European Treaties bearing on the History of the United States and its Dependencies

to 1648


11.
The Papal Bull 'Ea Quae' (Pope Julius II.)
January 24, 1506.

INTRODUCTION.

In 1498 Vasco da Gama reached Calicut by way of the Cape of Good Hope. Two years later, Pedro Alvarez Cabral, hastening to India in command of a Portuguese fleet to follow up Gama's successes, landed, near 16░ south, upon the coast of Brazil, of which, nearly three months previously, Pinzon, and, shortly after, Diego de Lepe, had taken formal possession for Castile. The fact that this portion of South America extended beyond the east or Portuş guese side of the line of demarcation further complicated the relations of the two countries, whose rivalry now became intense. Expeditions in which Vespucius, detached for a time from Spanish service, sailed under a Portuş guese captain ( 1501-1502, 1503-1504), acquainted the Portuguese with the vast extent of the Brazilian coast, and far to the north, in 1500 and 1501, Gaspare Corte-Real visited lands which the Portuguese located on their side of the line.1 The line, therefore, now had a new value for the Portuguese and it was probably this fact that induced King Emmanuel to ask Pope Julius II. to confirm the treaty of Tordesillas that had established it.2

Julius II. was well disposed toward King Emmanuel, who was so zealously laboring for the extension of the faith in Morocco, in Guinea, and notably in India, where the foundations of a colonial empire were beginning to be laid. In the early summer of 1505, a Portuguese embassy of obedience reached Rome, and before its return to Portugal in the following October, had obtained from the pontiff a number of important concessions.3 In the following spring, the pope bestowed upon the king the consecrated golden rose.4 A few months after the return of the embassy and before the bestowal

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1 As in the Cantino map, compiled from Portuguese data in 1502. This map, which shows the line of demarcation passing west of the land discovered by Corte-Real, is photographically reproduced in the size of the original in E. L. Stevenson, Maps illusş trating Early Discovery and Exploration in America ( 1903). Parts of it are reproş duced in H. Harrisse, Les Corte-Real ( 1883), portfolio, and in id., Discovery of North America ( 1892), opp. pp. 79 and 111. 2 F. A. de Varnhagen, Historia Geral do Brazil ( 1854- 1857), I. 28. 3 For a detailed account of this embassy, see the Marquis MacSwiney de Mashanaglass, Le Portugal et le Saint-SiŔge, III. 22-29, and by the same author, "Une Ambassade Portugaise Ó Rome sous Jules II.", in the Revue d'Histoire Diplomatique, 1903, pp. 50-65, and separately printed by Plon Paris, 1903. 4 An interesting account of the golden roses sent by the popes to the kings of Portugal in the sixteenth century is given in the former of the volumes cited in the preceding note. For the gift of the golden rose to Alfonso V., see Doc. 1, note 26.

of the rose, in response to a request from King Emmanuel, the pope granted three bulls, all dated January 24, 1506.5 Of these bulls, the one here printed enjoined the Archbishop of Braga and the Bishop of Vizeu to confirm the treaty of Tordesillas, and cause it to be inviolably observed. The Archbishop of Braga was the distinguished prelate, Diogo da Souso, who had been elevated to this dignity only a few months previously, when he had been in Rome as head of the aforementioned embassy of obedience. The Bishop of Vizeu was Jorge da Costa, who had been created cardinal of Lisbon in 1476 and who as cardinal protector of Portugal resided in Rome from about that date till his death in 1508.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.
Text: MS. The original manuscript of the promulgated bull is in the National Archives at Lisbon, Coll. de Bullas, mašo 6, no. 33.

Text: Printed. J. Ramos-Coelho, Alguns Documentos ( 1892), pp. 142-143; L. A. Rebello da Silva, Corpo Diplomatico Portuguez (Acad. Real das Sciencias, Lisbon, 1862-), I. 91-93.

Reference: Marquis MacSwiney de Mashanaglass, Le Portugal et le Saint- SiŔge ( 1898- 1904), III. 1-42. Although not directly referring to the bull of January 24, 1506, this work throws light on the relations existing between King Emmanuel and the Pope at this date.

TEXT.6
Julius, episcopus, servus servorum Dei:
Venerabilibus fratribus, archiş episcopo Bracharensi7 et episcopo Visensi,8 salutem et apostolicam beneş dictionem.

Ea que pro bono pacis et quietis inter personas quaslibet, presertim Caş tholicos reges, per concordiam terminata sunt, ne in redicive contencionis scrupulum relabantur, sed firma perpetuo et inconcussa permaneant, libenter, cum a nobis petitur, apostolico munimine roboramus. Exhibita siquidem nobis nuper pro parte carissimi in Christo filii nostri Emanuelis, Portugalie et Algarbiorum regis illustris, petitio continebat quod olim, postquam per Sedem Apostolicam clare memorie Johanni, regi Portugalie et Algarbiorum [concesş sum fuerat]9 quod ipse Johannes et rex Portugalie et Algarbiorum pro tempore existens, per mare occeanum navegare aut insulas et portus et loca firma infra dictum mare existencia, perquirere, et inventa sibi retinere liceret, ac omnibus aliis, sub excommunicationis et aliis penis tunc expressis, ne mare hujusmodi contra voluntatem prefati regis navigare, aut insulas et loca ibidem repperta

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5 These bulls are printed in L. A. Rebello da Silva, Corpo Diplomatico Portuguez, (Acad. Real das Sciencias, Lisbon, 1862-), I. 88-93.
6 The text is from the original manuscript of the promulgated bull, preserved in the National Archives at Lisbon, Coll. de Bullas, mašo 6, no. 33. Dr. Achille Ratti, prefect of the Vatican Library, has kindly collated it with the Vatican text.
7 Diogo da Souso, see introduction.
8 Jorge da Costa, see introduction.
9 Some such words as "concessum fuerat" are wanted before "quod ipse". "Johannes et Rex" should be in the dative.

