of 6 weeks, or sooner if possible.
In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have affixed thereto the Seal of their Arms.
Done at London, the 13th day of the month of March, in the year 1871.
(L. S.) GRANVILLE.
(L. S.) MUSURUS.
TREATY BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN, AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY, RUSSIA, AND TURKEY,
FOR THE SETTLEMENT OF THE AFFAIRS OF THE EAST.
SIGNED AT BERLIN, 13TH JULY, 1878. 1
Bulgaria. An Autonomous and Tributary Principality under Suzerainty of the Sultan. Christian Government. National Militia.
ARTICLE I. Bulgaria is constituted an autonomous and tributary Principality under the suzerainty of His Imperial Majesty the Sultan; it will have a Christian Government and a national militia.
ARTICLE II. The Principality of Bulgaria will include the following territories: --
Boundary between Bulgaria and Roumania. Silistria to Mangalia.
The frontier follows on the north the right bank of the Danube from the former frontier of Servia up to a point to be determined by a European Commission to the east of Silistria, and thence runs to the Black Sea to the south of Mangalia, which is included in Roumanian territory. The Black Sea forms the eastern boundary of Bulgaria.
Boundary between Bulgaria and Eastern Roumelia.
On the south the frontier follows upwards from its mouth the mid-channel of the brook near which are situated the villages of Hodakiöj, Selam-Kiöj, Aivads+?ik, Kulibe, Suduluk; crosses obliquely the valley of the Deli-
1 State Papers, vol. lxix, p. 749; Hertslet, vol. iv, No. 530.
Kamcik, passes south of Belibe and Kemhalik and north of Hadimahale after having crossed the Deli-Kamcik at 2½ kilom, above Cengei; reaches the crest at a point situated between Tekenlik and Aidos-Bredza, and follows it by Karnabad Balkan, Prisevica Balkan, Kazan Balkan to the north of Kotel as far as Demir Kapu. It proceeds by the principal chain of the Great Balkan, the whole length of which it follows up to the summit of Kosica.
There it leaves the crest of the Balkan, descends southwards between the villages of Pirtop and Duanci, the one being left to Bulgaria and the other to Eastern Roumelia, as far as the brook of Tuzlu Dere, follows that stream to its junction with the Topolnica, then the latter river until it meets the Smovskio Dere near the village of Petricevo, leaving to Eastern Roumelia a zone with a radius of 2 kilom. above that junction, ascends between the brooks of Smovskio Dere and the Kamenica, following the line of the watershed so as to turn to the south-west at the level of Voinjak and reach directly the point 875 of the Austrian Staff map.
The frontier line cuts at right angles the upper basin of the brook of Ichtiman Dere, passes between Bogdina and Karafila, so as to rejoin the line of the watershed separating the basins of the Isker and the Marica, between Camurli and Hadilar, follows that line by the summits of Velina Mogila, the 'col' 531, Zmailica Vrh, Sumnatica, and rejoins the administrative boundary of the Sandjak of Sofia between Sivri Tas+? and Cadir Tepe.
Boundary between Bulgaria, and Turkey ( Macedonia).
From Cadir Tepe, the frontier, taking a south-westerly direction, follows the watershed between the basins of the Mesta Karasu on the one side, and the Struma Karasu on the other, runs along the crests of the mountains of Rhodope called Demir Kapu, Iskoftepe, Kadimesar Balkan, and Aiji Gedük up to Kapetnik Balkan, and thus joins the former administrative frontier of the Sandjak of Sofia.
From Kapetnik Balkan the frontier is indicated by the watershed between the valleys of the Rilska reka and of the Bistrica reka, and follows the ridge called Vodenica Planina, descending into the valley of the Struma at the junction of this river with the Rilska reka, leaving the village of Barakli to Turkey. It ascends then south of the village of Jeles+?nica, and reaches by the shortest line the chain of Golema Planina at the summit of Gitka, and rejoins there the former administrative frontier of the Sandjak of Sofia, leaving, however, to Turkey the whole of the basin of the Suha reka.
From Mount Gitka the western frontier goes towards Mount Crni Vrh by the mountains of Karvena Jabuka, following the former administrative limit of the Sandjak of Sofia in the upper part of the basins of Egrisu and of the Lepnica, ascends with it the crests of Babina Polana, and reaches Mount Crni Vrh.
Boundary between Bulgaria and Servia.
From Mount Crni Vrh the frontier follows the watershed between the Struma and the Morava by the summits of the Stres+?er, Vilogolo, and Mes+?id Planina, rejoins by the Gacina, Crna Trava, Darkovska, and Drainica Plan, then the Des+?cani Kladanec, the watershed of the High Sukowa and of the Morava, goes straight to the Stol, and descends from it so as to cut the road from Sofia to Pirot, 1,000 metres north-west of the village of Segus+?a. It ascends in a straight line the Vidlic Planina and thence Mount Radocina in the chain of the Koda Balkan, leaving to Servia the village of Doikinci, and to Bulgaria that of Senakos.
From the summit of Mount Radoc+_ina the frontier follows towards the west the crest of the Balkans by Ciprovec Balkan and Stara Planina up to the former eastern frontier (l'ancienne frontière orientale) of the Principality of Servia, near to the Kula Smiljova Cuka, and thence that former frontier as far as the Danube, which it rejoins at Rakovitza.
Bulgaria. Delimitation by European Commission. Balkan Frontiers of Eastern Roumelia. Non-erection of Fortifications.
This delimitation shall be fixed on the spot by the European Commission, on which the Signatory Powers shall be represented. It is understood --
1. That this Commission will take into consideration the necessity for His Imperial Majesty the Sultan to be able to defend the Balkan frontiers of Eastern Roumelia.
2. That no fortifications may be erected within a radius of 10 kilom. from Samakow.
Bulgaria. Election of Prince. Exclusion of Members of Reigning Dynasties of Great European Powers.
ARTICLE III. The Prince of Bulgaria shall be freely elected by the population and confirmed by the Sublime Porte, with the assent of the Powers. No member of the Reigning Dynasties of the Great European Powers may be elected Prince of Bulgaria.
Bulgaria. Election of Prince in case of a Vacancy.
In case of a vacancy in the princely dignity, the election of the new Prince shall take place under the same conditions and with the same forms. Bulgaria. Assembly of Notables to draw up Organic Law at Tirnovo.
ARTICLE IV. An Assembly of Notables of Bulgaria, convoked at Tirnovo, shall, before the election of the Prince, draw up the Organic Law of the Principality.
Rights and Interests of different Populations to be considered.
In the districts where Bulgarians are intermixed with Turkish, Roumanian, Greek, or other populations, the rights and interests of these populations shall be taken into consideration as regards the elections and the drawing up of the Organic Law
Bulgaria. Basis of Public Law.
ARTICLE V. The following points shall form the basis of the public law of Bulgaria: --
Bulgaria. Civil and Political Rights. Exercise of Professions and Industries by all, irrespective of Religious Creeds.
The difference of religious creeds and confessions shall not be alleged against any person as a ground for exclusion or incapacity in matters relating to the enjoyment of civil and political rights, admission to public employments, functions, and honours, or the exercise of the various professions and industries in any locality whatsoever.
Bulgaria. Freedom of Religious Worship.
The freedom and outward exercise of all forms of worship are assured to all persons belonging to Bulgaria, as well as to foreigners, and no hindrance shall be offered either to the hierarchical organization of the different communions, or to their relations with their spiritual chiefs.
Bulgaria. Provisional Administration by a Russian Commissary, assisted by a Turkish Commissary and by Consuls delegated by the Powers, until completion of Organic Law.
ARTICLE VI. The provisional administration of Bulgaria shall be under the direction of an Imperial Russian Commissary until the completion of the Organic Law. An Imperial Turkish Commissary, as well as the Consuls delegated ad hoc by the other Powers, signatory of the present Treaty, shall be called to assist him so as to control the working of this provisional régime. In case of disagreement amongst the Consular Delegates, the vote of the majority shall be accepted, and in case of a divergence between the majority and the Imperial Russian Commissary or the Imperial Turkish Commissary, the Representatives of the Signatory Powers at Constantinople, assembled in Conference, shall give their decision.
Bulgaria. Provisional Régime not to extend beyond Nine Months.
ARTICLE VII. The provisional régime shall not be prolonged beyond a period of nine months from the exchange of the ratifications of the present Treaty.
Bulgaria. Prince to be elected as soon as Organic Law is completed.
When the Organic Law is completed the election of the Prince of Bulgaria shall be proceeded with immediately. As soon as the Prince shall have been installed, the new organization shall be put into force, and the Principality shall enter into the full enjoyment of its autonomy.
Bulgaria. Commercial Treaties, &c., between Foreign Powers and the Porte, to remain in force.
ARTICLE VIII. The Treaties of Commerce and of Navigation as well as all the Conventions and arrangements concluded between Foreign Powers and the Porte, and now in force, are maintained in the Principality of Bulgaria, and no change shall be made in them with regard to any Power without its previous consent.
Bulgaria. No Transit Duties to be levied.
No transit duties shall be levied in Bulgaria on goods passing through that Principality.
Bulgaria. Equality of treatment for the Subjects, Citizens, and Commerce of all the Powers.
The subjects and citizens and commerce of all the Powers shall be treated in the Principality on a footing of strict equality.
Bulgaria. Immunities and Privileges of Foreigners. Consular Jurisdiction and Protection.
The immunities and privileges of foreigners, as well as the rights of Consular jurisdiction and protection as established by the Capitulations and usages, shall remain in full force so long as they shall not have been modified with the consent of the parties concerned.
Bulgaria. Tribute to Suzerain Court. Amount to be fixed by Signatory Powers.
ARTICLE IX. The amount of the annual Tribute which the Principality of Bulgaria shall pay to the Suzerain Court -- such amount being paid into whatever bank the Porte may hereafter designate -- shall be fixed by an agreement between the Powers Signatory of the present Treaty at the close of the first year of the working of the new organization. This Tribute shall be calculated on the mean revenue of the territory of the Principality.
Bulgaria. Portion of Ottoman Public Debt to be paid by the Principality.
As Bulgaria is to bear a portion of the Public Debt of the Empire, when the Powers fix the Tribute, they shall take into consideration what portion of that Debt can, on the basis of a fair proportion, be assigned to the Principality.
Bulgaria. Acceptance of Obligations towards RustchuckVarna Railway Company.
ARTICLE X. Bulgaria takes the place of the Imperial Ottoman Government in its undertakings and obligations towards the Rustchuck-Varna Railway Company, dating from the exchange of the ratifications of the present Treaty. The settlement of the previous accounts is reserved for an understanding between the Sublime Porte, the Government of the Principality, and the administration of this Company.
Bulgaria. Acceptance of Obligations in respect of other Railways of European Turkey in Principality.
The Principality of Bulgaria likewise, so far as it is concerned, takes the place of the Sublime Porte in the engagements which the latter has contracted, as well towards Austria-Hungary as towards the Company, for working the Railways of European Turkey in respect to the completion and connexion, as well as the working of the Railways situated in its territory.
Bulgaria. Railway Conventions to be concluded with AustriaHungary, the Porte, and Servia.
The Conventions necessary for the settlement of these questions shall be concluded between Austria-Hungary, the Porte, Servia, and the Principality of Bulgaria immediately after the conclusion of peace.
Bulgaria. Turkish Evacuation. Demolition of Fortresses.
ARTICLE XI. The Ottoman army shall no longer remain in Bulgaria; all the old fortresses shall be razed at the expense of the Principality within one year or sooner if possible; the local Government shall immediately take steps for their demolition, and shall not construct fresh ones.
Bulgaria. Disposal of War Material, &c., in Fortresses of Danube, Shumla, and Varna.
The Sublime Porte shall have the right of disposing as it likes of the war material and other effects belonging to the Ottoman Government which may have remained in the fortresses of the Danube already evacuated in virtue of the Armistice of the 31st January, as well as of those in the strongholds of Shumla and Varna.
Bulgaria. Right of Non-resident Mussulman Proprietors and others to hold Real Property.
ARTICLE XII. Mussulman proprietors or others who may take up their abode outside the Principality may continue to hold there their real property, by farming it out, or having it administered by third parties.
Bulgaria. State Property and Religious Foundations (Vakoufs). Appointment of a Turco-Bulgarian Commission.
A Turco-Bulgarian Commission shall be appointed to settle, within a period of two years, all questions relative to the mode of alienation, working, or use on the account of the Sublime Porte, of property belonging to the State and religious foundations (Vakoufs), as well as of the questions regarding the interests of private persons engaged therein.
Bulgarians travelling or dwelling in other parts of Turkey, subject to Ottoman Authorities and Laws.
Persons belonging to the Principality of Bulgaria, who shall travel or dwell in the other parts of the Ottoman Empire, shall be subject to the Ottoman authorities and laws.
Eastern Roumelia. Formation of Province under a Christian Governor-General.
ARTICLE XIII. A province is formed south of the Balkans which will take the name of 'Eastern Roumelia', and will remain under the direct political and military authority of His Imperial Majesty the Sultan, under conditions of administrative autonomy. It shall have a Christian Governor-General.
Eastern Roumelia. Boundaries.
ARTICLE XIV. Eastern Roumelia is bounded on the north and north-west by Bulgaria, and comprises the territories included by the following line: --
Boundary between Eastern Roumelia and Bulgaria.
Starting from the Black Sea the frontier follows upwards from its mouth the mid-channel of the brook near which are situated the villages of Hodakiöj, Selam-Kiöj, Aivads+?ik, Kulibe, Suduluk, crosses obliquely the Valley of the Deli Kamcik, passes south of Belibe and Kemhalik, and north of Hadimahale, after having crossed the Deli-Kamcik at 2½ kilom. above Cengei; reaches the crest at a point situated between Tekenlik and Aidos-Bredza, and follows it by Karnabad Balkan, Prisevica Balkan, Kazan Balkan to the north of Kotel as far as Demir Kapu. It proceeds by the principal chain of the Great Balkan, the whole length of which it follows up to the summit of Kosica.
At this point the western frontier of Roumelia leaves the crest of the Balkan, descends southwards between the villages of Pirtop and Duanci -- the one being left to Bulgaria and the other to Eastern Roumelia, as far as the brook of Tuzlu Dere, follows that stream to its junction with the Topolnica, then the latter river until it meets the Smovskio Dere near the village of Petricevo, leaving to Eastern Roumelia a zone with a radius of 2 kilom. above that junction, ascends between the brooks of Smovskio Dere and the Kamenica, following the line of the watershed so as to turn to the south-west at the level of Voinjak and reach directly the point 875 of the Austrian Staff map.
The frontier line cuts at right angles the upper basin of the brook of Ichtiman Dere, passes between Bogdina and Karaúla, so as to rejoin the line of the watershed separating the basins of the Isker and the Marica, between Camurli and Hadilar, follows that line by the summits of Velina Mogila, the 'col' 531, Zmailica Vrh, Sumnatica, and rejoins the administrative boundary of the Sandjak of Sofia between Sivri Tas+? and Cadir Tepe.
Southern Boundary of Eastern Roumelia.
The frontier of Roumelia leaves that of Bulgaria at Mount C+?adir Tepe, following the line of the watershed between the basins of the Maritza and of its affluents on one side, and of the Mesta Karasu and of its affluents on the other, and takes the direction south-east and then south along the crest of the Despoto Dagh Mountains towards Mount Kruschowa (whence starts the frontier line of the Treaty of San Stefano).
From Mount Kruschowa the frontier is the same as the line laid down by the Treaty of San Stefano, that is to say, the chain of the Black Balkans (Kara Balkan), the mountains Kulaghy-Dagh, Eschek-Tschepellii, Karakolas, and Ischiklar, from whence it descends due south-east till it reaches the River Arda, and follows the mid-channel of this river up to a point close to the village of Adacali, which remains to Turkey.
From this point the frontier line ascends the crest of the Bes+?tepe-Dagh, which it follows, then descends and crosses the Maritza, at a point situated 5 kilom. above the bridge of Mustafa Pasha; thence it takes a northerly direction by the line of the watershed between Demirhanli Dere and the small affluents of the Maritza to Küdeler Bair, whence it runs east to Sakar Baïr; from this point it crosses the valley of the Tunda in the direction of Büjük Derbend, which is left to the north, as also is Soudzak. From Büjük Derbend it regains the line of the watershed between the affluents of the Tunda on the north and those of the Maritza on the south, up to the level of Kaibilar, which is included in Eastern Roumelia, and passes to the south of V. Almali between the basin of the Maritza to the south and the various streams which flow straight into the Black Sea, between the villages of Belevrin and Alatli; it follows to the north of Karanlik the crests of Vosna and Zuvak, the line which separates the waters of the Duka and those of the Karagac-Su, and rejoins the Black Sea between those two rivers.
Eastern Roumelia. Right of Sultan. Fortifications on Frontiers (Balkan Passes).
ARTICLE XV. His Majesty the Sultan shall have the right of providing for the defence of the land and sea frontiers of the province by erecting fortifications on those frontiers, and maintaining troops there.
Eastern Roumelia. Maintenance of Internal Order. Irregular Troops, Bashi-Bazouks, and Circassians.
Internal order is maintained in Eastern Roumelia by a native gendarmerie assisted by a local militia.
In forming these corps, the officers of which are nominated by the Sultan, regard shall be paid in the different localities to the religion of the inhabitants.
His Imperial Majesty the Sultan undertakes not to employ irregular troops, such as Bashi-Bazouks and Circassians, in the garrisons of the frontiers. The regular troops detailed for this service must not in any case be billeted on the inhabitants. When they pass through the province they shall not make a stay there.
Eastern Roumelia. Right to summon Ottoman Troops in case of need. Powers to be informed.
ARTICLE XVI. The Governor-General shall have the right of summoning the Ottoman troops in the event of the internal or external security of the province being threatened. In such an eventuality the Sublime Porte shall inform the Representatives of the Powers at Constantinople of such a decision, as well as of the exigencies which justify it.
Eastern Roumelia. Governor-General to be nominated by the Porte, with assent of Powers, for Five Years.
ARTICLE XVII. The Governor-General of Eastern Roumelia shall be nominated by the Sublime Porte, with the assent of the Powers, for a term of five years.
Eastern Roumelia. Appointment of European Commission to arrange organization. Duties of Commission.
ARTICLE XVIII. Immediately after the exchange of the ratifications of the present Treaty, a European Commission shall be formed to arrange, in concert with the Ottoman Porte, the organization of Eastern Roumelia. This Commission will have to determine, within three months, the powers and functions of the Governor-General, as well as the administrative, judicial, and financial system of the province, taking as its basis the various laws for the vilayets and the proposals made in the eighth sitting of the Conference of Constantinople.
Eastern Roumelia. Firman to be communicated to the Powers.
The whole of the arrangements determined on for Eastern Roumelia shall form the subject of an Imperial Firman, which will be issued by the Sublime Porte, and which it will communicate to the Powers.
Eastern Roumelia. European Commission to administer Finances of Province.
ARTICLE XIX. The European Commission shall be charged to administer, in concert with the Sublime Porte, the finances of the province until the completion of the new organization.
Eastern Roumelia. Treaties, &c., between Foreign Powers and the Porte, to remain in force. Immunities and Privileges of Foreigners. Religious Liberty.
ARTICLE XX. The Treaties, Conventions, and international arrangements of any kind whatsoever, concluded or to be concluded between the Porte and foreign Powers, shall apply in Eastern Roumelia as in the whole Ottoman Empire. The immunities and privileges acquired by foreigners, whatever their status, shall be respected in this province. The Sublime Porte undertakes to enforce there the general laws of the Empire on religious liberty in favour of all forms of worship.
Eastern Roumelia. Rights and Obligations of Turkey with regard to Railways.
ARTICLE XXI. The rights and obligations of the Sublime Porte with regard to the Railways of Eastern Roumelia are maintained in their integrity.
Bulgaria and Eastern Roumelia. Russian Occupation.
ARTICLE XXII. The strength of the Russian corps of occupation in Bulgaria and Eastern Roumelia, which shall be composed of six divisions of infantry and two divisions of cavalry, shall not exceed 50,000 men. It shall be maintained at the expense of the country occupied. The army of occupation will preserve its communications with Russia not only through Roumania, in accordance with arrangements to be concluded between the two States, but also through the ports of the Black Sea, Varna, and Bourgas, where it may, during the period of occupation, organize the necessary depôts.
Bulgaria and Eastern Roumelia. Period of Occupation.
The period of the occupation of Eastern Roumelia and Bulgaria by the Imperial Russian troops is fixed at nine months from the date of the exchange of the ratifications of the present Treaty.
Roumania. Period for Russian Evacuation.
The Imperial Russian Government undertakes that within a further period of three months the passage of its troops across Roumania shall cease, and that Principality shall be completely evacuated. Crete. Application of Organic Law of 1868.
ARTICLE XXIII. The Sublime Porte undertakes scrupulously to apply in the Island of Crete the Organic Law of 1868 with such modifications as may be considered equitable.
Organic Laws. Laws similar to Organic Law for Crete to be introduced into other parts of Turkey in Europe, except exemption from Taxation.
Similar laws adapted to local requirements, excepting as regards the exemption from taxation granted to Crete, shall also be introduced into the other parts of Turkey in Europe for which no special organization has been provided by the present Treaty.
Organic Laws. Special Commission to settle details of new Laws.
The Sublime Porte shall depute special Commissions, in which the native element shall be largely represented, to settle the details of the new laws in each province.
The schemes of organization resulting from these labours. shall be submitted for examination to the Sublime Porte, which, before promulgating the Acts for putting them into force, shall consult the European Commission instituted for Eastern Roumelia.
Greece. Rectification of Frontier. Powers may offer Mediation in case of Disagreement between Turkey and Greece.
ARTICLE XXIV. In the event of the Sublime Porte and Greece being unable to agree upon the rectification of frontier suggested in the 13th Protocol of the Congress of Berlin, Germany, Austria-Hungary, France, Great Britain, Italy, and Russia reserve to themselves to offer their mediation to the two parties to facilitate negotiations.
Bosnia and Herzegovina. To be occupied and administered Austria-Hungary, Sandjak of Novi-Bazar excepted, with right of Austria-Hungary to keep Garrisons, and to have Military and Commercial Roads.
ARTICLE XXV. The Provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina shall be occupied and administered by AustriaHungary. The Government of Austria-Hungary, not desiring to undertake the administration of the Sandjak of Novi-Bazar, which extends between Servia and Montenegro in a south-easterly direction to the other side of Mitrovitza, the Ottoman Administration will continue to exercise its functions there. Nevertheless, in order to assure the maintenance of the new political state of affairs, as well as freedom and security of communications, AustriaHungary reserves the right of keeping garrisons and having military and commercial roads in the whole of this part of the ancient Vilayet of Bosnia. 1 To this end the Governments of Austria-Hungary and Turkey reserve to themselves to come to an understanding on the details.
ARTICLE XVI. The independence of Montenegro is recognized by the Sublime Porte and by all those of the High Contracting Parties who had not hitherto admitted it.
Montenegro. Conditions: -- Civil and Political Rights, &c. Exercise of Professions and Industries by all, irrespective of Religious Creeds.
ARTICLE XXVII. The High Contracting Parties are agreed on the following conditions: --
In Montenegro the difference of religious creeds and con-
1 The Austrian garrisons were withdrawn from the Sandjak in 1908. In 1913 the district was divided between Serbia and Montenegro after the conclusion of the Second Balkan War.
fessions shall not be alleged against any person as a ground for exclusion or incapacity in matters relating to the enjoyment of civil and political rights, admission to public employments, functions, and honours, or the exercise of the various professions and industries in any locality whatsoever.
Montenegro. Freedom of Religious Worship.
The freedom and outward exercise of all forms of worship shall be assured to all persons belonging to Montenegro, as well as to foreigners, and no hindrance shall be offered either to the hierarchical organization of the different communions, or to their relations with their spiritual chiefs.
ARTICLE XXVIII. The new frontiers of Montenegro are fixed as follows: --
Starting at Ilino-brdo to the north of Klobuk, the line descends to the Trebinjc+?ica towards Granc+?arevo, which remains to Herzegovina, then ascends the course of that river up to a point 1 kilom. below its confluence with the C+?epelica, and from thence passes by the most direct line on to the heights which border the River Trebinjc+?ica. It then proceeds in the direction of Pilatova, leaving that village to Montenegro, and continues along the heights in a northerly direction, maintaining as far as possible a distance of 6 kilom. from the Bilek-Korito-Gacko road, up to the 'col' between the Somina Planina and Mount C+?urilo, whence it proceeds in an easterly direction by Vratkovic+?i, leaving this village to Herzegovina, up to Mount Orline. Starting from this point the frontier, leaving Ravno to Montenegro, goes straight to the northnorth-east, crossing the summits of the Lebernik and of the Volujak, then descends by the shortest line on to the River Piva, which it crosses, and rejoins the River Tara, passing between Crkvica and Nedvina. From this point it ascends the Tara to Mojkovac, from which place it passes along the crest of the ridge as far as Sikojezero. Leaving this point, it coincides with the former frontier as far as the village of Sekulare. From there the new frontier passes along the crests of the Mokra Planina, the village of Mokra remaining to Montenegro; it then reaches the point 2166 on the Austrian Staff Map, following the principal chain and the line of the watershed between the Lim on the one side, and the Drin as well as the Cievna (Zem) on the other.
It then coincides with the existing boundaries between the tribe of the Kuc+?i-Drekalovic+?i on one side, and the Kuc+?ka-Krajna, as well as the tribes of the Klementi and Grudi, on the other, to the plain of Podgorica, from whence it proceeds towards Plavnica, leaving the Klementi, Grudi, and Hoti tribes to Albania.
Thence the new frontier crosses the lake near the Islet of Gorica-Topal, and, from Gorica-Topal, takes a straight line to the top of the crest, whence it follows the watershed between Megured and Kalimed, leaving Mrkovic+? to Montenegro, and reaching the Adriatic at V. Kruc+?i.
On the north-west the frontier will be formed by a line passing from the coast between the villages of Suana and Zubc+?i, and terminating at the extreme south-east point of the existing frontier of Montenegro on the Vrsuta Planina.
Montenegro. Annexation of Antivari and its Sea-board. Conditions: -- Dulcigno; Spizza; Navigation of the Boyana; Port of Antivari; No Ships of War; No Flag of War; Fortifications, Commerce, &c.
ARTICLE XXIX. Antivari and its sea-board are annexed to Montenegro under the following conditions: --
The districts situated to the south of that territory, in accordance with the delimitation above laid down, as far as the Boyana, including Dulcigno, shall be restored to Turkey. 1
The Commune of Spic+?a, 2 as far as the southernmost point of the territory indicated in the detailed description of the frontiers, shall be incorporated with Dalmatia.
Montenegro shall have full and complete freedom of navigation on the Boyana. No fortifications shall be constructed on the course of that river except such as may be necessary for the local defence of the stronghold of
1 Dulcigno was annexed to Montenegro by the Convention of Konia, November 25, 1880; Hertslet, vol. iv, No. 579.
2 Spic+?a (or Spizza) was annexed to the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia on April 15, 1879 (see Austrian Law of this date, in Hertslet. vol. iv, No. 544).
Scutari, and they shall not extend beyond a distance of 6 kilom. from that town.
Montenegro shall have neither ships of war nor flag of war.
The port of Antivari and all the waters of Montenegro shall remain closed to the ships of war of all nations.
The fortifications situated on Montenegrin territory between the lake and the coast shall be razed, and none shall be rebuilt within this zone.
The administration of the maritime and sanitary police, both at Antivari and along the coast of Montenegro, shall be carried out by Austria-Hungary by means of light coast-guard boats.
Montenegro shall adopt the maritime code in force in Dalmatia. On her side Austria-Hungary undertakes to grant Consular protection to the Montenegrin merchant flag.
Montenegro shall come to an understanding with AustriaHungary on the right to construct and keep up across the new Montenegrin territory a road and a railway.
Absolute freedom of communication shall be guaranteed on these roads.
Montenegro. Right of Non-resident Mussulmans and others to hold Real Property.
ARTICLE XXX. Mussulmans or others possessing property in the territories annexed to Montenegro, who may wish to take up their residence outside the Principality, can retain their real property either by farming it out, or by having it administered by third parties.
Montenegro. Indemnity on Expropriation.
No one shall be liable to be expropriated otherwise than by legal process for the public welfare, and with a previous indemnity.
Montenegro. Turco-Montenegrin Commission to settle mode of Alienation.
A Turco-Montenegrin Commission shall be appointed to settle, within a period of three years, all questions relative to the mode of alienation, working, or use, on the account of the Sublime Porte, of property belonging to the State and religious foundations (Vakoufs), as well as of the questions regarding the interests of private parties engaged therein.
Montenegro. Appointment of Agents at Constantinople and other Places.
ARTICLE XXXI. The Principality of Montenegro shall come to a direct understanding with the Ottoman Porte with regard to the establishment of Montenegrin agents at Constantinople, and at certain places in the Ottoman Empire where the necessity for them shall be admitted.
Montenegrins travelling in Turkey to be subject to Ottoman Laws and Authorities.
Montenegrins travelling or residing in the Ottoman Empire shall be subject to the Ottoman laws and authorities, according to the general principles of international law, and the customs established with regard to Montenegrins.
Montenegrin Troops to evacuate Turkish Territory.
ARTICLE XXXII. The Montenegrin troops shall be bound to evacuate within twenty days from the date of the ratification of the present Treaty, or sooner if possible, the territory that they occupy at present beyond the new limits of the Principality.
Montenegrin Territories to be evacuated by Ottoman Troops.
The Ottoman Troops shall evacuate the territories ceded to Montenegro within the same period of twenty days. A supplementary period of fifteen days shall, however, be granted to them, as well for evacuating the fortresses and withdrawing the stores and material of war from them, as for drawing up inventories of the implements and articles which cannot be immediately removed.
Montenegro. Payment of portion of Ottoman Public Debt.
ARTICLE XXXIII. As Montenegro is to bear a portion of the Ottoman public debt for the new territories assigned to her by the Treaty of Peace, the Representatives of the Powers at Constantinople shall determine the amount of the same in concert with the Sublime Porte on an equitable basis.
Servia. Conditional recognition of Independence.
ARTICLE XXXIV. The High Contracting Parties recognize the independence of the Principality of Servia, subject to the conditions set forth in the following Article.
Servia. Civil and Political Rights. Exercise of Professions and Industries by all, irrespective of Religious Creeds.
ARTICLE XXXV. In Servia the difference of religious creeds and confessions shall not be alleged against any person as a ground for exclusion or incapacity in matters relating to the enjoyment of civil and political rights, admission to public employments, functions, and honours, or the exercise of the various professions and industries, in any locality whatsoever.
Servia. Freedom of Religious Worship.
The freedom and outward exercise of all forms of worship shall be assured to all persons belonging to Servia, as well as to foreigners, and no hindrance shall be offered either to the hierarchical organization of the different communions, or to their relations with their spiritual chiefs.
ARTICLE XXXVI. Servia receives the territories included in the following delimitation: --
Bounday between Servia and Bosnia: Little Zwornik and Sakhar.
The new frontier follows the existing line ascending the mid-channel of the Drina from its confluence with the Save, leaving Mali Zwornik and Sakhar to the Principality, and continues to follow the former boundary of Servia as far as the Kopaonik, leaving it at the summit of the Kanilug. From that point it follows at first the western boundary of the Sandjak of Nisch by the southern spur of the Kopaonik, by the crests of the Marica and Mrdar Planina, which form the watershed between the basins of the Ibar and Sitnica on one side, and that of the Toplica on the other, leaving Prepolac to Turkey.
Boundary between Servia and Turkey ( Macedonia).