occupare presumerent, inhibitum fuerat; cum inter prefatum Johannem Regem ex una, et carissimum in Christo filium nostrum Ferdinandum, Aragonum tunc Castelle et Legionis regem illustrem, super certis insulis Lasamillis10 nuncuş patis, per prefatum regem inventas et occupatas,11 ex alia partibus, lis, controş versia, et questionis materia exorte fuissent, partes ipse litibus, controversiis, et questionibus hujusmodi obviare, ac pacem et concordiam inter se pro subditorum suorum commoditate nutrire et vigere desiderantes, ad certas honestas concordiam, conventionem, et compositionem devenerunt, per quam inter cetera voluerunt quod Portugalie et Algarbiorum a certis Castelle vero et Legionis regibus pro tempore existentibus a certis aliis locis usque ad certa alia loca tunc expressa per dictum mare navigare et insulas novas perquirere et capere ac sibi retinere liceret, prout in quodam instrumento publico desuper confecto dicitur plenius contineri.12 Quare13 pro parte prefati Emanuelis Regis nobis fuit humiliter supplicatum, ut concordie, conventioni, et compositioni predictis pro illorum subsistencia firmiori robur apostolice confirmationis adjicere, ac alias in premissis oportune providere de benignitate apostolica dignaremur. Nos igitur, qui inter personas quascumque, presertim regali dignitate fulgentes, pacem et concordiam vigere intensis desideriis affectamus, de premissis certam noticiam non habentes, hujusmodi suppliş cationibus inclinati, fraternitati vestre per apostolica scripta mandamus, quatinus vos vel alter vestrum, si est ita, concordiam, conventionem, et comş positionem predictas, ac prout illas concernunt, omnia et singula in dicto instrumento contenta, et inde secuta quecunque de utriusque regis consensu approbare et confirmare, illamque perpetue firmitatis robur obtinere deş cernentes, auctoritate nostra curetis, supplentes omnes et singulos defectus, si qui forsan intervenerunt in eisdem. Et nichilominus, si confirmationem et approbationem predictas per vos vigore presencium fieri contigerit, ut preş fertur, faciatis dictam concordiam inviolabiliter observari, ac eosdem reges concordia et illius confirmatione et approbatione predictis pacifice gaudere, non permittentes eos inter se, aut per quoscunque alios, desuper indebite molestari, contradictores auctoritate nostra, appellatione postposita, comş pescendo. Non obstantibus constitutionibus et ordinationibus apostolicis contrariis quibuscunque, aut si eisdem regibus vel14 quibusvis aliis, comş muniter vel divisim, ab Apostolica sit Sede indultum, quod interdici, suspendi vel excommunicari non possint, per litteras apostolicas non facientes plenam et expressam ac de verbo ad verbum de indulto hujusmodi mentionem.

Datum Rome apud Sanctum Petrum, anno Incarnationis Dominice milş lesimo quingentesimo quinto,15 nono kalendas Februarii, pontificatus nostri anno tercio.

JO. DE SALDANA.16

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10 In the Vatican text, Lassanullis. A Portuguese translation of this bull, preserved in the National Archives at Lisbon, reads "certas Ilhas chamadas Antilhas". Corp. Dipl. Port., I. 92, note. Lasamillis is probably a mistake for "Las Antillas". 11 Thus also in the Vatican text. 12 The treaty of Tordesillas, Doc. 9. 13 The Vatican text reads Quocirca. 14 The Vatican text reads et. 15 The Vatican text reads sexto. 16 JoŃo de Saldanha seems to have represented Portugal at Rome, whence, Oct. 21, 1504, he wrote to King John that on account of the reports regarding the Indies and Guinea the moment was especially opportune for despatching an embassy of obedience. Rebello da Silva, Corp. Dipl. Port., I. 43-45.

TRANSLATION.
Julius, bishop, servant of the servants of God,
to the venerable brothers, the Archbishop of Braga and the Bishop of Vizeu, health and apostolic benediction.

Those agreements, which have been concluded for the promotion of peace and quiet between and persons whatsoever, and especially between Catholic kings, we gladly confirm by granting our apostolic protection, when this is sought from us, in order that they may not again become matters of conş tention but remain forever firm and unshaken. A request recently addressed to us on the part of our very dear son in Christ, Emmanuel, the illustrious king of Portugal and of the Algarves, stated that inasmuch as some time ago the permission was granted by the Apostolic See to John, of illustrious memory, king of Portugal and the Algarves, to the effect that the said John and any king of Portugal and of the Algarves for the time being, should be permitted to navigate the ocean sea, or seek out the islands, ports, and mainş lands lying within the said sea, and to retain those found for himself, and to all others it was forbidden under penalty of excommunication, and other penalties, then expressed, from presuming to navigate the sea in this way against the will of the aforesaid king, or to occupy the islands and places found there; and inasmuch as between the aforesaid King John, on the one part, and our very dear son in Christ, Ferdinand, at that time the illustrious king of Aragon, Castile, and Leon, on the other part, in regard to certain islands called Las Antillas, which had been discovered and occupied by the aforesaid king, strife, controversy, and occasion for dispute had arisen, the said parties desiring to prevent strifes, controversies, and disputes of this kind, and to foster and strengthen peace and concord between themselves for the benefit of their subjects, came to a certain honorable agreement, convention, and compact, whereby, among other things, they resolved that the kings of Portugal and the Algarves should have the right to navigate the said sea within certain specified limits and seek out and take possession of newly discovered islands and that the kings for the time being of Castile and Leon should have the same right within certain other specified limits, as is said to be more fully set forth in a certain public instrument drawn up in regard to the matter. Wherefore the aforesaid King Emmanuel has humbly besought us to deign to add the authority of the apostolic confirmaş tion to the aforesaid agreement, convention, and compact for the purpose of establishing them more firmly and out of our apostolic good-will to make other fitting provisions in respect to the aforesaid. We, therefore, who strive with intense desire to foster peace and concord between all persons, especially between those whose royal office renders them conspicuous, not having certain knowledge of the aforesaid, but favorably disposed to these petitions, do by these apostolic writings enjoin Your Fraternity that you (or either one of you, if so be) do proceed to approve and confirm by our authority the aforesaid agreement, convention, and compact and everything set forth in the said instrument relating thereto, and all that has followed thereupon with the consent of both kings, decreeing it to possess perpetual authority, and supplying all and singular defects if perchance any should be contained therein. And furthermore if the aforesaid confirmation and approbation are enacted by you, by the authority of these presents, as is aforesaid, you shall cause the said agreement to be inviolably observed, and the said kings to enjoy in peace the aforesaid agreement and the confirmaş tion and approbation thereof, not permitting them without just cause to molest one another, or to be molested by any other on this account, and restraining the disobedient, by our authority, without appeal, all apostolic constitutions and ordinances to the contrary notwithstanding, even if an indult has been granted by the Apostolic See to the said kings or to any others, together or individually, to the effect that they cannot be interdicted or suspended or excommunicated by apostolic letters not making full and express mention, word for word, of the said indult.

Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, on the twenty-fourth day of January, in the year of the incarnation of our Lord, 1505, in the third year of our Pontificate.