It then turns to the south by the watershed between the Brvenica and the Medvedja, leaving the whole of the basin of the Medvedja to Servia; follows the crests of the Goljak Planina (which forms the watershed between the Kriva-Rjeka on one side, and the Poljanica, Veternica, and Morawa on the other), as far as the summit of the Poljanica. It then follows the spur of the Karpina Planina as far as the confluence of the Koinska and the Morawa, crosses this river, and ascends by the watershed between the Koinska brook and the stream which falls into the Morawa near Neradovce, to reach the Sv. Ilija Planina above Trgovigte. Thence it follows the crest of the Sv. Ilija as far as Mount Kljuc, and passing by the points marked 1516 and 1547 on the map, and by the Babina Gora, it reaches Mount Crni-Vrh.
Boundary between Servia and Bulgaria.
From Mount Crni-Vrh the new delimitation coincides with that of Bulgaria, that is to say: --
The line of frontier follows the watershed between the Struma and the Morawa by the summits of Streger, Vilogolo, and Meid Planina, rejoins by the Gac+?ina, Crna Trava, Darkovska, and Drainica Plan, then the Dec+?ani Kladanec, the watershed of the High Sukowa and of the Morawa, goes straight to the Stol, and descends from it so as to cut the road from Sofia to Pirot, 1,000 metres north-west of the village of Segua. It ascends in a straight line the Vidlic+? Planina, and thence Mount Radoc+?ina in the chain of the Koda Balkan, leaving to Servia the village of Doikinci, and to Bulgaria that of Senakos.
From the summit of Mount Radoc+?ina the frontier follows towards the north-west the crest of the Balkans by Ciprovec Balkan and Stara Planina up to the former eastern frontier (l'ancienne frontière orientale) of the Principality of Servia, near to the Kula Smiljova C+?uka, and thence that former frontier as far as the Danube, which it joins at Rakovitza. 1
Servia. Commercial Intercourse with Foreign Countries.
ARTICLE XXXVII. Until the conclusion of fresh arrangements no change shall be made in Servia in the actual conditions of the commercial intercourse of the Principality with foreign countries.
1 The names of places printed in italics in this Article could not be identified by the Boundary Commissioners.
Servia. No Transit Duties to be levied.
No transit duties shall be levied on goods passing through Servia.
Servia. Immunities and Privileges of Foreigners. Consular Jurisdiction and Protection.
The immunities and privileges of foreign subjects, as well as the rights of Consular jurisdiction and protection, as at present existing, shall remain in full force so long as they shall not have been modified by mutual consent between the Principality and the Powers concerned.
Servia. Acceptance of Engagements of the Porte with regard to Railways in the Principality (Balkan Railways).
ARTICLE XXXVIII. The Principality of Servia takes the place, so far as it is concerned, of the Sublime Porte in the engagements which the latter has contracted as well towards Austria-Hungary as towards the Company for the working of the Railways of Turkey in Europe, in respect to the completion and connexion, as well as the working of the Railways to be constructed on the territory newly acquired by the Principality.
Servia. Conventions respecting Railways to be concluded with Austria-Hungary, the Porte, and Bulgaria.
The Conventions necessary for settling these questions shall be concluded, immediately after the signature of the present Treaty, between Austria-Hungary, the Porte, Servia, and, within the limits of its competency, the Principality of Bulgaria.
Servia. Right of Non-resident Mussulman Proprietors and others to hold Real Property.
ARTICLE XXXIX. Mussulmans possessing property in the territories annexed to Servia, who may wish to reside outside the Principality, may retain their real property, either by farming it out or by having it administered by third parties.
Servia. Appointment of a Turco-Servian Commission. Religious Foundations, &c. (Vakoufs).
A Turco-Servian Commission shall be appointed to settle, within a period of three years, all questions relative to the mode of alienation, working, or use, on the account of the Sublime Porte, of the property belonging to the State and religious foundations (Vakoufs), as well as of the questions regarding the interests of private persons engaged therein.
Servians travelling or residing in Turkey.
ARTICLE XL. Until the conclusion of a Treaty between Turkey and Servia, Servian subjects travelling or residing in the Ottoman Empire shall be treated according to the general principles of international law.
Servian Troops to evacuate Turkish Territory.
ARTICLE XLI. The Servian troops shall be bound to evacuate within fifteen days from the exchange of the ratifications of the present Treaty the territory not comprised within the new limits of the Principality.
Servia. Evacuation of Ceded Territories by Ottoman Troops.
The Ottoman troops shall evacuate the territories ceded to Servia within the same term of fifteen days. A supplementary term of an equal number of days shall, however, be granted to them as well for evacuating the fortresses and withdrawing the provisions and material of war as for drawing up the inventory of the implements and objects which cannot be removed at once.
Servia. Payment of portion of Ottoman Public Debt.
ARTICLE XLII. As Servia is to bear a portion of the Ottoman Public Debt for the new territories assigned to her by the present Treaty, the Representatives at Constantinople shall fix the amount of it in concert with the Sublime Porte on an equitable basis.
Roumania. Conditional recognition of Independence.
ARTICLE XLIII. The High Contracting Parties recognize the independence of Roumania, subject to the conditions set forth in the two following Articles.
Roumania. Civil and Political Rights. Exercise of Professions and Industries by all, irrespective of Religious Creeds.
ARTICLE XLIV. In Roumania the difference of religious creeds and confessions shall not be alleged against any person as a ground for exclusion or incapacity in matters relating to the enjoyment of civil and political rights, admission to public employments, functions, and honours, or the exercise of the various professions and industries in any locality whatsoever.
Roumania. Freedom of Religious Worship.
The freedom and outward exercise of all forms of worship shall be assured to all persons belonging to the Roumanian State, as well as to foreigners, and no hindrance shall be offered either to the hierarchical organization of the different communions, or to their relations with their spiritual chiefs.
Roumania. Equal Treatment to Foreigners.
The subjects and citizens of all the Powers, traders or others, shall be treated in Roumania, without distinction of creed, on a footing of perfect equality.
Roumania. Restoration to Russia of portion of Bessarabian Territory, detached from Russia in 1856.
ARTICLE XLV. The Principality of Roumania restores to His Majesty the Emperor of Russia that portion of the Bessarabian territory detached from Russia by the Treaty of Paris of 1856, bounded on the west by the mid-channel of the Pruth, and on the south by the mid-channel of the Kilia Branch and the Stary-Stamboul mouth.
Roumania. Acquisition of Islands forming Delta of the Dahube; the Isle of Serpents; the Sandjak of Toultcha; and a portion of Territory to the South of the Dobroutcha.
ARTICLE XLVI. The islands forming the Delta of the Danube, as well as the Isle of Serpents, the Sandjak of Toultcha, comprising the districts (cazas) of Kilia, Soulina, Mahmoudié, Isaktcha, Toultcha, Matchin, Babadagh, Hirsovo, Kustendie, Medjidié, are added to Roumania. The Principality receives in addition the territory situated to the south of the Dobroutcha as far as a line starting from the east of Silistria and terminating on the Black Sea, south of Mangalia.
Roumania. Frontier to be determined by European Commission of Bulgaria.
The frontier line shall be determined on the spot by the European Commission appointed for the delimitation of Bulgaria.
Roumania. Arbitration on Division of Waters and Fisheries.
ARTICLE XLVII. The question of the division of the waters and the fisheries shall be submitted to the arbitration of the European Commission of the Danube.
Roumania. No Transit Duties to be levied.
ARTICLE XLVIII. No transit dues shall be levied in Roumania on goods passing through the Principality.
Roumania. Conclusion of Consular Conventions with regard to Protection. Maintenance of existing Rights.
ARTICLE XLIX. Roumania shall have power to make Conventions to determine the privileges and attributes of Consuls in regard to protection within the Principality. Existing rights shall remain in force so long as they shall not have been modified by the mutual consent of the Principality and the parties concerned.
Roumania. Rights of respective Subjects travelling or residing in Turkey and in Roumania.
ARTICLE L. Until the conclusion of a Treaty between Turkey and Roumania, fixing the privileges and attributes of Consuls, Roumanian subjects travelling or residing in the Ottoman Empire, and Ottoman subjects travelling or residing in Roumania, shall enjoy the rights guaranteed to the subjects of other European Powers.
Roumania. Liability for Public Works and Enterprises in Ceded Territory.
ARTICLE LI. With regard to public works and other enterprises of a like nature, Roumania shall be substituted for the Sublime Porte as regards its rights and obligations throughout the ceded territory.
Danube. Fortresses and Fortifications to be razed. Vessels of War not to navigate the River below the Iron Gates. Exceptions.
ARTICLE LII. In order to increase the guarantees which assure the freedom of navigation on the Danube which is recognized as of European interest, the High Contracting Parties determine that all the fortresses and fortifications existing on the course of the river from the Iron Gates to its mouths shall be razed, and no new ones erected. No vessel of war shall navigate the Danube below the Iron Gates with the exception of vessels of light tonnage in the service of the river police and Customs. The 'stationnaires' of the Powers at the mouths of the Danube may, however, ascend the river as far as Galatz.
Danube. European Commission to be maintained. Roumania to be represented thereon. Extension to Galatz. Treaties, &c., confirmed.
ARTICLE LIII. The European Commission of the Danube on which Roumania shall be represented is maintained in its functions, and shall exercise them henceforth as far as Galatz in complete independence of the territorial authorities. All the Treaties, arrangements, acts, and decisions relating to its rights, privileges, prerogatives, and obligations are confirmed.
Danube. Prolongation of Powers of European Commission.
ARTICLE LIV. One year before the expiration of the term assigned for the duration of the European Commission ( 24 April, 1883) the Powers shall come to an understanding as to the prolongation of its powers, or the modifications which they may consider necessary to introduce.
Danube. Regulations respecting Navigation, &c., from Iron Gates to Galatz to be drawn up by European Commission and Delegates of Riverain States.
ARTICLE LV. The regulations respecting navigation, river police, and supervision from the Iron Gates to Galatz shall be drawn up by an European Commission, assisted by Delegates of the Riverain States, and placed in harmony with those which have been or may be issued for the portion of the river below Galatz.
Danube Commission. Lighthouse on Isle of Serpents.
ARTICLE LVI. The European Commission of the Danube shall come to an arrangement with the proper authorities to ensure the maintenance of the lighthouse on the Isle of Serpents.
Danube. Execution of Works at Iron Gates and Cataracts entrusted to Austria-Hungary.
ARTICLE LVII. The execution of the works which have for their object the removal of the obstacles which the Iron Gates and the Cataracts place in the way of navigation is entrusted to Austria-Hungary. The Riverain States on this part of the river shall afford every facility which may be required in the interest of the works.
Danube. Provisional Tax maintained in favour of AustriaHungary.
The provisions of the VIth Article of the Treaty of London of the 13th March 1871, relating to the right of levying a provisional tax in order to cover the cost of these works, are maintained in favour of Austria-Hungary.
Asia. Cessions by Turkey to Russia. Ardahan, Kars, Batoum, &c. Frontier Line.
ARTICLE LVIII. The Sublime Porte cedes to the Russian Empire in Asia the territories of Ardahan, Kars, and Batoum, together with the latter port, as well as all the territories comprised between the former Russo-Turkish frontier and the following line: --
The new frontier starting from the Black Sea, and coinciding with the line laid down by the Treaty of San Stefano as far as a point to the north-west of Khorda, and to the south of Artwin, continues in a straight line as far as the River Tchoroukh, crosses this river and passes to the east of Aschmichen, going in a straight line to the south so as to rejoin the Russian frontier indicated in the Treaty of San Stefano, at a point to the south of Nariman, leaving the town of Olti to Russia. From the point indicated near Nariman the frontier turns to the east, passes by Tebrenec, which remains to Russia, and continues as far as the Pennek Tschaï.
It follows this river as far as Bardouz, then turns towards the south, leaving Bardouz and Jönikioy to Russia. From a point to the west of the village of Karaougan, the frontier takes the direction of Medjingert, continues in a straight line towards the summit of the Mountain Kassadagh, and follows the line of the watershed between the affluents of the Araxes on the north and those of the Mourad Sou on the south, as far as the former frontier of Russia.
Asia. Batoum to be a Free Port.
ARTICLE LIX. His Majesty the Emperor of Russia declares that it is his intention to constitute Batoum a free port, essentially commercial.
Asia. Valley of Alaschkerd and Town of Bayazid restored to Turkey.
ARTICLE LX. The valley of Alaschkerd and the town of Bayazid, ceded to Russia by Article XIX of the Treaty of San Stefano, are restored to Turkey.
Asia. Cession of Khotour by Turkey to Persia.
The Sublime Porte cedes to Persia the town and territory of Khotour, as fixed by the mixed Anglo-Russian Commission for the delimitation of the frontiers of Turkey and of Persia.
Asia. Improvements and Reforms in favour of Armenians. Protection against Circassians and Kurds. The Powers to be kept periodically informed.
ARTICLE LXI. The Sublime Porte undertakes to carry out, without further delay, the improvements and reforms demanded by local requirements in the provinces inhabited by the Armenians, and to guarantee their security against the Circassians and Kurds.
It will periodically make known the steps taken to this effect to the Powers, who will superintend their application.
ARTICLE LXII. The Sublime Porte having expressed the intention to maintain the. principle of religious liberty, and give it the widest scope, the Contracting Parties take note of this spontaneous declaration.
Religion. Equal Civil and Political Rights.
In no part of the Ottoman Empire shall difference of religion be alleged against any person as a ground for exclusion or incapacity as regards the discharge of civil and political rights, admission to the public employments, functions and honours, or the exercise of the various professions and industries.
Religion. Evidence before Tribunals.
All persons shall be admitted, without distinction of religion, to give evidence before the tribunals.
The freedom and outward exercise of all forms of worship are assured to all, and no hindrance shall be offered either to the hierarchical organization of the various communions or to their relations with their spiritual chiefs.
Religion. Equal Rights to all Ecclesiastics, &c., travelling in Turkey.
Ecclesiastics, pilgrims, and monks of all nationalities travelling in Turkey in Europe, or in Turkey in Asia, shall enjoy the same rights, advantages, and privileges.
Religion. Protection of Ecclesiastics, &c., by Diplomatic and Consular Agents of the Powers.
The right of official protection by the Diplomatic and Consular Akents of the Powers in Turkey is recognized both as regards the above-mentioned persons and their religious, charitable, and other establishments in the Holy Places and elsewhere.
Religion. Rights of France and status quo in Holy Places.
The rights possessed by France are expressly reserved, and it is well understood that no alterations can be made in the status quo in the Holy Places.
Religion. Rights and Prerogatives of all Monks of Mount Athos.
The monks of Mount Athos, of whatever country they may be natives, shall be maintained in their former possessions and advantages, and shall enjoy, without any exception, complete equality of rights and prerogatives.
Maintenance of Treaties of 30 March, 1856, and 13 March, 1871 (Dardanelles and Bosphorus, &c.).
ARTICLE LXIII. The Treaty of Paris of March 30, 1856, as well as the Treaty of London of March 13, 1871, are maintained in all such of their provisions as are not abrogated or modified by the preceding stipulations.Ratifications.ARTICLE LXIV. The present Treaty shall be ratified, and the Ratifications exchanged at Berlin within three weeks, or sooner if possible.In faith whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed it, and affixed to it the seal of their arms.Done at Berlin, the thirteenth day of the month of July, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-eight.
(L.S.) ODO RUSSELL.
(L.S.) v. BISMARCK.
(L.S.) H. DESPREZ.
(L.S.) L. CORTI.
(L.S.) P. D'OUBRIL.
(L.S.) AL. CARATHÉODORY.
(L.S.) MEHEMED ALI.
TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN GREECE, BULGARIA, MONTENEGRO, SERBIA ON THE ONE PART,
AND TURKEY ON THE OTHER PART. London, May 17/ 30, 1913. 1
ARTICLE I. There will be from the date of the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, peace and friendship between His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans on the one part, and their Majesties the Allied Sovereigns on the other part, as well as between their heirs and successors, their States and respective subjects in perpetuity.
ARTICLE II. His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans cedes to their Majesties the Allied Sovereigns all the territories of his Empire on the continent of Europe to the west of a line drawn from Enos on the Aegean Sea to Midia on the Black Sea with the exception of Albania. The exact line of the frontier from Enos to Midia will be determined by an international commission.