JO. DE SALDANA.

12.
The Bull 'Praecelsae Devotionis' (Pope Leo X.)
November 3, 1514.

INTRODUCTION.
In March, 1513, Leo X. became pope, and King Emmanuel soon gained his highest favor. A letter from the king to the pope, dated June 6, 1513,1 set forth the Portuguese successes in India, and especially in Malacca, the great emporium of the spice trade, captured by Albuquerque in 1511. The pope's enthusiastic reception of this news and of the later report of Portuş guese victories in Morocco greatly pleased the king, who expressed his appreciation by sending to Rome in the spring of 1514 an embassy of obediş ence of unequalled splendor.2 In return the pope showered favors upon the monarch who had so marvellously enlarged the field of missionary enterş prise. Like Julius II., Leo X. sent the king the consecrated golden rose, and granted the requests preferred by the Portuguese ambassadors. When the embassy of obedience left Rome, late in May or early in June, Portuguese affairs remained in the hands of the ordinary ambassador, JoŃo de Faria, who obtained further concessions from the pope, among which was the bull of June 7, 1514, which gave to the king the patronage of ecclesiastical benefices in Africa and in all other places beyond the sea, acquired or to be acquired from the infidels, and subjected them to the spiritual jurisdiction of the Order of Christ.3 On November 3, a bull was issued which renewed the earlier donations to Portugal, and amplified them in the way in which the bull of September 26, 1493,4 extended the grants previously made to Castile. The bull of November 3 granted to Portugal the lands and other property acquired from the infidels, not only from capes Bojador and NŃo to the Indies, but in any region whatsoever, even if then unknown. Thus it appears that Pope Leo X. regarded the demarcation line as confined to one hemisphere, where it served to determine for both powers the route that must be followed to the Indies. For the present bull permitted the Portuguese, following the eastern route, to acquire lands from the infidels, even though these lands were situated more than half-way around the globe. The Portuguese desired

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1 Printed in Rebetto da Silva, Corp. Dipl. Port., I. 196-199, and in Roscoe, Leo the Tenth, vol. I., app., p. xxxiv.
2 For documents relating to this embassy, see Roscoe, op. cit., appendix; MacSwiney de Mashanaglass , Le Portugal et le Saint-SiŔge, III., appendix; J. Ramos-Coelho, Alguns Documentos ( 1892), pp. 353-356; Rebello da Silva, op. cit., I. 234-243; and Ciutiis, Ambassade Portuguaise. See also the description in Goes, Chronica do Rei D. Alanoel, pt. III., cc. 55-57.
3 The papal bull is printed in Rebello da Silva, Corp. Dipl. Port., I. 254-257. In regard to the Order of Christ, see Doc. 2, note 14.
4 Doc. 8. This bull had revoked the papal grants to Portugal in so far as they might be interpreted as giving her exclusive claim to the Indies.

this bull, it is almost certain, because they harbored doubts as to whether Malacca, or at any rate the coveted Moluccas, which had been visited by them at the end of 1511 or early in 1512, were on their side of the line. As early as 1512 the rumor was current that the Moluccas lay within the Spanish demarcation, and in the autumn of that year the Portuguese ambassador in Spain was much disturbed by King Ferdinand's project of an expedition to seize those islands for the Spanish crown.5

BIBLIOGRAPHY.
Text: MS. The original manuscript of the promulgated bull is in the National Archives at Lisbon, Coll. de Bullas, mašo 29, no. 6.

Text: Printed. Bullarum Collectio ( Lisbon, 1707), pp. 8-53; L. A. Rebello da Silva , Corpo Diplomatico Portuguez ( Acad. Real das Sciencias, Lisbon, 1862--), I. 275-298. A synopsis and extract are in Blair and Robertson, Philippine Islands ( 1903- 1909), I. 136-138.

References: Contemporary and early writings. DamiŃo de Goes, Chronica do Rei D. Manoel ( 1749), Pt. III., cc. 55-57.

References: Later writings. L. von Pastor, Geschichte der Pńpste, band IV., abt. I. ( 1906), pp. 50-53; Marquis MacSwiney de Mashana- glass , Le Portugal et le Saint-SiŔge, I. ( 1898), 21-28; III. ( 1904), 85-128; Salvatore de Ciutiis, Une Ambassade Portugaise Ó Rome ( 1899); W. Roscoe, Life of Leo the Tenth ( 1846), I. 361-364; J. T. Medina , Juan Diaz de SolÝis ( 1897), tom. I., c. 6, tom. II., docs. 22, 30, 31.

TEXT.6
Leo episcopus, servus servorum Dei. Ad perpetuam rei memoriam.

Precelse devotionis et indefessum fervorem, integre fidei puritatem, inş geniique in Sanctam Sedem Apostolicam observantiam, excelsarumque virtuş tum flagrantiam, quibus charissimus in Christo filius noster, Emmanuel Portugallie et Algarbiorum rex illustris, sese nobis et dicte sedi multipliciter gratum, obsequiosum, et acceptum prebuit, apud archana mentis nostre digne revolventes, presertim cum, magistra rerum experientia teste, perpendimus ac apertis documentis in dies clare conspicimus, quam sedula vigilantia sua Sublimitas et Serenitas suorum predecessorum Portugallie regum gesta sequendo, plerumque in persona, non sine gravissimis laboribus et expensis, nixa sit et continuo ferventius enititur, ut Salvatori nostro ac nomini Chrisş tiano infensa Maurorum et aliorum infidelium immanitas nedum a fidelium finibus arceatur quinimo suis flagitiis male perdita, et arctetur funditus et deleatur, et Christiana religio, optata pace freta, votiva in omnibus suscipiat incrementa; hiis considerationibus et plerisque aliis legitimis causis suadentiş bus, congruum et opere pretium existimamus, ea que a predecessoribus nostris, Romanis pontificibus, ipsius Emanuelis Regis predecessoribus preş

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5 Medina, Juan Diaz de Solis, tom, I. c. 6, tom. II., docs. 22, 30, 31.
6 The text is taken from the original manuscript in the National Archives at Lisbon, Coll. de Bullas, mašo 29, no. 6. On the back is the endorsement " Registrata apud me Ja: Sadoletum."

fatis concessa comperimus, nostro etiam munimine confovere ac alia etiam de novo concedere, ut exinde Celsitudo sua, Apostolice Sedi predicte ulteriori munificentia premunita, in prosecutione promissorum non solum ardentius inflametur, sed et liberali ac munifica compensatione accepta ceteros reddat et faciat ad similia promptiores, et ejus erga nos et sedem predictam devotio augeatur, et pro laboribus quos Universali Ecclesie circa Catholice et apostolice fidei exaltationem bene serviendo sustinet condignos lionores et gratias reportet.