ARTICLE III. His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans and their Majesties the Allied Sovereigns declare that they remit to His Majesty the Emperor of Germany, His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, the President of the French Republic, His Majesty the King of Great Britain and Ireland, and His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias, the care of settling the delimitation of the frontiers of Albania and all other questions concerning Albania.
ARTICLE IV. His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans declares that he cedes to their Majesties the Allied Sovereigns the Isle of Crete, and that he renounces in their favour all the rights of sovereignty and other rights which he possessed on that Isle.
ARTICLE V. His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans and their Majesties the Allied Sovereigns declare that they confide to His Majesty the Emperor of Germany, His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, the President of the French Republic, His Majesty the King of Great Britain and Ireland, His Majesty the King of Italy, and His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias the task of deciding the destiny of all the Ottoman isles of the Aegean Sea excepting Crete, and of the Peninsula of Mount Athos.
ARTICLE VI. His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans and their Majesties the Allied Sovereigns declare that they
1 In French. Nouveau Recueil, 3me série. t. viii.
remit the task of regulating questions of a financial kind resulting from the state of war just finished and from the territorial cession above mentioned, to the International Commission convened at Paris, to which they have deputed their representatives.
TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN ROUMANIA, GREECE, MONTENEGRO, SERBIA, AND BULGARIA. Bucharest, July 28/ August 10, 1913. 1
ARTICLE I. There will be from the date of the day of the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, peace and friendship between His Majesty the King of Roumania, His Majesty the King of the Hellenes, His Majesty the King of Montenegro, His Majesty the King of Serbia, His Majesty the King of the Bulgarians, as well as between their heirs and successors, their States and respective subjects.
ARTICLE II. Between the Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Roumania, the old frontier between the Danube and the Black Sea is, conformably with the procès-verbal drawn up by the respective military delegates and annexed to the Protocol No. 5 of the 22nd of July (August 4th), 1913, of the Conference of Bucharest, rectified in the following manner:
The new frontier will start from the Danube above Turtukaïa and terminate at the Black Sea to the South of Ekrene.
Between these two extreme points the line of the frontier will follow the line indicated on the maps 1/100.000 and 1/200.000 of the Roumanian General Staff, and according to the description annexed to the present article. 2
It is formally understood that Bulgaria will dismantle within two years at latest the existing fortifications, and will construct no others at Roustchouk, at Schoumla, in the country between, and in a zone of twenty kilometres round Baltchik.
A mixed commission, composed of representatives of the two High Contracting Parties, in equal numbers of
1 In French. Nouveau Recueil, 3me série, t. viii.
2 The Annexes to the Treaty, along with the official text of the Treaty itself, will be found in 'Le Traité de Paix de Bucarest du 28 Juillet (10 Aoüt) 1913' -- Bucarest, Imprimerie de l'État, 1913.
both sides, will be charged, in the fortnight following the signature of the present Treaty, to execute on the land a tracing of the new frontier, conformably to the preceding stipulations. This commission will preside at the partition of the funds and capitals which have belonged till now in common to districts, communes, or communities of inhabitants separated by the new frontier. In case of disagreement over the tracing and the measures for executing it, the two High Contracting Parties engage to address themselves to a third friendly Government to beg it to appoint an arbiter whose decision on the points in dispute shall be considered as final.
ARTICLE III. Between the Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Serbia, the frontier will follow conformably with the procès-verbal drawn up by the respective military delegates and annexed to the Protocol No. 9 of the 25th of July (August 7th), 1913, of the Conference of Bucharest, the following line:
The frontier line will start from the old frontier from the summit of Patarica, will follow the old Turco-Bulgarian frontier and the line of the watershed between the Vardar and the Strouma, with the exception of the upper valley of the Stroumitza, which will remain on Serbian territory; it will terminate at the Belaic+?a Mountain, where it will bend back to the Graeco-Bulgarian frontier. A detailed description of this frontier and its indication on the map 1/200.000 of the Austrian General Staff are annexed to the present article.
A mixed commission, composed of representatives of the two High Contracting Parties, in equal number on both sides, will be charged, in the fortnight following the signature of the present Treaty, with executing on the land a tracing of the new frontier, conformably to the preceding stipulations. This commission will preside at the partition of the funds and capitals which have belonged till now in common to districts, communes, or communities of inhabitants separated by the new frontier. In case of disagreement over the tracing and the measures for executing it, the two High Contracting Parties engage to address themselves to a third friendly Government to beg it to appoint an arbiter whose decision on the points in dispute shall be considered as final.
ARTICLE IV. The questions relative to the old Serbo-Bulgarian frontier will be regulated according to the understanding agreed upon by the two High Contracting Parties stated in the Protocol annexed to the present article.
ARTICLE V. Between the Kingdom of Greece and the Kingdom of Bulgaria the frontier will follow conformably with the procès-verbal drawn up by the respective military Delegates and annexed to the Protocol No. 9 of the 25th of July (August 7th), 1913, of the Conference of Bucharest, the following line:
The frontier line shall start from the new Serbo-Bulgarian frontier on the summit of Belaic+?a planina, to terminate at the mouth of the Mesta on the Aegean Sea.
Between these two extreme points, the frontier line will follow the tracing indicated on the map 1/200.000 of the Austrian General Staff and according to the description annexed to the present article.
A mixed commission, composed of representatives of the two High Contracting Parties, in equal numbers of both sides, will be charged, in the fortnight following the signature of the present Treaty, to execute on the land a tracing of the new frontier, conformably to the preceding stipulations. This commission will preside at the partition of the funds and capitals which have belonged till now in common to districts, communes, or communities of inhabitants separated by the new frontier. In case of disagreement over the tracing and the measures for executing it, the two High Contracting Parties engage to address themselves to a third friendly Government to beg it to appoint an arbiter whose decision on the points in dispute shall be considered as final.
It is formally understood that Bulgaria desists from henceforth, from every pretension to the Isle of Crete.
ARTICLE. VI. The General Quarters of the respective armies shall be immediately informed of the signature of the present Treaty. The Bulgarian Government engages to reduce its army, on the day after this notification, to a peace footing. It will dispatch its troops to their garrisons, whither they will proceed, with the smallest delay, the various reserves being sent back to their homes.
Troops whose place of garrison is situated within the zone of occupation of the army of one of the High Contracting Powers, will be directed to another point of the old Bulgarian territory, and will only be able to go to their usual place of garrison after the evacuation of the zone of occupation above mentioned.
ARTICLE VII. The evacuation of the Bulgarian territory, both old and new, will commence immediately after the demobilization of the Bulgarian army, and will be completed at the latest within the fortnight.
During this delay, for the Roumanian army, the zone of demarcation will be indicated by the line Sistov-LovceaTurski-Izvor-Glozene-Zlatitza-Mirkovo-Araba-KonakOrchania-Mezdra-Vratza-Berkovitza-Lom-Danube.
ARTICLE VIII. During the occupation of the Bulgarian territories, the different armies will keep the right of requisition, on condition of payment in coin.
They will have the free use of the railway lines for the transport of troops and supplies of every kind, without there being any ground for indemnity to the local authority.
The sick and wounded shall be under the safeguard of the said armies.
ARTICLE IX. As soon as possible after the exchange of the ratifications of the present Treaty, all the prisoners of war shall be reciprocally given back.
The Governments of the High Contracting Parties shall each appoint special Commissioners charged with receiving the prisoners.
All the prisoners in the hands of one of the Governments shall be delivered to the commissioner of the Government to which they belong or to his representative duly authorized, at the place which shall be fixed by the interested parties.
The Governments of the High Contracting Parties shall respectively present one to the other, and as soon as possible after the release of all the prisoners, a statement of the direct expenses incurred by it for the care and entertainment of the prisoners, from the date of their capture or surrender until that of their death or release. Computation shall be made between the sums due by Bulgaria to one of the other High Contracting Parties and those due by these to Bulgaria, and the difference shall be paid to the creditor Government as soon as possible after the exchange of the statements of expenses above mentioned.
ARTICLE X. The present Treaty shall be ratified, and the ratifications of it shall be exchanged at Bucharest within the space of fifteen days or as soon as can be done.
In faith of which, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed it and have affixed their seals to it.
Made at Bucarest the 28th day of the month of July (10th day of the month of August) of the year 1913.
(L. S.) T. MAïORESCO.
C. G. DISSESCO.
GENERAL AIDE-DE-CAMP COANDA.
COLONEL C. CHRISTESCO
(L.S.) E. K. VENISELOS.
CAPITAINE A. EXADACTYLOS.
CAPITAINE C. PALI.
For Montenegro :
(L.S.) GÉNÉRAL SERDAR I. VOUKOTITCH
(L.S.) NIK. P. PACHITCH
M. G. RISTITCH
COLONEL K. SMILIANITCH
LT.-COLONEL D. KALAFATOVITCH
(L. S.) D. TONTCHEFF
DR. S. IVANTCHOIF
THE TRIPLE ALLIANCE
Tension between Germany and France, after 1871 -- Tension between Germany and Russia after 1878 -- Austro-German Alliance, 1879 -- Publication, 1888 -- Accession of Italy -- Accession of Roumania -- The question of casus foederis, 1914 -- Form of the Italian accessions to Triple Alliance -- Evidence from TurcoItalian War, 1911-12 -- The Austro-Serbian War, 1914.
Texts: The Treaty of Vienna ( 1879) -- The Triple Alliance ( 1903).
AFTER the Franco-German War the centre of gravity in continental politics was transferred from Paris to Berlin. Peace and alliances were the order of the day in the place of rumours of, and preparations for, war. It is true that at one period in 1875 Germany, disturbed, it was said, by the marvellous recuperative power manifested by France ever since the conclusion of the Peace of Frankfort, displayed a certain liveliness which gave rise to some anxiety in Europe, but the pacifying influence exercised by Great Britain and Russia on that occasion smoothed matters over, and the apprehended difficulties were removed.
No sooner was the German Emperor established on his imperial throne than the Emperor of Austria visited him at Berlin in order to draw closer the bonds of friendship which united the two crowns. In the same manner the Tsar of Russia manifested that he was still animated with the traditions of the Holy Alliance. Later on the King of Italy visited Berlin, and many other European States sought the friendship of the new Empire. In 1872 the Emperors of Austria and Russia met the Kaiser at Berlin, where the arrangement known as the Dreikaiserbund was come to, concerning which Prince Gorchakoff, who accompanied his master, remarked that the best thing about the meeting was that nothing had been reduced to writing.
The Bulgarian troubles in 1876, the ensuing war between Russia and Turkey, and the subsequent Congress of the Powers in 1878 at Berlin have already been treated of. It only remains to surmise that the military successes of Russia in the war and her acquisition of territory in Asia Minor and on the Danube, as well as her increasing influence in the Balkans, contributed to render the Dreikaiserbund less satisfying in the view of the other two parties to it; and that Russia, robbed by the Treaty of Berlin of some of the spoils of victory, regarded Germany, as part author of the treaty, with eyes less friendly than of yore. It seems certain that the mutual confidence of Russia and Germany received a shock, and rumours of strained relations filled the air. But the meeting of the Tsar and the Kaiser at Alexandrovo in 1879 seemed to have removed the tension: Peace is again secured!' exclaimed the Kaiser. Nevertheless, Bismarck, shortly afterwards, visited Vienna, whence in due course he returned to Berlin with a Treaty of Defensive Alliance, dated October 7, 1879, concluded between Austria and Germany, and mainly directed against Russia.
According to the stipulation in Article III, the Treaty, in conformity with its peaceful character and to avoid any misinterpretation', was kept secret. This secrecy was maintained until the year 1888, when, for the same reasons, the two Governments determined to make it public.
It was published in the BerlinOfficial Gazette of February 3, 1888, with the following introductory note 1 :
'The Governments of Germany and of the AustroHungarian Monarchy have determined upon the publication of the Treaty concluded between them on the 7th October 1879, in order to put an end to doubts which
1 State Papers, vol. lxxiii, p. 270.
have been entertained in various quarters of its purely defensive character, and have been turnea to account for various ends. The two allied Governments are guided in their policy by the endeavour to maintain peace and to guard, as far as possible, against its disturbance; they are convinced that by making the contents of their Treaty of Alliance generally known they will exclude all possibility of doubt on this point, and have therefore resolved to publish it.'
Italy acceded to this treaty in 1882, although this fact is not alluded to in the above communication; and this tripartite arrangement is generally known as the Triple Alliance. Roumania also joined the group of the Triple Alliance in 1883, and repudiated it on August 30, 1916. 1
On the outbreak of the European War in 1914, in reply to the German Government's intimation of the fact that ultimatums had been presented to France and Russia, and to the question, what were the intentions of Italy, the Italian Government replied: 'The war undertaken by Austria and the consequences which may result, had, in the words of the German Ambassador himself, an aggressive object. Both were therefore in conflict with the purely defensive character of the Triple Alliance, and in such circumstances Italy would remain neutral.' 2 In fact the war was not a defensive but an aggressive war, and for this reason the casus foederis under the terms of the Triple Alliance did not arise. The purely defensive character of the compact seems therefore to be established.
What particular form was assumed by the Italian Accession in May 1882 to the Austro-German Alliance is doubtful. No substantive document in this connexion appears to have been made public. It may have been effected by means of a diplomatic note or unilateral
1 Mowat, Select Treaties, pp. 124-5, 129-32.
2 Parliamentary Paper, 'Miscellaneous No. 6 ( 1914), C. 7467, p. 75.
declaration, which perhaps merely announced the fact of the accession without reciting the terms of the compact. On a subsequent renewal of the Alliance, however, it is in evidence that in 1903 Italy signed a treaty with Austria (to which Germany was also a party), of which the stipulations in some respects differed from and were in excess of those of the original dual Alliance of 1879. Portions of this treaty were published by the Austrian Government in 1915, and reproduced in The Times newspaper of June 1 of that year. 1
The articles (or clauses as they were there called) so published were three in number, namely III, IV, and VII, and contained the following stipulations: Article III provided that if one or two of the Contracting Parties were attacked by a Power or Powers not signatory of the treaty, all the Contracting Parties would have to join in the war. Article IV provided for benevolent neutrality of the Contracting Parties, in case one of their members, not being first attacked, should have to declare war on another Power.
Article VII was extremely important. It had special reference to the Balkans, and proclaimed the interest of Austria and Italy in maintaining the territorial status quo there. It stipulated that the two Powers should give each other full information concerning their own, or any other Power's intentions in the Balkans. Further, it was agreed that if either Italy or Austria should be obliged to change the status quo in the Balkans, the Adriatic or the Aegean, such change should be made by agreement with the other Power and on condition of compensation to it.
What induced Italy to join the Austro-German Alliance in its original form as published by the German Government, may be a matter of conjecture. Count Benedetti, 2
1 See Mowat, Select Treaties and Documents, 1916 edition, pp. 124 and 128.
2 Studies in Diplomacy. Published by Heinemann, London, 1896
a former French Ambassador at Berlin, was of opinion that the accession of Italy was the work of Bismarck, who impressed upon Italy that a newly constituted monarchy stood in need of powerful foreign alliances, his object being to separate Italy from France. However this may be, a more direct incentive may be discovered in the terms of the more recent renewal of the Alliance as quoted above (Article VII), and its references to the satisfaction of the interests and rightful claims of the parties thereto in the event of any future modification of the status quo in the Balkans. Here Italy no doubt had an eye to national aspirations as regards a possible extension of territory in the direction of Trieste. Conditions analogous to the stipulations of Article VII may or may not have formed a part of the original accession of Italy to the Alliance, but as to this there appears to be no official publication available.
This Article VII has been appealed to both by Austria and by Italy in connexion with the affairs of South-Eastern Europe.
In 1911, during the Turco-Italian War arising out of Italian action in Tripoli (the Libyan War), the Austrian Government declared that the action of Italy on the Ottoman Coast of Turkey in Europe or on the Islands of the Aegean Sea could not be permitted either by Austria or by Germany because it would be opposed to the Treaty of Alliance, it being held that bombardment of ports such as Salonika, Kavalla, &c., was opposed to the provisions of Article VII. In April 1912 the Austrian Government again protested because the Italian squadron before the Dardanelles had damaged the forts in replying to the shots that were fired upon it from these forts. 1 The Italian Government denied that their action had threatened the status quo, and maintained that the attitude of Austria, by encouraging
1 Italian Green Book, Diplomatic Documents, 1915, English translation. Hodder & Stoughton, London.
and indirectly protecting Turkey, was a source of serious loss to Italy.
On the other hand, on the outbreak of the great European War in 1914, when Austrian troops invaded and occupied portions of Serbian territory, Italy in her turn protested against this disturbance of the status quo in the Balkans without a previous agreement being made as required by the terms of Article VII. A long correspondence ensued; territorial compensation was claimed by Italy; Austria proposed compensation at the expense of a third party ( Albania) ; Italy refused, demanding Austrian territory. In the end Austria promised an insufficient cession in the Trentino, to be delayed until the end of the war. This idea Italy declined to entertain, and finally, in May 1915, withdrew from the Triple Alliance, and declared war against Austria on the 23rd of the same month. In August 1916 she also declared war against Germany.
TREATY OF ALLIANCE BETWEEN GERMANY AND AUSTRIA. Vienna, October 7, 1879. 1
CONSIDERING that Their Majesties the German Emperor, King of Prussia, and the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, must esteem it as their incontestable duty as sovereigns to take care in all circumstances for the security of their empires and for the tranquillity of their peoples;
Considering that the two monarchs as in the previously existing confederation will be in a position, by a firm alliance of the two empires, to fulfil this duty more easily and more efficaciously;
Considering, finally, that an intimate accord between Germany and Austria-Hungary can menace nobody, but is, on the contrary, qualified to consolidate the peace of Europe created by the stipulations of the Treaty of Berlin;
Their Majesties the German Emperor and the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, promising one another never to give any aggressive tendency in any direction to their
1 In German. Nouveau Recueil, 2me série, tome xv; State Papers, vol. lxxiii, p. 270.
purely defensive agreement, have resolved to conclude an alliance of peace and reciprocal protection.
With this object Their Majesties have named as their plenipotentiaries;
For His Majesty the German Emperor his Ambassador and Plenipotentiary Extraordinary, Lieutenant-General Prince Henry VII of Reuss, &c., &c.
For His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, his Privy Counsellor the Minister of the Imperial Household and of Foreign Affairs, Field-Marshal-Lieutenant Julius, Count Andrassy, &c.
Who have come together to-day, at Vienna, and after having exchanged their powers duly recognized as good and sufficient, have concluded what follows:
ARTICLE I. If, contrary to expectation and against the sincere desire of both the High Contracting Parties, one of the two Empires shall be attacked on the part of Russia, the High Contracting Parties are bound to assist each other with the whole of the military power of their Empire, and consequently only to conclude peace conjointly and by agreement.
ARTICLE II. Should one of the High Contracting Parties be attacked by another Power, the other High Contracting Party hereby engages not only not to assist the aggressor against his High Ally, but at the least to observe a benevolent neutral attitude with regard to the High Contracting Party.
If, however, in such a case the attacking Power should be supported on the part of Russia, whether by way of active co-operation, or by military measures which menace the attacked Power, then the obligation of reciprocal assistance with full military power, which is stipulated in the first article of this Treaty, will in this case enter immediately into effect, and the conduct of war of both the High Contracting Parties shall be then also in common until the joint conclusion of Peace.
ARTICLE III. This Treaty, in conformity with its pacific character and to prevent any misconstruction, shall be kept secret by both High Contracting Parties, and it will be communicated to a Third Power only with the consent of both Parties, and strictly according to a special agreement.
Both High Contracting Parties, in view of the sentiments expressed by the Emperor Alexander at the interview at Alexandrowo, 1 hope that the preparations of Russia will not prove in reality to be a menace to them, and for this reason they have for the present no occasion for a communication. But if, contrary to expectation, this hope should prove a vain one, the two High Contracting Parties will recognize it as a loyal obligation, to inform the Emperor Alexander at least confidentially that they must consider an attack against one of them as directed against both.
In witness whereof the Plenipotentiaries have signed this treaty with their own hand, and have affixed their seals.
Done at Vienna, the 7th October, 1879.
H. VII. P. REUSS. (L. S.)
ANDRASSY. (L. S.)
THE TRIPLE ALLIANCE
THE PUBLISHED SECTIONS OF THE TRIPLE ALLIANCE TREATY BETWEEN AUSTRIA AND ITALY
(as renewed, May 20, 1903). 2
CLAUSE III. In case one or two of the High Contracting Parties, without direct provocation on their part, should be attacked by one or more Great Powers not signatory of the present Treaty and should become involved in a war with them, the casus foedeyis would arise simultaneously for all the High Contracting Parties.
CLAUSE IV. In case a Great Power not signatory of the present Treaty should threaten the State security of one of the High Contracting Parties, and in case the threatened party should thereby be compelled to declare war against that Great Power, the two other contracting parties engage themselves to maintain benevolent neutrality towards their Ally. Each of them reserves its right, in this case, to
1 1 September 3, 1879, in Posen. William I of Germany met Alexander II of Russia there, to try and allay the friction which existed between the two countries as a consequence of the Treaty of Berlin. The interview was cordial on both sides, but Bismarck was very dissatisfied with it. See P. Matter, Bismarck ( 1908), vol. iii, pp. 452-6; Busch, Bismarck (trans. 1898), vol. iii, pp. 257 -66. 2 The Times, June 1, 1915.
take part in the war if it thinks fit in order to make common cause with its Ally.
CLAUSE VII. Austria-Hungary and Italy, who have solely in view the maintenance, as far as possible, of the territorial status quo in the East, engage themselves to use their influence to prevent all territorial changes which might be disadvantageous to the one or the other of the Powers signatory of the present Treaty. To this end they will give reciprocally all information calculated to enlighten each other concerning their own intentions and those of other Powers. Should, however, the case arise that, in the course of events, the maintenance of the status quo in the territory of the Balkans or of the Ottoman coasts and islands in the Adriatic or the Aegean Seas becomes impossible, and that, either in consequence of the action of a third Power or for any other reason, Austria-Hungary or Italy should be obliged to change the status quo on their part by a temporary or permanent occupation, such occupation would only take place after previous agreement between the two Powers, which would have to be based upon the principle of a reciprocal compensation for all territorial or other advantages that either of them might acquire over and above the existing status quo, and would have to satisfy the interests and rightful claims of both parties.
PRELIMINARY TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN RUSSIA AND TURKEY. SIGNED AT SAN STEFANO,
February 19/ March 3, 1878.
His Majesty the Emperor of Russia and His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans, inspired with the wish of restoring and securing the blessings of peace to their countries and people, as well as of preventing any fresh complication which might imperil the same, have named as their Plenipotentiaries, with a view to draw up, conclude, and sign the Preliminaries of Peace:
His Majesty the Emperor of Russia on the one side, the Count Nicolas Ignatiew, &c., and Sieur Alexander Nelidow, &c.
And His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans on the other side, Safvet Pasha, &c., and Sadoullah Bey, &c.
Who, after having exchanged their full powers, which were found to be in good and proper form, have agreed to the following Articles:
ARTICLE I. In order to put an end to the perpetual conflicts between Turkey and Montenegro, the frontier which separates the two countries will be rectified, conformably to the map hereto annexed, subject to the reserve hereinafter mentioned, in the following manner:
From the mountain of Dobrostitza the frontier will follow the line indicated by the Conference of Constantinople as far as Korito by Bilek. Thence the new frontier will run to Gatzko (Metochia-Gatzko will belong to Montenegro), and towards the confluence of the Piva and the Tara, ascending towards the north by the Drina as far as its confluence with the Lim. The eastern frontier of the Principality will follow this last river as far as Prijepolje, and will proceed by Roshaj to Sukha-Planina (leaving Bihor and Roshaj to Montenegro). Taking in Bugovo, Plava, and Gusinje, the frontier line will follow the chain of mountains by Shlieb, Paklen, and along the northern frontier of Albania by the crests of the mountains Koprivnik, Babavik, Bor-vik, to the highest peak of Prokleti. From that point the frontier will proceed by the summit of Biskaschik, and will run in a straight line to the Lake of Tjiceni-hoti. Dividing Tjiceni-hoti and Tjicenikastrati, it will cross the Lake of Scutari to the Boyana, the thalweg of which it will follow as far as the sea. Nichsich, Gatzko, Spouje, Podgoritza, Jabliak, and Antivari will remain to Montenegro.
A European Commission, on which the Sublime Porte and the Government of Montenegro shall be represented, will be charged with fixing the definite limits of the Principality, making on the spot such modifications in the general tracing as it may think necessary and equitable, from the point of view of the respective interests and tranquillity of the two countries, to which it will accord in this respect the equivalents deemed necessary.
The navigation of the Boyana having always given rise to disputes between the Sublime Porte and Montenegro, will be the subject of a special regulation, which will be prepared by the same European Commission.
ARTICLE II. The Sublime Porte recognizes definitively the independence of the Principality of Montenegro.
An understanding between the Imperial Government of Russia, the Ottoman Government, and the Principality of Montenegro will determine subsequently the character and form of the relations between the Sublime Porte and the Principality as regards particularly the establishment of Montenegrin Agents at Constantinople, and in certain localities of the Ottoman Empire, where the necessity for such agents shall be recognized, the extradition of fugitive criminals on the one territory or the other, and the subjection of Montenegrins travelling or sojourning in the Ottoman Empire to the Ottoman laws and authorities, according to the principles of international law and the established usages concerning the Montenegrins.
A Convention will be concluded between the Sublime Porte and Montenegro to regulate the questions connected with the relations between the inhabitants of the confines of the two countries and with the military works on the same confines. The points upon which an understanding cannot be established will be settled by the arbitration of Russia and Austria-Hungary.
Henceforward, if there is any discussion or conflict, except as regards new territorial demands, Turkey and Montenegro will leave the settlement of their differences to Russia and Austria-Hungary, who will arbitrate in common.
The troops of Montenegro will be bound to evacuate the territory not comprised within the limits indicated above within ten days from the signature of the Preliminaries of Peace.
ARTICLE III. Servia is recognized as independent. Its frontier, marked on the annexed map, will follow the thalweg of the Drina, leaving Little Zwornik and Zakar to the Principality, and following the old limit as far as the sources of the stream Dezevo, near Stoilac. Thence the new line will follow the course of that stream as far as the River Raska, and then the course of the latter as far as NoviBazar.
From Novi-Bazar, ascending the stream which passes near the villages of Mekinje and Irgoviste as far as its source, the frontier line will run by Bosur Planina, in the valley of the Ibar, and will then descend the stream which falls into this river near the village of Ribanic.
The line will then follow the course of the Rivers Ibar, Sitnitza and Lab, and of the brook Batintze to its source (upon the Grapachnitza Planina). Thence the frontier will follow the heights which separate the waters of the Kriva and the Veternitza, and will meet the latter river by the shortest route at the mouth of the stream Miovatzka, which it will ascend, crossing the Miovatzka Planina and redescending towards the Morava, near the village of Kalimanci.
From this point the frontier will descend the Morava as far as the River Vlossina, near the village of Staïkovtzi. Reascending the latter river, as well as the Linberazda, and the brook Koukavitze, the line will pass by the Sukha Planina, will run along the stream Vrylo as far as the Nisawa, and will descend the said river as far as the village of Kronpatz, whence the line will rejoin by the shortest route the old Servian frontier to the south-east of Karaoul Baré, and will not leave it until it reaches the Danube.
Ada-Kale will be evacuated and razed.
A Turco-Servian Commission, assisted by a Russian Commissioner, will, within three months, arrange upon the spot the definite frontier line, and will definitely settle the questions relating to the islands of the Drina. A Bulgarian delegate will be admitted to participate in the work of the Commission when it shall be engaged on the frontier between Servia and Bulgaria.
ARTICLE IV. The Mussulmans holding lands in the territories annexed to Servia, and who wish to reside out of the Principality, can preserve their real property by having them farmed out or administered by others. A TurcoServian Commission, assisted by a Russian Commissioner, will be charged to decide absolutely, in the course of two years, all questions relating to the verification of real estate in which Mussulman interests are concerned.
This Commission will also be called upon to settle within three years the method of alienation of State property and of religious endowments (Vacouf), as well as the questions relative to the interests of private persons which may be involved. Until a direct Treaty is concluded between Turkey and Servia determining the character of the relations between the Sublime Porte and the Principality, Servian subjects travelling or sojourning in the Ottoman Empire shall be treated according to the general principles of international law.
The Servian troops shall be bound to evacuate the territory not comprised within the above-mentioned limits within fifteen days from the signature of the Preliminaries of Peace.
ARTICLE V. The Sublime Porte recognizes the independence of Roumania, which will establish its right to an indemnity, to be discussed between the two countries.
Until the conclusion of a direct Treaty between Turkey and Roumania, Roumanian subjects will enjoy in Turkey all the rights guaranteed to the subjects of other European Powers.
ARTICLE VI. Bulgaria is constituted an autonomous tributary Principality, with a Christian Government and a national militia.
The definitive frontiers of the Bulgarian Principality will be traced by a special Russo-Turkish Commission before the evacuation of Roumelia by the Imperial Russian army.
This Commission will, in working out the modifications to be made on the spot in the general tracing, take into account the principle of the nationality of the majority of the inhabitants of the border districts, conformably to the Bases of Peace, and also the topographical necessities and practical interests of the intercommunication of the local population.
The extent of the Bulgarian Principality is laid down in general terms on the accompanying map, which will serve as a basis for the definitive fixing of the limits. Leaving the new frontier of the Servian Principality, the line will follow the western limit of the Caza of Wrania as far as the chain of the Kara-dagh. Turning towards the west, the line will follow the western limits of the Cazas of Koumanovo, Kotchani, Kalkandelen, to Mount Korab; thence by the River Welestchitza as far as its junction with the black Drina. Turning towards the south by the Drina, and afterwards by the western limit of the Caza of Ochride towards Mount Linas, the frontier will follow the western limits of the Cazas of Gortcha and Starovo as far as Mount Grammos. Then by the Lake of Kastoria, the frontier line will rejoin the River Moglenitza, and after having followed its course, and passed to the south of Yanitza (Wardar Yenidje), will go by the mouth of the Warder and by the Galliko towards the villages of Parga and of Saraï-keui; thence through the middle of Lake Bechik-Guel to the mouth of the Rivers Strouma and Karassou, and by the sea-coast as far as BuruGuel; thence striking north-west towards Mount Tchaltepe by the chain of Rhodope as far as Mount Krouschowo, by the Black Balkans (Kara-Balkan), by the mountains Eschekkoulatchi, Tchepelion, Karakolas, and Tschiklar, as far as the River Arda.
Thence the line will be traced in the direction of the town of Tchirmen, and leaving the town of Adrianople to the south, by the villages of Sugutlion, Kara-Hamza, Aronautkeui, Akardji, and Enidje as far as the River Tekederessi. Following the Rivers Tekederessi and Tchorlouderessi as far as Loule-Bourgaz, and thence, by the River Soudjakdere as far as the village of Serguen, the frontier line will go by the heights straight towards Hakimtabissai, where it will strike the Black Sea. It will leave the sea-coast near Mangalia, following the southern boundaries of the Sandjak of Toultcha, and will come out on the Danube above Rassova.
ARTICLE VII. The Prince of Bulgaria shall be freely elected by the population and confirmed by the Sublime Porte, with the assent of the Powers. No member of the reigning dynasties of the great European Powers shall be capable of being elected Prince of Bulgaria.
In the event of the dignity of Prince of Bulgaria being vacant, the election of the new Prince shall be made subject to the same conditions and forms.
Before the election of the Prince, an Assembly of Bulgarian Notables, to be convoked at Philippopolis (Plowdiw) or Tyrnowo, shall draw up, under the superintendence of an Imperial Russian Commissioner, and in the presence of an Ottoman Commissioner, the organization of the future administration, in conformity with the precedents established in 1830 after the Peace of Adrianople, in the Danubian Principalities.