Dudum siquidem a felicis recordationis Nicolao papa V. et Sixto IV.
Romanis pontificibus, predecessoribus nostris, emanarunt diverse littere, tenoris subsequentis.

[Here follow the bulls of June 18, 1452 (a part of which is printed above, Doc. 1, note 37); of January 8, 1455 (Doc. 1) ; and of June 21, 1481 (Doc. 4), which includes the bulls of January 8, 1455, and of March 13, 1456 (Doc. 2), and the part of the treaty of Alcašovas relating to Guinea (Doc. 3).]

Nos igitur, qui ejusdem Emmanuelis Regis, fidei augmentum et propagaş tionem jugiter procurantis, commoda et utilitates supremis desideriis affectaş mus, motu proprio, non ad ipsius Emanuelis Regisvel alicujus alterius pro eo nobis super hoc oblate petitionis instantiam, sed de nostra mera delibş eratione et ex certa nostra scientia ac de apostolice potestatis plenitudine, omnes et singulas literas predictas ac omnia et singula in eis contenta et inde secuta quecumque rata et grata habentes, auctoritate apostolica, tenore presentium approbamus et innovamus ac confirmamus, supplentes omnes et singulos defectus, tam juris quam facti, siqui forsan intervenerint in eisdem, ac perpetue firmitatis robur obtinere debere decernimus.

Et pro potiori cautela, omnia et singula in eisdem litteris contenta, ac quecunque alia imperia, regna, principatus, ducatus, provincias, terras, civitates, opida, castra, dominia, insulas, portus, maria, littora, et bona quecunque, mobilia et immobilia, ubicunque consistentia, per eundem Emanuelem Regem et predecessores suos a dictis infidelibus, etiam solitaria quecunque recuperata, detecta, inventa, et acquisita, ac per ipsum Emanuelem Regem et successores suos in posterum recuperanda, acquirenda, detegenda, et invenienda, tam a Capitibus de Bogiador et de Naon usque ad Indos quam etiam ubicunque et in quibuscunque partibus, etiam nostris temporibus forsan ignotis, eisdem auctoritate et tenore de novo concedimus; litterasque supraş dictas ac omnia et singula in illis contenta ad premissa etiam extendimus et ampliamus, ac in virtute sancte obedientie et indignationis nostre pena quibusş cunque fidelibus Christianis, etiam si imperiali regali, et quacunque alia pretulgeant dignitate, ne eundem Emmanuelem Regem et successores suos quomodolibet in premissis impedire, ac eisdem infidelibus auxilium, collş silium, vel favorem prestare presumant, auctoritate et tenore premissis inhibemus.

Quocirca venerabilibus fratribus nostris archiepiscopo Ulixbonensi,7 et Egiptanensi 8 ac Funchalensi 9 episcopis, per apostolica scripta motu simili mandamus quatinus ipsi, vel duo aut unus eorum, per se vel alium seu alios,

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7 Martin da Costa, brother of Jorge da Costa. Doc. 11, introduction.
8 Idanha-Velha, with see at Guarda. In 1514 the bishop was Pedro Vasques.
9 Funchal is the chief town on the island of Madeira. In 1514 its bishop was Diogo Pinheiro.

presentes litteras ac omnia et singula in eis contenta, ubi et quando expeş dierit, ac quotiens pro parte Emanuelis Regis et successorum suorum preş dictorum fuerint super hoc requisiti solemniter publicantes, ac eisdem Emanueli Regiet successoribus in premissis efficacis defensionis presidio assistentes, faciant auctoritate nostra presentes et alias litteras et in eis contenta hujusmodi inviolabiliter observari, non permittentes eos super illis per quoscunque quomodolibet molestari; contradictores per censuram ecclesiş asticam, appellatione postposita, compescendo; invocato etiam ad hoc, si opus fuerit, auxilio brachii secularis. Et nihilominus, legitimis super hiis habendis servatis processibus,10illos quos censuras et penas per eos pro tempore latas eos11incurrisse constiterit, quotiens expedierit, iteratis vicibus, aggravate procurent.

Non obstantibus recolende memorie Bonifacii Pape VIII., similiter preş decessoris nostri, qua inter alia cavetur ne quis extra suam civitatem et diocesim, nisi in certis exceptis casibus, et in illis ultra unam dietam a fine sue diocesis ad judicium evocetur, seu ne judices ab Apostolica Sede deputati, extra civitatem et diocesim in quibus deputati fuerint, contra quoscunque procedere, aut alii, vel aliis vices suas committere presumant,12et de duabus dietis in concilio generali13edita ac aiiis apostolicis constitutionibus ac omnibus illis que idem Nicolaus et alii predecessores, qui similes eidem Regi Portuş gallie fecerunt concessiones, in eorum litteris voluerunt non obstare, conş trariis, quibuscunque; aut si aliquibus, communiter vel divisim, ab eadem sit sede inlultum quod interdici, suspendi, vel excommunicari non possint per litteras apostolicas non facientes plenam et expressam ac de verbo ad verbum de indulto hujusmodi mentionem.

Nulli ergo omnino hominum liceat hanc paginam nostre approbationis, innovationis, confirmationis, suppletionis, decreti, concessionis, extensionis, ampliationis, inhibitionis, et mandati infringere, vel ei ausu temerario conş traire. Siquis autem hoc attemptare presumpserit, indignationem Omnipoş tentis Dei ac beatorum Petri et Pauli apostolorum ejus se noverit incursurum.

Datum Romeapud Sanctum Petrum, anno Incarnationis Dominice milş lesimo quingentesimo quartodecimo, tertio nonas Novembris, pontificatus nostri anno secundo. JA. SADOLETUS.14 B. DE COMITIBUS.

TRANSLATION.
Leo, bishop, servant of the servants of God. For an abiding remembrance.