In the localities where Bulgarians are mixed with Turks, Greeks, Wallachians (Koutzo-Vlachs), or others, proper account is to be taken of the rights and interests of these populations in the elections and in the preparation of the Organic Laws.
The introduction of the new system into Bulgaria, and the superintendence of its working, will be intrusted for two years to an Imperial Russian Commissioner. At the expiration of the first year after the introduction of the new system, and if an understanding on this subject has been established between Russia, the Sublime Porte, and the Cabinets of Europe, they can, if it is deemed necessary, associate Special Delegates with the Imperial Russian Commissioner.
ARTICLE VIII. The Ottoman army will no longer remain in Bulgaria, and all the ancient fortresses will be razed at the expense of the local Government. The Sublime Porte will have the right to dispose, as it sees fit, of the war material and of the other property belonging to the Ottoman Government which may have been left in the Danubian fortresses already evacuated in accordance with the terms of the
Armistic of the
19th ______ 31st January, as well as of that in the
strongholds of Schoumla and Varna.
Until the complete formation of a native militia sufficient to preserve order, security, and tranquillity, and the strength of which will be fixed later on by an understanding between the Ottoman Government and the Imperial Russian Cabinet, Russian troops will occupy the country, and will give armed assistance to the Commissioner in case of need. This occupation will also be limited to a term approximating to two years.
The strength of the Russian army of occupation to be composed of six divisions of infantry and two of cavalry, which will remain in Bulgaria after the evacuation of Turkey by the Imperial army, shall not exceed 50,000 men. It will be maintained at the expense of the country occupied. The Russian troops of occupation in Bulgaria will maintain their communications with Russia, not only through Roumania, but also by the ports of the Black Sea, Varna, and Bourgas, where they may organize, for the term of the occupation, the necessary dépôts.
ARTICLE IX. The amount of the annual tribute which Bulgaria is to pay the Suzerain Court, by transmitting it to a bank to be hereafter named by the Sublime Porte, will be determined by an agreement between Russia, the Ottoman Government, and the other Cabinets, at the end of the first year during which the new organization shall be in operation. This tribute will be calculated on the average revenue of all the territory which is to form part of the Principality.
Bulgaria will take upon itself the obligations of the Imperial Ottoman Government towards the Rustchuk and Varna Railway Company, after an agreement has been come to between the Sublime Porte, the Government of the Principality, and the Directors of this Company. The regulations as to the other railways (voies ferrées) which cross the Principality are also reserved for an agreement between the Sublime Porte, the Government established in Bulgaria, and the Directors of the Companies concerned.
ARTICLE X. The Sublime Porte shall have the right to make use of Bulgaria for the transport by fixed routes of its troops, munitions, and provisions to the provinces beyond the Principality, and vice versa. In order to avoid difficulties and misunderstandings in the application of this right, while guaranteeing the military necessities of the Sublime Porte, a special regulation will lay down the conditions of it within three months after the ratification of the present Act by an understanding between the Sublime Porte and the Bulgarian Government.
It is fully understood that this right is limited to the regular Ottoman troops, and that the irregulars, the BashiBazouks, and the Circassians will be absolutely excluded from it.
The Sublime Porte also reserves to itself the right of sending its postal service through the Principality, and of maintaining telegraphic communication. These two points shall also be determined in the manner and within the period of time indicated above.
ARTICLE XI. The Mussulman proprietors or others who fix their personal residence outside the Principality may retain their estates by having them farmed or administered by others. Turco-Bulgarian Commissions shall sit in the principal centres of population, under the superintendence of Russian Commissioners, to decide absolutely in the course of two years all questions relative to the verification of real property, in which either Mussulmans or others may be interested. Similar commissions will be charged with the duty of regulating within two years all questions relative to the mode of alienation, working, or use for the benefit of the Sublime Porte of the property of the State, and of the religious endowments (Vacouf).
At the expiration of the two years mentioned above all properties which shall not have been claimed shall be sold by public auction, and the proceeds thereof shall be devoted to the support of the widows and orphans, Mussulman as well as Christian, victims of the recent events.
ARTICLE XII. All the Danubian fortresses shall be razed. There shall be no strongholds in future on the banks of this river, nor any men-of-war in the waters of the Principalities of Roumania, Servia, and Bulgaria, except the usual 'stationnaires' and the small vessels intended for riverpolice and Custom-house purposes. The rights, obligations, and prerogatives of the International Commission of the Lower Danube are maintained intact.
ARTICLE XIII. The Sublime Porte undertakes to render the passage of Soulina again navigable, and to indemnify the private individuals who have suffered loss by the war and the interruption of the navigation of the Danube, applying for this double charge a sum of five hundred thousand francs from the amount due to the Sublime Porte from the Danubian Commission.
ARTICLE XIV. The European proposals communicated to the Ottoman Plenipotentiaries at the first sitting of the Constantinople Conference shall immediately be introduced into Bosnia and Herzegovina, with any modifications which may be agreed upon in common between the Sublime Porte, the Government of Russia, and that of AustriaHungary.
The payment of arrears of taxes shall not be required, and the current revenues of these provinces until the 1st March, 1880, shall be exclusively applied to indemnify the families of refugees and inhabitants, victims of recent events, without distinction of race or creed, as well as to the local needs of the country. The sum to be received annually after this period by the Central Government shall be subsequently fixed by a special understanding between Turkey, Russia, and Austria-Hungary.
ARTICLE XV. The Sublime Porte engages to apply scrupulously in the Island of Crete the Organic Law of 1868, taking into account the previously-expressed wishes of the native population.
An analogous law adapted to local requirements shall likewise be introduced into Epirus, Thessaly, and the other parts of Turkey in Europe, for which a special constitution is not provided by the present Act.
Special Commissions, in which the native population will be largely represented, shall in each province be entrusted with the task of elaborating the details of the new organization, and the result of their labours shall be submitted to the Sublime Porte, who will consult the Imperial Government of Russia before carrying it into effect.
ARTICLE XVI. As the evacuation by the Russian troops of the territory which they occupy in Armenia, and which is to be restored to Turkey, might give rise to conflicts and complications detrimental to the maintenance of good relations between the two countries, the Sublime Porte engages to carry into effect, without further delay, the improvements and reforms demanded by local requirements in the provinces inhabited by Armenians, and to guarantee their security from Kurds and Circassians.
ARTICLE XVII. A full and complete amnesty is granted by the Sublime Porte to all Ottoman subjects compromised by recent events, and all persons imprisoned on this account or sent into exile shall be immediately set at liberty.
ARTICLE XVIII. The Sublime Porte will take into serious consideration the opinion expressed by the Commissioners of the Mediating Powers as regards the possession of the town of Khotour, and engages to have the works of the definitive delimitation of the Turco-Persian Boundary carried into effect.ARTICLE XIX. The war indemnities and the losses imposed on Russia which His Majesty the Emperor of Russia claims, and which the Sublime Porte has bound itself to reimburse to him, consist of -- a. 900,000,000 roubles for war expenses (maintenance of the army, replacing of war material, and war contracts). b. 400,000,000 roubles on account of damage done to the south coast of Russia, to her export commerce, to her industries, and to her railways. c. 100,000,000 roubles for injuries inflicted on the Caucasus by the invasion; and, d. 10,000,000 roubles for costs and damages of Russian subjects and establishments in Turkey.
Total, 1,410,000,000 roubles.
Taking into consideration the financial embarrassments of Turkey, and in accordance with the wishes of His Majesty the Sultan, the Emperor of Russia consents to substitute for the payment of the greater part of the moneys enumerated in the above paragraph, the following territorial cessions:
(a) The Sandjak of Toultcha, that is to say, the districts (Cazas) of Kilia, Soulina, Mahmoudié, Isaktcha, Toultcha, Matchine, Babadagh, Hirsowo, Kustendje, and Medjidie, as well as the Delta Islands and the Isle of Serpents.
Not wishing, however, to annex this territory and the Delta Islands, Russia reserves the right of exchanging them for the part of Bessarabia detached from her by the Treaty of 1856, and which is bounded on the south by the thalweg of the Kilia branch and the mouth of the Stary-Stamboul.
The question of the apportionment of waters and fisheries shall be determined by a Russo-Roumanian Commission within a year after the ratification of the Treaty of Peace.
(b) Ardahan, Kars, Batoum, Bayazet, and the territory as far as the Saganlough.
In its general outline, the frontier line, leaving the Black Sea coast, will follow the crest of the mountains which separate the affluents of the River Hopa from those of the River Tcharokh, and the chain of mountains to the south of the town of Artwin up to the River Tcharokh, near the villages of Alat and Bechaget; then the frontier will pass by the peaks of Mounts Dervenikghek, Hortchezor, and Bedjiguin-Dagh, by the crest which separates the affluents of the Rivers Tortoum-tchaï and the Tcharokh by the heights near Zaily-Vihine, coming down at the village Vihine-Kilissa to the River Tortoum-chaï; thence it will follow the Sivridagh Chain to the pass (col) of the same name, passing south of the village of Noriman; then it will turn to the south-east and go to Zivine, whence the frontier, passing west of the road which leads from Zivine to the villages of Ardost and Horassan, will turn south by the Saganlough Chain to the village of Gilitchman; then by the crest of the Charian-Dagh it will arrive, ten versts south of Hamour, at the Mourad-tchai defile; then the line will follow the crest of the Alla-Dagh and the summits of the Hori and Tandourek, and, passing south of the Bayazet Valley, will proceed to rejoin the old Turco-Persian frontier to the south of the lake of Kazli-gueul.
The definitive limits of the territory annexed to Russia, and indicated on the map hereto appended, will be fixed by a Commission composed of Russian and Ottoman delegates.
This Commission in its labours will take into account the topography of localities, as well as considerations of good administration and other conditions calculated to insure the tranquillity of the country.
(c) The territories mentioned in paragraphs (a) and (b) are ceded to Russia as an equivalent for the sum of one milliard and one hundred million roubles. As for the rest of the indemnity, apart from the 10,000,000 of roubles intended to indemnify Russian interests and establishments in Turkey -- namely, 300,000,000 of roubles -- the mode of payment and guarantee of that sum shall be settled by an understanding between the Imperial Government of Russia and that of His Majesty the Sultan.
(d) The 10,000,000 roubles claimed as indemnity for the Russian subjects and establishments in Turkey shall be paid as soon as the claims of those interested are examined by the Russian Embassy at Constantinople and handed to the Sublime Porte.
ARTICLE XX. The Sublime Porte will take effective steps to put an amicable end to the lawsuits of Russian subjects pending for several years, to indemnify the latter if need be, and to carry into effect without delay all judgments passed.
ARTICLE XXI. The inhabitants of the districts ceded to Russia who wish to take up their residence out of these territories will be free to retire on selling all their real property.
For this purpose an interval of three years is granted them, counting from the date of ratification of the present Act.
On the expiration of that time those of the inhabitants who shall not have sold their real property and left the country shall remain Russian subjects.
Real property belonging to the State, or to religious establishments situated out of the localities aforesaid, shall be sold within the same interval of three years as shall be arranged by a special Russo-Turkish Commission. The same Commission shall be intrusted with determining how the Ottoman Government is to remove its war material, munitions, supplies, and other State property actually in the forts, towns, and localities ceded to Russia, and not at present occupied by Russian troops.
ARTICLE XXII. Russian ecclesiastics, pilgrims, and monks travelling or sojourning in Turkey in Europe or in Asia shall enjoy the same rights, advantages, and privileges as the foreign ecclesiastics of any other nationality.
The right of official protection by the Imperial Embassy and Russian Consulates in Turkey is recognized, both as regards the persons above-mentioned, and their possessions, religious houses, charitable institutions, &c., in the Holy Places and elsewhere.
The monks of Mount Athos, of Russian origin, shall be maintained in all their possessions and former privileges, and shall continue to enjoy in the three convents belonging to them and in the adjoining buildings the same rights and privileges as are assured to the other religious establishments and convents of Mount Athos.
ARTICLE XXIII. All the Treaties, Conventions, and agreements previously concluded between the two High Contracting Parties relative to commerce, jurisdiction, and the position of Russian subjects in Turkey, and which had been abrogated by the state of war, shall come into force again, with the exception of the clauses affected by the present Act. The two Governments will be placed again in the same relation to one another, with respect to all their engagements and commercial and other relations, as they were in before the declaration of war.
ARTICLE XXIV. The Bosphorus and the Dardanelles shall remain open in time of war as in time of peace to the merchant-vessels of neutral States arriving from or bound to Russian ports. The Sublime Porte consequently engages never henceforth to establish at the ports of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azow, a fictitious blockade (blocus fictif), at variance with the spirit of the Declaration signed at Paris on the 4,16 April, 1856.
ARTICLE XXV. The complete evacuation of Turkey in Europe, with the exception of Bulgaria, by the Russian army will take place within three months after the conclusion of the definitive peace between His Majesty the Emperor of Russia and His Majesty the Sultan.
In order to save time, and to avoid the cost of the prolonged maintenance of the Russian troops in Turkey and Roumania, part of the Imperial army may proceed to the ports of the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmora, to be there shipped in vessels belonging to the Russian Government or chartered for the occasion.
The evacuation of Turkey in Asia will be effected within the space of six months, dating from the conclusion of the definitive peace, and the Russian troops will be entitled to take ship at Trebizond in order to return by the Caucasus or the Crimea.
The operations of the evacuation will begin immediately after the exchange of ratifications.
ARTICLE XXVI. As long as the Imperial Russian troops remain in the localities which, in conformity with the present Act, will be restored to the Sublime Porte, the administration and order of affairs will continue in the same state as has existed since the occupation. The Sublime Porte will not participate therein during all that time, nor until the entire departure of all the troops.
The Ottoman forces shall not enter the places to be restored to the Sublime Porte, and the Sublime Porte cannot begin to exercise its authority there until notice of each fortress and province having been evacuated by the Russian troops shall have been given by the Commander of these troops to the officer appointed for this purpose by the Sublime Porte.
ARTICLE XXVII. The Sublime Porte undertakes not to punish in any manner, or allow to be punished, those Ottoman subjects who may have been compromised by their relations with the Russian army during the war. In the event of any persons wishing to withdraw with their families when the Russian troops leave, the Ottoman authorities shall not oppose their departure.
ARTICLE XXVIII. Immediately upon the ratification of the Preliminaries of Peace, the prisoners of war shall be reciprocally restored under the care of special Commissioners appointed on both sides, who for this purpose shall go to Odessa and Sebastopol. The Ottoman Government will pay all the expenses of the maintenance of the prisoners that are returned to them, in eighteen equal instalments in the space of six years, in accordance with the accounts that will be drawn up by the above-mentioned Commissioners.
The exchange of prisoners between the Ottoman Government and the Governments of Roumania, Servia, and Montenegro will be made on the same basis, deducting, however, in the account, the number of prisoners restored by the Ottoman Government from the number of prisoners that will have to be restored to that Government.
ARTICLE XXIX. The present Act shall be ratified by their Imperial Majesties the Emperor of Russia and the Emperor of the Ottomans, and the ratifications shall be exchanged in fifteen days, or sooner if possible, at St. Petersburgh, where likewise an agreement shall be come to as to the place and the time at which the stipulations of the present Act shall be invested with all the solemn forms usually observed in Treaties of Peace. It is, however, well understood that the High Contracting Parties consider themselves as formally bound by the present Act from the moment of its ratification.
In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have appended their signatures and seals to the present Act.
Done at San Stefano, the nineteenth February, third March, one thousand, eight hundred and seventy-eight.
Cte. N. IGNATIEW.
Final paragraph of Article XI of the Act of the Preliminaries of Peace signed this day, February 19, March 3 1878, which was omitted, and which should form an integral part of the said Article:
The inhabitants of the Principality of Bulgaria when travelling or sojourning in the other parts of the Ottoman Empire shall be subject to the Ottoman laws and authorities.
(The same signatures.)
San Stefano, February 19
March 3 , 1878.
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF PRINCIPAL DOCUMENTS AND EVENTS GIVEN OR REFERRED TO IN THIS VOLUME
The letter 'T' indicates Texts of documents given.