Meditating fittingly in the inmost counsels of our heart upon the unş wearied fervor of lofty devotion, the purity of blameless faith, the respect for the Holy Apostolic See, and the ardor of lofty virtues, whereby our very

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10 "The steps whereby a controversy is discussed in judgment constitute a process." O. J. Reichel, Canon Law ( 1896), II. 262.
11 This word, which is in the manuscript, should be omitted to make sense.
12 See the Corpus Juris Canonici, Sexti Decretal. lib. I., tit. III., c. XI. (pt. II., p. 942, in, Friedberg's edition).
13 By the rule of the Fourth Lateran Council, can. 37, no one can be cited by apostolic letters to appear at a place more than two days' journey from his diocese, unless such letters shall have been procured with the assent of the parties, or unless they expressly mention this rule. Corpus Juris Canonici, Decretal. Gregor. IX. lib. I., tit. III., C. 28 (Pt. II., p. 31, in Friedberg's edition).
14 Jacopo Sadoleto, the Italian humanist, and Pietro Bembo were the secretaries of Leo X., whose chancery was famous for the brilliancy of its letters.

dear son in Christ, Emmanuel, the illustrious king of Portugal and of the Algarves, has made himself, in manifold ways, pleasing, serviceable, and agreeable to us and to the said see, especially since in the light. of experience we consider, and from manifest proofs every day clearly perceive, with what unremitting vigilance his Sublimity and Serenity, following the example of his predecessors, the kings of Portugal, has striven, and ever more zealş ously strives, for the most part in person and not without the greatest effort and expense, in order that the barbarous hostility of the Moors and of other infidels to our Savior and to the Christian name may not only be warded off from the territories of the faithful, but, perishing in its own iniquity, may be entirely restrained and blotted out, and that the Christian religion may by peaceful means be advanced and promoted in all longed-for ways: persuaded by these considerations and by many other legitimate reasons, we deem it fitting and expedient constantly to guard and protect those concessions which we have learned were granted by our predecessors, the Roman pontiffs, to the aforesaid predecessors of the said King Emmanuel, and also to grant other and new privileges, in order that then his Highness, fortified by the further munificence of the aforesaid Apostolic See, may not only be roused to greater zeal in fulfilling his promises, but having received a liberal and generous reward may induce and cause others more readily to undertake similar work, and that his devotion to us and to the aforesaid see may be increased, and that in return for the labors which he sustains in serving the Church Universal by exalting the Catholic and apostolic faith, he may obtain suitable honors and rewards.

A short while ago, divers letters of the following tenor were issued by our predecessors, Popes Nicholas V. and Sixtus IV., of happy memory.

Here follow the bulls of June 18, 1452
(a part of which is printed above, Doc. 1, note 37);
of January 8, 1455 (Doc. 1);
and of June 21, 1481 (Doc. 4),
which includes the bulls of January 8, 1455, and of March 13, 1456 (Doc. 2),
and the part of the treaty of Atcašovas relating to Guinea (Doc. 3).]

We, therefore, who passionately strive for the advantage and profit of the said King Emmanuel, since he is continually aiming at the growth and exş tension of the faith, of our own accord, and not at the instance of the said King Emmanuel or on account of any request offered by any other person in his behalf, but from our mere deliberation and out of our certain knowlş edge and from the plenitude of apostolic power, approve and renew and confirm by the apostolic authority and by the tenor of these presents, the aforesaid letters, all and singular, regarding their contents, all and singular, and whatever has followed thereupon as established and acceptable, and supplying all and singular defects, both of law and of fact, if any should happen to occur in them; and we decree that they ought to be permanently valid.

And for greater security and by virtue of the authority and in the terms mentioned above, we newly grant everything, all and singular, contained in the aforesaid letters, and all other empires, kingdoms, principalities, duchies, provinces, lands, cities, towns, forts, lordships, islands, harbors, seas, coasts, and all property, real and personal, wherever existing, also all unfrequented places, recovered, discovered, found and acquired from the aforesaid infidels, by the said King Emmanuel and his predecessors, or in future to be recovered, acquired, discovered, and found by the said King Emmanuel and his successors, both from Capes Bojador and NŃo to the Indies, and in any place or region whatsoever, even although perchance unknown to us at present; and we also extend and amplify the aforesaid letters, and their conş tents, all and singular, to the aforesaid concessions, and in virtue of holy obedience and under penalty of our wrath, by the authority and in the terms aforesaid, we inhibit all faithful Christians, even though adorned with imş perial, royal, or any other rank, from presuming to hinder in any way the said King Emmanuel and his successors in respect to the aforesaid concesş sions, and from furnishing aid, counsel, or favor to the said infidels. Wherefore by apostolic writings, and of the same accord, we charge our venerable brothers, the archbishop of Lisbon and the bishops of Idanha- Velha (Guarda) and Funchal, that they, or two or one of them, by himself, or through another, or others, solemnly publishing the present letters and all and singular therein contained, where and when it shall be expedient, and as often as they shall be required on behalf of King Emmanuel and his sucş cessors and, aiding the aforesaid King Emmanuel and his successors with effectual protection in the aforesaid, do by our authority cause the present and other letters and the matters contained therein to be inviolably observed after this manner, not permitting them [i. e., the kings] to be troubled in any way whatever and by anyone in respect to these matters, restraining the disobedient by ecclesiastical censure, without permitting appeal, and likewise if necessary invoking for this purpose the aid of the secular arm. And none the less, observing the legal process to be followed in these matters, let them be careful, as often as it shall be expedient, to harass again and again those who it shall appear have incurred the censures and penalties imposed by them in accordance with circumstances.

Nor shall the [edict] of Pope Boniface VIII., of celebrated memory, similarly our predecessor, interfere with these injunctions, in which, among other things, he forbade that anyone be summoned to trial outside his city or diocese, except in certain excepted cases, and in those cases not more than one day's journey from the bounds of his diocese, or that judges, deputed by the Apostolic See, presume to proceed against anyone outside the city or diocese in which they shall have been deputed, or that they presume to intrust their duties to any other person or persons; nor the regulation in regard to the two days' journey, ordained in the General Council; and other apostolic constitutions; nor all those constitutions whatsoever to the contrary which the said Nicholas and others of our predecssors, who made similar concesş sions to the said King of Portugal, declared to be of no effect in their letters, even if the said see has granted an indult to any, jointly or singly, that they may not be interdicted, suspended, or excommunicated by apostolic letters not making full and express mention, word for word, of such indult.

Let no man whomsoever therefore infringe or with rash boldness contraş vene this our approval, renewal, confirmation, completion, decree, grant, extension, amplification, inhibition, and mandate. Should anyone presume to attempt this, be it known to him that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God and of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul.

Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, on the third day of November, in the year of the incarnation of our Lord, 1514, in the second year of our pontificate.

JACOPO SADOLETO.
B. DE COMITIBUS.

13. Treaty between Spain and Portugal, concluded at Vitoria,
Febş ruary 19, 1524.
Ratification by the Emperor, February 27, 1524.