" " 'R' " Documents and events referred to.
The figures indicate the pages.
1713. Treaty of Utrecht. Austrian Netherlands. R. 128.
1720. Guarantees respecting Schleswig. Great Britain and France. R. 187.
1740 (and later). Capitulations. Turkey and European Powers. R. 159.
1767. Treaty. Denmark and Russia. Schleswig. R. 187.
1773. Treaty. Denmark and Russia. Schleswig. R. 187.
1789. July. French Revolution. Destruction of Bastille. R. 16.
1793. Jan. 21. Execution of Louis XVI. R. 18.
Feb. 1. War between England and France. R. 19.
1814. Mar. 31. Surrender of Paris to Allies. R. 19.
May 3. Louis XVIII enters Paris. R. 19.
May 30. Treaty of Peace between the Allies and France (the 'First Peace of Paris). R. 19-24.
May 30. Slave-trade Article to above. T. 24 (foot-note).
May 30. Treaty of Peace. Article VI: Kingdom of Netherlands. R. 129.
July 30. Speech of Prince Regent on the Peace, &c. T. (extract) 25.
Sept. General Congress assembled at Vienna. (Concluded labours June 19, 1815.) R. 25.
Oct. 30. General Congress assembled at Vienna. First plenary meeting. R. 29.
Oct. Task and Negotiations of Congress. R. 26 onwards.
1815. Slave-trade discussions in Vienna Congress. R. 30.
Jan.-Feb. Slave Trade. R. 32, 33.
Vienna Congress. Discussions and results. R. 30 onwards.
Jan. 3. Treaty, Defensive Alliance: Great Britain, France, and Austria. R. 30.
March. Free Navigation of Rivers. Regulations. R. 31.
The seventeen Annexes to the Treaty of Vienna. Epitome 95-98. Comprising the following documents:
Apr. 21-May 3. I. Treaty. Austria and Russia. Poland. Boundaries and other stipulations. 95.
Apr. 21-May 3. II. Treaty. Russia and Prussia. Poland, &c. 95.
Apr. 21-May 3. III. Treaty (additional). Austria, Prussia, Russia. Cracow. 95.
May 18. IV. Treaty. Prussia and Saxony, &c. Territorial changes, Elbe navigation, &c. 95-6.
1815. May 18-29. V. Declaration. Saxony. House of Schönburg. 96.
May 29. VI. Treaty. Prussia and Hanover. Territorial. 96.
June I. VII. Convention. Prussia and Saxe-Weimar. Territorial. 96.
May 31. VIII. Convention. Prussia and Nassau. Territorial. Ehrenbreitstein. 96.
June 8. IX. Act. Federative Constitution of Germany. 96.
May 31. X. Treaty. Great Britain, &c., and Netherlands. Union with Belgium. 97.
Mar. 20. XI A. Declaration (eight Powers). Helvetic Confederacy. 97.
May 27. XI B. Act of Acceptance of above by Switzerland. 97.
Mar. 29. XII. Protocol (eight Powers). Cessions: Sardinia to Geneva, &c. 97.
May 20. XIII. Treaty (six Powers). Sardinia, Geneva, &c. Genoa. Chablais. Faucigny. Boundaries, &c. 97.
May 20. XIV. Conditions for Union of Genoa with Sardinia (annexed to Annex XIII). 98.
Feb. 8. XV. Declaration (eight Powers). Abolition of Slavetrade. 98.
Mar. XVI. Regulations. Navigation of Rivers. 98.
Mar. 19. XVII. Regulations. Precedence of Diplomatic Agents. 98.
June 9. Vienna Congress Treaty. T. 37-94.
June 18. Battle of Waterloo. R. 52.
Sept. 26. Treaty 'Holy Alliance': Austria, Prussia, and Russia. R. 34, 35.
Sept. 'Holy Alliance'. Prince Regent's reply to invitation to accede. R. 36.
Nov. 20. Treaty. 'Second Peace of Paris.' Modifications. War Indemnity, &c. R. 36, 37.
1819. July 20. Treaty. Article 36. Luxemburg garrisoned by Prussia. R. 257.
1822 and 1823. Conferences. Troppau and Laibach. Revolution in Naples, &c. R. 36.
1823. Congress of Verona. Slave Trade. R. 33.
1825. Sept. 30. Proclamation of Neutrality. Greek Insurrection. R. 105 (footnote).
1826. Apr. 4. Protocol of Petersburgh. Mediation between Greece and Turkey. R. 105-6.
1827. July 6. Treaty. Great Britain, France, and Russia. Mediation between Greece and Turkey. R. 106.
Oct. 20. Battle of Navarino. Destruction of Egyptian Fleet. R. 106-7.
1829. Sept. 14. Treaty of Adrianople. Russia and Turkey. (Settlement of Greece, &c.) R. 107-8.
1830. Feb. 3. Protocol. Great Britain, France, and Russia. Independence of Greece. R. 108. T. 120.
1831. Apr. Crown of Belgium accepted by Prince Leopold. R. 133.
Nov. 15. Treaty. Separation of Belgium from Holland (Luxemburg, &c.). R. 133, 257.
1832. May 7. Convention. Great Britain, France, and Russia. Independence of Greece: Guarantee, Loan, &c. R. 108. T. 116.
1833. July 8. Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi. Russia and Turkey. R. 166.
1839. Apr. 19. Treaty. Kingdom of Belgium (Luxemburg, &c.). T. 141. R. 257.
1840. July 15. Treaty. Great Britain, &c., and Turkey. Pacification of Levant. R. 167.
1846. July 8. Royal Rescript, Denmark. Danish Duchies. R. 187. T. (extract) 188-9.
1847. Dec. 24. Treaty. Austria and Modena. Alliance. R. 214.
1848. Feb. 4. Treaty. Austria and Parma. Alliance. R. 214.
1849. Aug. 6. Treaty. Austria and Sardinia. Peace. R. 212.
1850. Feb. Advice by Lord Palmerston to Denmark. Succession question. R. 191.
July 2. Treaty. Peace. Denmark and German Confederacy: Duchies question. R. 190.
1852. Jan. Arrangement. Danish promises respecting the Duchies. R. 191.
May 8. Treaty. Denmark and the Powers. Integrity of Danish monarchy: Succession. R. 191. T. 198.
1855. Sept. 8. Fall of Sebastopol.
1856. Feb. 18. Hatti-Hamouin. Christians in Turkey. Reforms. R. 321.
Mar. 30. Treaty of Paris. End of Crimean War. R. 168-76, 313. T. 176.
Mar. 30. Treaty of Paris. Partial denunciation of. R. 31318.
Apr. 14. Declaration. Mediation before going to war. R. 243-4, 270 (footnotes).
Apr. 16. Declaration of Paris. Maritime Law. R. 175. T. 185.
Oct. 17. Treaty. Great Britain and United States ('Clarendon-Dallas'). R. 5.
1859. Apr. 28. Declaration of War. Austria against Sardinia. R. 214.
Apr. 29. Declaration of War. Sardinia against Austria. R. 214.
May 3. Declaration of War. France against Austria. R. 214.
July II. Preliminary Articles of Peace. France and Austria. R. 214.
July 25. Dispatch. Lord John Russell. Views respecting proposed reorganization of Italy. R. 216.
Aug. Italian Duchies vote annexation to Sardinia. R. 216-17.
Nov. 10. Treaty. France and Austria (and Italy). Peace. Cession of Lombardy. R. 215-19. T. 226.
Congress (proposed). Austrian and Sardinian difficulties, &c. R. 213, 219.
1860. Jan. 1. Dispatch. Lord Cowley. Congress abandoned. T. 219-20.
Mar. 18 Decrees. Sardinia annexes Italian Duchies, &c. Mar. 22 R. 220-1.
1860. Mar. 24. Treaty. France and Sardinia. Annexation of Savoy and Nice to France. R. 222.
June 21. Arrangement. Greek Loan: Interest, &c. R. 110.
1861. Mar. 17. Law. Title of King of Italy assumed by King of Sardinia. R. 222.
1863, July 13. Treaty. Great Britain, France, and Russia. Greek throne. Guarantee. Cession of Ionian Islands, &c. R. 110. T. 123. Nov. Constitution incorporating Schleswig with Denmark. R. 192, 193.
Claim of Duke of Augustenburg to Danish Duchies. R. 193.
1864. Apr.-June. Conferences: Dano-German War. R. 195.
Oct. 30. Treaty. Austria, Prussia, Denmark. Cession of the Duchies. R. 195. T. 199.
1865. Aug. 14. Convention. Austria and Prussia. Division of Danish Duchies, &c. R. 196, 242. Sept. 14. Dispatch by Earl Russell. Conduct of Austria and Prussia re the Duchies. T. 197.
Sept. Meeting of Bismarck and Napoleon III at Biarritz ( Italy). R. 263.
1866. May. Alliance. Italy and Prussia against Austria. R. 223, 242.
May. Proposed Congress. Lord Clarendon's views. R. 243.
June 14. Prussian Declaration. Dissolution of Germanic Confederation. R. 242.
June 17-20. Declarations of War. Italy and Prussia against Austria. R. 223, 246.
July 26. Treaty (preliminary). Austria and Prussia. Peace. (Cession of Venetia to Italy.) R. 223, 247.
Aug. 13. Treaty. Prussia and Wurtemberg. Peace. War indemnity, &c. R. 249.
Aug. 17. Treaty. Prussia and Baden. Peace, &c.: Rhine Dues. R. 249.
Aug. 22. Treaty. Prussia and Bavaria. Peace, &c. R. 250.
Aug. 23. Treaty ( Prague). Austria and Prussia. Peace. Venetia, Danish Duchies, &c. R. 224, 248. T. 251,
Aug. and Sept. Treaties. Alliance: South German States and Prussia. R. 250.
Sept. 3. Treaty. Prussia and Hesse-Darmstadt. Peace, &c. R. 250.
Sept. 20. Decree. Annexations to Prussia. R. 249.
Oct. 3. Treaty. Austria and Italy. Peace. (Cession of Venetia, &c.) R. 224. T. 233.
Oct. 8. Treaty. Prussia and Saxe-Meiningen. Peace, &c. R. 250.
Oct. 19. Procès-verbal. Delivery of Venetia to the Venetians. R. 226.
Oct. 21. Treaty. Prussia and Saxony. Peace. Army. War Indemnity, &c. R. 250.
1867. May 11. Treaty. Great Britain, &c. Luxemburg question (Neutral State, &c.). R. 258, 264. T. 260. June 14. Constitution. North German Confederation. R. 250.
July 4. Speech: Lord Derby, on nature of Guarantees, &c. (Luxemburg question). R. 258.
1870. July 6. Statement by Duc de Gramont. Hohenzollern Candidature for throne of Spain. T. 266.
July 13. The Ems telegram. History of. R. 268. T. 269-70 (footnote).
July. Hohenzollern affair. British action. R. 266-70.
July. Hohenzollern affair. Appeal to Paris Declaration as to mediation. R. 270.
July 19. Declaration of War. France against Prussia. R. 271.
Aug. 9. Treaty. Great Britain and Prussia. Neutrality of Belgium, R. 270-1.
Aug. 11. Treaty. Great Britain and France. Neutrality of Belgium. R. 270-1.
Oct. 31. Denunciation by Russia of Black Sea Articles of Treaty of Paris, 1856. R. 313-16.
1871. Jan. 17. Declaration. Binding force of Treaties. T. 11. R. 320.
Jan. 18. King of Prussia proclaimed German Emperor. R. 271.
Feb. 26. Treaty, preliminary. Peace, Boundaries, &c: France and Germany. R. 271. T. 274.
Mar. 13. General Treaty. Black Sea, Dardanelles, Danube, &c. Amendment of Treaty of Paris, 1856. R. 318-21. T. 330.
Apr. 16. Constitution. German Empire. R. 273. T. 288.
May 10. Treaty, definitive. Peace, Boundaries, &c.: France and Germany. R. 272. T. 279.
Oct. 12. Additional Convention. France and Germany. Customs, Renewal of Treaties, &c. R. 272.
Dec. 11. Additional Convention. France and Germany. Customs, Renewal of Treaties, &c. R. 272.
1870-1. Action of Prussia respecting Neutrality of Luxemburg. R. 259. Causes of Franco-German War. R. 271 (footnote).
1876. Jan. Andrassy Note. Eastern question. R. 322.
July. Serbia and Montenegro declare war on Turkey. R. 324.
1876-7. Constantinople Conferences. R. 324.
1877. Apr. 24. Declaration of War. Russia against Turkey. R. 324.
1878. Feb. 6. British Fleet pass through Dardanelles. R. 325.
Mar. 3. Treaty (San Stefano). Peace, &c. Russia and Turkey. R. 325. T. 377.
June 4. Convention. Great Britain and Turkey. Alliance. Cyprus, &c. R. 326.
June 13. Congress of Berlin. Affairs of the East. R. 326.
July 13. Treaty of Berlin. Affairs of the East. R. 326. T. 332.
1879. Oct. 7. Dual Alliance: Germany and Austria. R. 368-9. T. 372-4.
1881. May .24. Treaty. Six Powers and Turkey. Thessaly ceded to Greece. R. 111.
1882. May. Accession of Italy to Treaty of Alliance of 1879 between Austria and Germany (Triple Alliance). Renewed May 20, 1903. R. 369. T. 374.
1886. Apr. 5. Act. Modification of Treaty of Berlin, 1878. Union of Bulgaria and Eastern Roumelia. R. 326. 1890. July 1. Agreement. Anglo-German. Heligoland, &c. R. 6.
Nov. 23. Luxemburg passes from Netherlands by operation of Salic Law. R. 259.
1892. Oct. 17. Extradition Treaty. Great Britain and Portugal. R. 13.
1897. Turco-Greek War. R. 111.
1903. May 20. Triple Alliance, 1882. Renewal. T. 374.
1908. Oct. 3. Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria. R. 327.
Oct. 5. Proclamation. Independence of Bulgaria. R. 327.
1912. Oct. 18. Treaty. Italy and Turkey. Peace. Annexation of Tripoli. R. 327.
Sept. 30. Balkan War. R. 327.
1906-12. Conversations. British and Belgian Officers. Defence of Belgium against Germany. T. 152-7.
1913. May 19. Serbo-Greek Treaty of Alliance. R. 113.
May 30. Treaty. Balkan States and Turkey. Peace, &c. R. 328. T. 361.
Aug. 10. Treaty. Balkan States and Turkey. Peace, &c. R. 328. T. 362.
1914. Aug. 2. Commencement of European War. R. 329. Aug. 4. Belgian appeal to Powers. Violation of Neutrality. T. 137.
Belgium. German acknowledgement of wrongful action. T. 136.
Aug. 22. Guarantee of Turkish Integrity proposed. R. 329.
Sept. 10. Abolition of Capitulations by Turkey. R. 329.
Nov. 5. Annexation of Cyprus by Great Britain. R. 329.
Dec. 19. Egypt declared a British Protectorate. R. 329.
1915. May. Italy withdraws from Triple Alliance. R. 372.
May 23. Declaration of War. Italy against Austria. R. 372.
Sept.-Oct. Campaign against Serbia. Occupation of Salonika. R. 113.
1916. Aug. 28. Declaration of War. Italy against Germany. R. 372.
1917. June 12. Abdication of King Constantine of Greece. R. 116.
Aug-4. Publication of Diplomatika Engrapha. R. 113.
[Note: 1914-18: World War I]
PART I. TREATIES, CONVENTIONS, CONGRESSES
Adrianople, 107 -19
-- ( 1829), 173 -4, 165 -6..
Akerman ( 1826), 165 n., 172.
Amiens ( 1802), 19.
Andrassy Note ( 1876), 322.
Anglo-Belgian ( 1862), 8.
Anglo-German ( 1890), 6.
Aland Convention ( 1856), 174 -5.
Berlin ( 1878), 7, 11, 111, 326 ff., 345, 368, 372.
Berlin Memorandum ( 1876), 322.
Black Sea ( 1856), 313 ff.
Bosnia-Herzegovina ( 1908), 11, 327.