INTRODUCTION.
The attainment of India by the Portuguese incited the Spaniards to disş cover a strait leading westward to the Spice Islands. This was the purpose of Columbus's fourth voyage ( 1502-1504), and of several other Spanish expeditions, planned or undertaken in the following decade. The King of Portugal kept jealous watch of these enterprises and his protests caused at least one projected expedition of this kind to be postponed.1

In 1518 the Portuguese captain Magellan, who had served in the Far East, deeming himself ungratefully treated by King Emmanuel, transferred his allegiance to King Charles of Spain.2 On the ground that the Spice Islands ( Moluccas) lay on the Spanish side of the line of demarcation, he perş suaded Charles to employ him to lead an expedition thither by the western route.3 Despite the King of Spain's assurances that his commanders were charged to respect existing international agreements touching the line of demarcation,4 Portugal strove to frustrate Magellan's negotiations, and, failing in this, to obstruct the execution of his project.5

These attempts failed and in November, 1521, the Spanish expedition, having discovered on the voyage the Ladrones and the Philippine Islands, reached the Moluccas, where the native rulers concluded treaties with the

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1 His effectual protest against Pinzon's expedition planned in 1506 is noticed in H. Harrisse, Discovery of North America ( 1892), p. 730. For an account of early attempts to find a western passage to the Spice Islands see J. T. Medina, Sebastißn Caboto ( 1908), tom. I., c. 8.
2 Charles was elected emperor in the following year.
3 Magellan's instructions, his memorial on the latitude and longitude of the Moluccas, and other related documents are printed in the fourth volume of Navarrete, Viages, and summarized in the first volume of Blair and Robertson, Philippine Islands. See also Algs. Docs., pp. 423-430, and Medina, Documentos para la Historia de Chile, I., II.
The belief that the Moluccas lay within the Spanish area was entertained by the Spanish government as early as 1512. Cf. Doc. 12, introduction and note 5.
4 See the letter from Charles to King Emmanuel, Feb. 28, 1519, Algs. Docs., pp. 422- 423, and Blair and Robertson, Philippine Islands, I. 277-279.
5 Guillemard, Magellan, pp. 111-139. Letters to King Emmanuel from the Portuguese ambassador, Sept. 28, 1518, and from the Portuguese factor at Seville, July 18, 1519, are published in the original and in translation in Lord Stanley, First Voyage ( Hakluyt Soc., no. LII., 1874), pp. xxxv-xlvi, and appendixes 1 and 2. A translation of the former letter is in Guillemard, op. cit., pp. 114-116, and a partial translation of the second letter in the same work, pp. 130-134. The text of the second letter is in Algs. Docs., pp. 431-435.

leaders of the expedition and declared themselves vassals of Spain.6 In the Moluccas the Spaniards found themselves face to face with the Portuş guese, who had discovered the islands ten years before, and manifested their resentment against the intruders by destroying a trading post that the Spaniards were attempting to establish, and by seizing a ship. Portuş guese hostility was also displayed in another quarter, when the Victoria, the only vessel of the Spanish fleet that completed the voyage round the globe, was obliged, near the end of her course, to put in at the Cape Verde Islands.7 Here the Portuguese detained several of her crew as prisoners, and the King of Portugal, learning what had occurred, despatched four caravels in vain pursuit of the ship.8

Shortly after the return of the Victoria to Spain the two courts began negotiations relative to the Moluccas.

Three closely related questions were distinguished: (1) the determinaş tion of the line of demarcation in accordance with the treaty of Tordesillas; (2) the possession of the Moluccas; and (3) their ownership. Early in the negotiations the Emperor suggested that in addition to the caravels deş spatched by each power to make a demarcation, Pope Adrian VI. should send a caravel, and act as umpire.9 As to possession, both parties claimed it. The Emperor argued that even if the Moluccas had been first seen or discovered by Portuguese ships, yet they had not been taken or possessed, and thereş fore not effectually found by them; while he, on the other hand, was acş knowledged by the native rulers as lord of those regions.10 He admitted, however, that the Portuguese were in possession of Malacca, although many believed that this also lay within the Spanish demarcation. The Portuguese, on the other hand, asserted that they had found the Moluccas, and that thereş fore, even if they were on the Spanish side of the line of demarcation, Spain should, in accordance with the treaty of Tordesillas, petition the Portuguese for them. The Spanish argued that, on the contrary, such petition should come from the Portuguese.11

Among the demands made by Portugal, one was especially displeasing to the Emperor and the Castilian Cortes--that while the questions of possesş sion and ownership remained in dispute, neither party should despatch a trading fleet to the Moluccas. The Victoria's cargo had proved of enormous value, and before the end of the year 1522 a second fleet was being hastily

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10 Blair and Robertson, op. cit., I. 150-153; Herrera, Historia General, dec. III., lib. VI., c. 5., and cf. Peter Martyr D'Anghera, De Orbe Novo, II. 239 (trans. by F. A. MacNutt , 1912).
11 Blair and Robertson, op. cit., I. 142-158; Navarrete, op. cit., tom. IV., no. 31, pp. 312-320; Herrera, loc. cit.
6 Extracts from these treaties are in Navarrete, op. cit., IV. 295-298.
7 Guillemard, op. cit., pp. 293 ff.
8 Andrada, Chronica del Rey Dom JoŃo o III., pt. I., c. 17. Santarem, Quadro Elementar II. 32 ff.
9 Algs. Docs., p. 462.

equipped to sail to the Spice Islands from Coru˝a. In consequence of Portugal's opposition, the Emperor postponed its departure, but in 1523 he promised the Cortes of Castile that it should be despatched as soon as possible and that he would not surrender the "Spicery" or come to any other agreement respecting it that was prejudicial to Castile.12

The negotiations ended in the signing of a provisional treaty in the city of Vitoria on February19, 1524. The principal stipulations were that each party should appoint three astrologers and three pilots to assemble not later than the end of March at the frontier of the two countries to determine the demarcation; and three lawyers to meet at the same time and place to deterş mine the question of possession. If possible the questions were to be decided by the end of May, 1524. Before that time neither party was to despatch a trading expedition to the Moluccas.

The treaty was ratified by the Emperor on February 27, 1524.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.
Text: MS. The original ratification signed by the emperor at Vitoria, February 27, 1524, is in the National Archives at Lisbon, gav. 18, mašo 6, no. 5. The protocol is in the same archives, gav. 15, ma˝o 10, no. 20, and also in the Archives of the Indies at Seville, Papeles de Maluco de 1519 ß 1547, est. 1, caj. 2, leg. 1/15, no. 9 .

Text: Printed. The protocol is printed in M. F. de Navarrete, Coleccion de Viages ( 1825- 1937), tom. IV., no. 32, PP. 320-326, and in J. T. Medina, Coleccion de Documentos para la Historia de Chile ( 1888- 1902), I. 330-337.

Translation. The articles are translated in E. H. Blair and J. A. Robertson, Philippine Islands ( 1903- 1909), I. 160-163.

References: Contemporary and early writings. Diplomatic documents: Navarrete, op. cit., IV. 301-305, 312-320, translated in Blair and Robertson , op. cit., I. 139-158; J. Ramos-Coelho, Alguns Documentos ( 1892), pp. 462-463; Viscount de Santarem, Quadro Elementar ( 1842- 1876), II. 35 ff. See also A. Rodriguez Villa, El Emperador Carlos V. y su Corte seg˙n las Cartas de Don Martin de Salinas ( 1903), passim; Fr. d'Andrada, Chronica do Rey Dom JoŃo o III. ( 1796), tom. I., cc. 16-18; A. de Herrera, Historia General de los Hechos de los Casş tellanos, dec. III., lib. VI., cc. 3-6 (ed. 1728- 1730, II. 178-184); B. Leonardo de Argensola, Conquista de las Islas Malucas ( 1609), lib. I.; id., in Biblioteca de Escritores Aragoneses, Secciˇn Literaria, tom. VI. ( 1891), translated in J. Stevens, New Collection of Voyages and Travels ( 1708- 1710), vol. I Pt. 1; Medina, op. cit., toms. I. and II.

References: Later writings. F. H. H. Guillemard, Life of Ferdinand Magellan ( 1890); O. Koelliker, Die Erste Umseglung der Erde ( 1908), gives an extended list of the sources; F. ColÝn, Labor EvangÚlica (ed. P. Pastells, 1904), II. 600-613, "Discusiones entre Espa˝a y Portugal acerca del Derecho de Posesiˇn de las Malucas".

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12 Cˇrtes de los Antiguos Reinos de Leon y de Castilla, IV. 388
( Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid, 1861, etc.).

TEXT.13
Don Carlos, por la gracia de Dios rrei de Roma˝os e emperador semper augusto, Do˝a Johana, su madre, e el mesmo Don Carlos, por la mesma gracia rreyes de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de las Dos Sešilias, de Jherusalem, de Navarra, de Granada, de Toledo, de Valencia, de Galizia, de Mallorcas, de Sevilla, de ăerde˝a, de Cordova, de Coršega, de Muršia, de Jahen, de los Algarves, de Algezira, de Gibraltar, de las Yslas de Canaria, de las lndias, yslas e tierra firme del mar ošeano, condes de Baršelona, se˝ores de Vizcaya e de Molina, duques de Athenas e de Neopatria, condes de Ruysellon e de ăerdania, marqueses de Oristan e de Gošiano, archiduques de Austria, duques de Borgo˝a e de Bravante, condes de Flandes e de Tirol, etc., vimos una escriptura de capitulašion e asiento hecha en nuestro nombre por Mercurinus de Gratinara,14 nuestro grand chanšiller, e Don Herrnando de Vega,15 comş mendador mayor de Castilla, e Don Garšia de Padilla,16 comendador mayor de Calatrava, y el Doctor Lorenšo Galindez de Carvajal,17 todos del nuestro consejo, e Pero Correa, de Atovia, se˝or de la villa de Velas, y el Doctor Johan de Faria,18 embaxadores e del consejo del Serenisimo e Mui Excelente Rei de Portugal,19 nuestro mui caro e mui amado sobri˝o e primo, e sus procuiadores, su thenor del qual es este que se sigue:

En el nombre de Dios Todo poderoso, Padre y Hijo y Spiritu Sancto. Manifiesto e notorio sea a todos quantos este publico ynstrumento vieren, como en la šibdad de Vitoria a diez e nueve dias del mes de Hebrero, a˝o del nasšimiento de nuestro Salvador Jhesu Christo de mill e quientos e veinte e quatro a˝os, en presenšia de mi, Franšisco de los Covos,20 secrectario de sus

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13 The text is taken from the original manuscript of the ratification by the Emperor, dated Feb. 27, 1524, preserved in the National Archives at Lisbon, gav. 18, mašo 6, no. 5. 14 In 1519 Mercurino Arborio de Gattinara, a Piedmontese, formerly employed by the Emperor Maximilian in important negotiations, became grand chancellor of Charles V. and ex officio president of the councils. He befriended Las Casas in his controversies with the Council of the Indies and presided over the Cortes of 1523 which petitioned Charles not to surrender the Spice Islands. In 1529, the year before his death, he was created cardinal.
15 Se˝or de Grajal, knight-commander in Castile and Leon of the Order of Santiago and president of the Council of the Orders (i. e., of the three oldest orders of knightş hood in Spain--Alcßntara, Calatrava, and Santiago). He was a member of the Council of the Indies both before and after its reorganization in 1524, and at one time owned land and Indians in the West Indies. In 1515 he was a president of the Cortes. A brief biographical notice of him is in M. Danvila, Historia de las Comunidades de Castilla, in the Memorial Histˇrico Espa˝ol ( Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid, 1899), XL. 135.
16 A member of the early Council of the Indies and of the Cortes of 1518, 1520, and 1523. In 1523 president of the Council of the Orders.
17 A learned lawyer and historian, member of the Council of the Indies as reorganized in 1524, and of the Cortes of 1520 and 1523; president of the Royal Council of Castile, and appointed by Queen Isabella to prepare a digest of the Castilian law. His Anales del Rey Don Fernando el Catˇlico is one of the best authorities for the latter part of that king's reign.
18 During his embassy at Rome, JoŃo de Faria had obtained many favors for Portugal from Leo X. Cf. above, Doc. 12, introduction.
19 John III., 1521-1537.
20 In 1517 Cobos, a Spaniard, became secretary to Charles V. and a member of the Council of the Indies. He rose rapidly in favor, and after the death of Gattinara he and Granvelle were Charles's most influential ministers. "All the affairs of Italy, the Indies, and Spain passed under his hand for many years." Gˇmara, Annals of the Emperor Charles V. (ed. R B. Merriman, 1912), P. 136.