Brussels ( 1890), 5, 6.
Bucharest ( 1812), 165, 172, 1
74. -- ( 1913), 112, 328, 362 -4.
Cape of Good Hope, 31.
-- ( 1914), 329.
Clarendon-Dallas ( 1856), 5.
Commercial Treaty with France ( 1890), 6, 12.
Constantinople ( 1832), 110 -11.
-- ( 1876-7), 324, 342.
-- ( 1878): see Cyprus.
-- ( 1884), 111 n.
-- ( 1913) 328 n.
Cyprus, Convention of ( 1878), 326, 329.
Danish Rescript ( 1846), 188 -9.
Demarara ( 1814), 31.
Denmark ( 1850), 190.
-- ( 1883), 10.
-- ( 1883), 10.
Dominica ( 1850), 9, 10.
Dreikaiserbund ( 1872), 367 -8.
Federal Act ( 1815), 188, 199.
Firman of 1841, 168.
-- of 1856 (Hatti-Hamouin), 169.
Frankfort ( 1819), 257.
-- ( 1871), 272, 367.
Friedrichshamm, 1809, 174.
Gastein ( 1865), 196, 241 -2, 263.
Germanic Confederation ( 1820), 188.
Hatti-Hamouin ( 1856), see Firman.
Hawaii ( 1851), 9.
Holstein Convention ( 1720), 187.
-- ( 1767), 187.
-- ( 1773), 187. Holy Alliance ( 1816), 34 -6, 367.
Italian Duchies ( 1847), 213 -14.
Jassy ( 1792), 164.
Konia ( 1880), 347.
Kutschuk-Kainardji ( 1775), 159 60, 173.
Laibach ( 1821), 36.
Lauenburg ( 1815), 187.
Lausanne ( 1912), 327.
London ( 1827), 105 -9.
-- ( 1830), 108 -9, 130.
-- ( 1831), 33. 133 -5, 257.
-- ( 1832), 108 -11.
-- ( 1839), 33, 134 -9, 257, 271.
-- ( 1852), 191 ff.
-- ( 1863), 109 -11.
-- ( 1864), 110 -11, 195, 197.
-- ( 1867), 14, 135, 257.
-- ( 1870), 136.
-- ( 1871), 11, 318.
-- ( 1883), 5, 15.
-- ( 1913), 112, 328.
Mayence ( 1831), 147.
Mediation ( 1856), 243 and n., 270.
Milan ( 1849), 213.
Navigable rivers, 31.
Netherlands ( 1814), 31.
Nikolsburg ( 1866), 223, 247.
Paris ( 1814), 19 -25, 26, 31, 31 n., 32, 36, 37, 48, 129, 149.
-- ( 1815), 36 -7.
-- ( 1856), 11, 14, 158 ff., 163 ff., 270, 312 ff.
-- Declaration of ( 1856), 175.
-- ( 1882), 12.
Poland ( 1832), 38 n.
Portsmouth ( 1905), 12.
Portugal ( 1883), 10.
-- ( 1892), 13.
Protocol of 24 Articles ( 1831), 133.
Russian Circular ( 1871), 313 ff.
St. Petersburg ( 1826), 105 -6.
San Stefano ( 1878), 325 ff., 341, 357 -8, Appendix.
Scheldt ( 1715), 134.
Serbia ( 1901), 10.
Serbo-Greek ( 1913), 113 and n.
Slave Trade, 32 -3.
Spain ( 1817), 26.
-- ( 1878), 10.
Straits, Convention of the ( 1841), 168, 178.
PART II GENERAL
Abeken, 269 n.
Aberdeen, Lord, 22, 123, 162.
Adrianople, 324, 328.
Aland Islands, 174 -5.
Alexander of Battenberg, 326.
Alexander I, 27 -9, 32, 103, 104, 105, 164 -5.
Alexander II, 312 -13, 324, 374 n.
Alexandrowo, 368, 374.
Ali Pasha of Yanina, 104.
Alsace, 34, 271, 274.
Tilsit ( 1807), 38 and n., 47, 48, 165.
Triple Alliance ( 1788), 164.
-- ( 1882), 369 ff.
-- ( 1903), 370.
Troppau ( 1820), 36.
Turin ( 1860), 222.
Unkiar Skelessi ( 1833), 166 ff.
U.S.A. ( 1842), 10.
Utrecht ( 1579), 128.
-- ( 1713), 128, 256.
Verdun (843), 126.
Verona ( 1822), 25 n., 33.
Versailles ( 1871), 271.
Vienna ( 1809), 39 and n.
-- Congress ( 1814-15), 16 - 37, 130, 134, 158, 212, 256.
-- ( 1815), 6, 7, 16 - 98, 128, 129, 150, 171, 187, 201, 210, 213, 222.
-- ( 1864), 195 ff., 241 -2, 248.
-- ( 1878), 252 n.
-- ( 1879), 368 ff.
-- ( 1908) ( Bosnia-Herzegovina), 327.
Vienna Note ( 1853), 162.
Villafranca ( 1859), 214 ff.
Westphalia ( 1648), 134.
Zollverein ( 1865), 8, 9, 249.
-- ( 1867), 299.
Zurich ( 1859), 76.
Ambrois, des, 233.
Andrassy, 322, 360, 374.
Antwerp, 22, 133, 134, 135.
Apponyi, 262, 332.
Arnim, 285, 288.
Augustenburg, Duke of, 187 ff.
Austria, House of, 225.
Austrian Succession War, 130.
Austro-Bourbon Alliance ( 1756), 128.
Azeglio, D', 262.
Balkan League, 327.
Balkan Wars ( 1912-13), 112, 327 ff.
Batavian Republic, 129.
Beaconsfield, Earl of: see Disraeli.
Benedetti, 14, 269, 370 -1.
Bernstorff, 262, 332.
Bille, 125, 199.
Bismarck, 195 ff., 241, 259, 263 ff., 278, 285, 288, 317, 360, 368, 371.
Black Sea, 11.
Bosphorus, 165 ff.
Bourbon, House of, 18, 19, 132.
Bourqueney, 184, 233.
Brenner, 209, 255.
Brunnow, 125, 184, 197, 262, 332.
Brussels, 132 -3.
Bulair, lines of, 325, 327.
Bulow, 142, 360.
Burgundy, House of, 256.
Byron, Lord, 104.
Canning, George, 104 -7, 165.
Castlereagh, Lord, 22, 25, 30, 32, 104.
Cathcart, Lord, 22, 25, 94.
Catherine II, 164.
Cavour, 169, 184.
Chablais, 210 ff.
Charles the Bold, 127.
Charles I of Roumania, 314.
Charles V, 127.
Charles X, 132.
Chatalja, lines of, 328.
Christian III, 187.
Christian IX, 110, 191 ff.
Church, Sir Richard, 104.
Clancarty, Lord, 25, 94.
Clarendon, Lord, 5 n., 184, 243.
Coalition, 1792, 18.
Cobden, Richard, 12.
Cochrane ( Lord Dundonald), 105.
Codrington, Admiral, 107.
Concert of Europe, 158, 163, 169.
Constantinople, 159 ff., 324, 328.
Cotto, A. de, 119.
Couza, Prince, 174, 314.
Cowley, Lord, 184, 215.
Crete, 112, 328.
Crimean War, 111, 158 ff.
Crowe, J. A., 15.
Custine, General, 18.
D'Alberg, Duc, 94.
Danube, 15 ; navigation of, 5, 171 -2, 320.
Danubian Principalities, 171 -4.
Dardanelles, 107, 163, 165 ff., 325, 329, 371.
Derby, Lord, 325.
Diebitsch, 107, 109.
Die Wacht am Rhein, 168 n.
Disraeli, 322 ff., 360.
Djemil, Mehemmed, 184.
Edward IV, 127.
Egypt, 329 Elba, 19.
Ems telegram, 268 -9.
Enos-Midia line, 328.
European Commission of Danube, 171 -2, 320.
European War ( 1914), 112, 135, 329, 369, 372.
Fane, Julian, 15.
Faucigny, 210 ff.
Favre, Jules, 278, 285, 288.
Ferdinand I, 127.
Ferdinand IV, 30, 210.
Franco-Prussian War, 367, Frankfort, 196, 249.
Frankfort Diet, 241, 317.
Frederick the Great, 264.
Frederick William IV, 190.
Frederick VI, 187.
Frederick VII, 188 -94.
Galicia, 29, 30.
Gallipoli, 325, 328.
Gama, de Saldahna da, 94.
Gazette, London, 9.
Genoa, 210 ff.
George I, 110 -12.
George IV (Prince Regent), 25, 36.
George I ( Greece), 327.
German Empire, 33, 273 -4.
Germanic Confederation, 31, 33, 186 ff., 223, 241 ff., 317.
Glücksburg, House of, 191.
Goderich, Lord, 106.
Gorchakoff, 313 ff., 360, 367.
Goulard, de, 285, 288.
Graeco-Turkish War (1897), 111.
Gramont, Duc de, 264 ff.
Granville, Earl, 15, 139, 259, 266 ff., 318, 332.
Greek War of Independence, 165.
Grey, Sir E., 328.
Gros, Bon., 125.
Garda, Lake of, 219.
Habsburg, House of, 127 -8, 256.
Hanover, 249 -50.
Hanse Towns, 35.
Hardenberg, Prince, 94.
Hatzfeldt, d', 184.
Henry V, 127.
Herzegovina, 321 ff., 327.
Hesse-Cassel, 247, 249.
Hetaeria, Philikë, 103.
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, House of, 314.
Holstein, 186 ff., 243, 247 -8.
Holy Alliance, 7 n., 99.
Holy Places, 160.
Holy See, 210 ff.
Humboldt, Baron, 24.
Ibrahim Pasha, 105, 106, 166 -7.
Imperial Chancellor, 136.
Ionian Islands, 111.
Isabella of Bourbon, 127.
Isatcha, 171 -2, 320.
Italy, Kingdom of, 33.
John II, 127.
Jonesco, Take, 366.
Karolyi, 233, 360.
Kavalla, 328, 371.
Kiel Canal, 240.
La Tour D'Auvergne, 262.
Lauenburg, 187 ff.
Legations, 216 ff.
-- Papal, 31.
Leipsic, battle of, 129.
Leipzig University, 250.
Leopold I, 108.
Leopold I ( Belgium), 133.
Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, 264 ff.
Libyan War, 371.
Lieven, Prince, 119, 123.
Limburg, 133 -4.
Liverpool, Earl of, 106.
Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, 33, 214 ff. Lombardy, 31, 33, 210 ff.
Lorraine, 34, 126, 271, 274.
-- House of, 216.
Louis XV, 127.
Louis XVI, 16, 18.
Louis XVII, 19.
Louis XVIII, 19, 26, 132.
Louis Buonaparte, 129.
Louis Philippe, 132.
Lowenhielm, Comte, 94.
Ludwig 1, 109.
Luxemburg, 134, 135.
Luxemburg City, 134.
Lyons, Lord, 267.
Mackensen, Marshal von, 115.
Mahmud II, 105, 167.
Main, 135, 250.
Malmesbury, Lord, 199.
Margaret of Burgundy, 127.
Marie Antoinette, Queen, 18.
Marie Louise, Empress, 31.
Marmara, Sea of, 325.
Mary of Burgundy, 127.
Maximilian I, 127.
Mecklenburg- Schwerin, 250.
Mehemet Ali, 105, 166 -8, 360.
Menabrea, 239 -40.
Menshikoff, Prince, 160.
Metternich, 93, 104.
Metz, 259, 313.
Modena, 214 ff.
Moldavia, 102 -4, 160 ff., 165, 171 ff., 314.
Moltke, von, 247, 264, 268.
Moniteur Belge, 9.
Moselle, 134, 272.
Motley, J. L., 128.
Napier, Sir Charles, 168.
Napoleon I, 19, 25, 124, 164 -5, 212.
Napoleon III, 160 ff., 263 ff., 317.
Navarino, 106 -7, 109, 165.
Negropont: see Euboea.
Nesselrode, Comte, 94.
Netherlands, Spanish, 127.
Neutrality of Switzerland, 210 ff.
Nice, 221 ff.
Nicholas I, 105, 107, 160 ff., 312.
Noailles, Comte de, 94.
North German Confederation, 33, 250, 251, 257, 262 ff.
Obrenovitch, Prince Milosh, 174.
Odessa, 102, 103, 164, 329.
Orange-Nassau, House of, 128 33, 256, 259.
Orleans, House of, 132.
Otho I, 109 -10.
Oubril, d', 360
Palmella, Comte de, 94.
Palmerston, Lord, 119, 142, 167, 191.
Papal States, 212 ff.
Parliament and Treaties, 5 -6, 12.
Parma, 32, 214 ff.
Phanariots, 102, 103.
Philip I of Burgundy, 127.
Philip the Good, 127.
Philip II of Spain, 127.
Piedmont, 212 ff.
Poland, 27, 28, 195.
Polignac, Duc de, 132.
Pomerania, Swedish, 30.
Posen, 29, 30, 374 n.
Pourger-Quertier, 285, 288.
Pozzo di Borgo, 142.
Prim, General, 264 -5.
Pruth, 104, 165, 173.
Rasoumoffsky, Prince, 94.
Reuss, Henry VII of, 374.
Revolution ( 1789), 16 - 17, 128.
-- ( 1830), 132, 257,
-- dues, 250.
-- navigation of, 31.
River Commission of Danube, 171 -2, 320.
Romagna, 217 ff.
Rome, 226, 317.
Roon, von, 269.
Rumelia, Eastern, 326.
Russell, Earl, 27, 125, 197, 219.
Russell, Lord Odo, 360.
Russo-Turkish War (1806-12), 111, 174.
-- ( 1877-8), 111, 324 ff., 368.
Sadoullah, 360, 390.
St. Helena, 25.
Salisbury, Marquis of, 360.
Salonika, 113, 325, 328, 371.
Sardinia, 169, 210 ff.
Savoy, 18, 210 ff.
Saxony, 247 -50.
Scheldt, 134 -5.
Schleswig, 186 ff., 247 ff.
Schneckenburger, Max, 168 n.
Schouvaloff, 325 n., 360.
Sedan, 271, 313.
Senate U.S., and Treaties, 5.
Serbia, autonomy, 165.
-- independence, 174.
Seven Years' War, 264.
Seymour, Sir H., 162.
Sicilies, Two, 210 ff.
Silesian Wars, 264.
Silveira, Loboda, 94.
Slave Trade, 5, 6, 24, 25. n., 31 -3.
Spanish-American War, 175.
Spanish Netherlands, 256.
Spanish Succession War, 128, 134, 212.
Stackelberg, Comte, 94.
Stanley, Lord, 14 - 15, 262.
States-System, European, 163.
Stewart, Sir Charles, 22, 25, 94.
Stratford de Redcliffe, Lord, 160 ff.
Sweden and Norway, Union of, 34.
Swiss Confederation, 210 ff.
Talleyrand, Prince de Bénévent, 22, 29, 30, 94, 119.
Thessaly ( 1881), 111.
Thiers, A., 278.
Thirty Years' War, 134.
Tripoli, 327, 371.
Turco-Italian War (1911-12), 371.
Tuscany, 212 ff.
Van de Weyer, 262.
Venetia, 210 ff., 243, 263.
Venice, 31, 212 ff.
Venizelos, Eleutheros, 112, 113, 327, 366.
Versailles, 16, 18.
Victor Eimanuel, 216 ff.
Victor Emmanuel Railway, 213.
Victoria, Queen, 133.
Villamarina, de, 184.
Waddington, Charles, 111, 360.
Walewski, Count, 14, 184, 197.
Wallachia, 102 -4, 160 ff., 165, 171 ff., 314.
Warsaw, Grand Duchy of, 29, 30, 37 -8.
Wellington, Duke of, 25, 105, 107.
Werther, 209, 255.
Wessenberg, Baron, 93.
William I, 241, 269 ff., 374 n.
William I ( Netherlands), 130.
William IV, 259.
Wimpffen, 239 -40.
Wittelsbach, House of, 109.
Wurtemberg, 247, 249.
Ypsilanti, Alexander, 103.
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