Magestades e su noctario publico, e de los testigos de yuso escripctos, estando presentes los se˝ores Mercurinus de Gratinara, grand chanšiller de sus Magestades, y Don Hernando de Vega, comendador mayor de Castilla de la Horden de Sanctiago, e Don Garqia de Padilla, comendador mayor de Calaş trava, y el Doctor Lorenšo Galindez de Carvajal, todos del consejo de los mui altos e mui poderosos prinšipes, Don Carlos, por la divina clemenšia emperador semper augusto, rrey de Roma˝os, y Do˝a Johana, su madre, e el mesmo Don Carlos, su hijo, por la grašia de Dios rreyes de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de las Dos Sešilias, de Jherusalen, etc., sus procuradores bastantes, de la una parte, e los se˝ores, Pero Correa de Atovia, se˝or de la villa de Velas, e el Doctor Johan de Faria, ambos del consejo del muy alto e muy exšelente se˝or, el se˝or, Don Johan, por la grašia de Dios rrey de Portugal, de los Algarves de aquende y allende el mar en Africa, se˝or de Guinea y de la conquista, navegašion, e comeršio de Ytiopia e Aravia e Persia y de la India, etc., sus embaxadores e procuradores bastantes, segund ambas las dichas partes lo mostraron por las cartas, poderes, e procurašiones delos dichos se˝ores sus constituyentes, su thenor de las quales de verbo ad verbum es este que se sigue:

[Here follow the full powers granted by the Emperor Charles V. and Queen Joanna of Castile to Mercurino de Gattinara, Fernando de Vega, GarcÝa de Padilla, and Dr. Lorenzo GalÝndez de Carvajal, on January 25, 1524; and the full powers granted by John III. of Portugal to Pedro Corrŕa and Dr. JoŃo de Faria on January 13, 1524.]

E luego los dichos procuradores de los dichos se˝ores rreyes de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de las Dos Sešilias, de Jherusalem, etc., e del dicho Se˝or Rey de Portugal, de los Algarves, etc., dixeron: Que por quanto entre los dichos se˝ores sus constituyentes ay dubda sobre la posesion de Maluco y la propiedad del, pretendiendo cada uno dellos que cae en los limites de su demarcašion, la qual se ha de hazer conforme al asiento y capitulašion 21 que fue fecha entre los Catolicos rreyes, Don Hernando e Reina Do˝a Ysabel, rreyes de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, etc., e el muy alto y muy exšelente se˝or el Se˝or Rey Don Johan, rrey de Portugal, de los Algarves, se˝or de Guinea, etc., que ayan gloria, por ende ellos e cada uno dellos en los dichos nombres e por virtud delos dichos poderes de suso encorporados, por bien de paz e concordia e por conservašion del debdo e amor que entre los se˝ores sus constituyentes [ay,]22 otorgaron, consintieron, e asentaron lo siguiente:

[1.] Primeramente, que para la demarcašion que se ha de hazer conforme a la dicha capitulašion, se nombre[n] por cada una de las partes tres asş trologos e tres pilotos e marineros, los quales se ayan de juntar e junten por todo el mes de Maršo primero que viene, o antes si ser pudiere, en la rraya de Castilla y Portugal entre la cibdad de Badajoz e la cibdad de Yelves, para que por todo el mes de Mayo primero siguiente, deste presente a˝o, haziendo ante todas cosas, luego commo se juntaren, juramento solene em forma devida de derecho en poder de dos notarios, uno puesto por la una parte y el otro por la otra, con abto e testimonio publico, en que juren a Dios e a Santa Maria e a las palabras de los santtos quatro Evangelios, en que pornan las ma˝os, que pospuesto todo amor y temor, odio e pasion, ni interese alguno, y sin tener rrespecto a otra cosa alguna mas de hazer justišia, miraran el

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21 The treaty of Tordesillas, Doc. 9.
22 This word is not in the text.

derecho de las partes, determinen conforme a la dicha capitulašion la dicha demarcašion.

[2.] Asimismo, que se nombren por cada una de las partes tres letrados, los quales dentro del mesmo termino y lugar, premiso el dicho juramento con las solemnidades e de la manera que de suso se contiene, entiendan en lo de la posesion de Maluco, e lo determinen, rresšibiendo las probanšas, escripş turas, capitulašiones, testigos e derechos que antes ellos fueren presentadas, e hagan todo lo que les paresšiere nesšesario para hazer la dicha declarašion, commo hallaren por justišia; e que de los dichos tress letrados, el primero nombrado en la comision tenga cargo de juntar a todos los otros diputados de su parte para que con mas cuydado se entienda en la negociašion.

[3.] Otrosy, que durante el dicho termino fasta en fin del dicho mes de Mayo, primero siguiente, ninguna de las partes no pueda embiar a Maluco, ni contratar ni rescatar, pero si antes del dicho tiempo se determinare en posesion o propiedad, que la parte en cuyo favor se declarare el derecho en cada una de las dichas cosas, pueda embiar y rrescatar; e en caso que se determine lo de la propiedad e demarcašion, se entienda dešisa e absorvida la quistion de la posesion; y si solamente se determinare lo de la posesion por los dichos dos letrados, sin que lo de la propiedad se pudiese determinar, commo es dicho, que lo que quedare por determinar de la dicha propiedad, e tambien de la posesion del dicho Maluco, quede conforme a la dicha capituş lašion en el estado en que estava antes que se hiziese este asiento; lo qual todo se ha de entender e entienda sin perjuizio del derecho de cada una de las partes en propiedad e posesion conforme a la dicha capitulašion.

[4.] Pero si a los dichos letrados primero nombrados en las comisiones, antes que se acabe el dicho termino, paresšiere que con alguna prorrogašion del dicho termino oviese aparenšia de se poder acabar e determinar lo asentado, e se les ofresšiere otro camino o modo bueno para que este negošio se podiese mejor determinar en un cabo o otro, conviene a saber, en posesion o propieş dad; en qualquier destos casos los dichos dos letrados puedan prorrogar el tiempo que les paresšiere convenir a la brebe determinašion dello, e que durante el termino de la dicha prorrogašion puedan ellos e todos los otros diputados e cada uno dellos en su calidad, entender e conosšer, entiendan e conozcan, commo si fuese dentro del termino prinšipal de su comision; pero quel dicho tiempo se entiende prorrogado con las mismas condišiones e calidades de suso contenidas.

[5.] Y que todos los abtos que en este caso se ovieren de hazer sean firmados por los dichos dos notarios nombrados por cada una de las partes el suyo, e cada uno escriva los abtos de su parte; y el otro, despues de averlos comprobado e colašionado, los firme.

[6.] Yten, que cada una de las partes aya de traer rratificašion e conş firmašion destos capitulos de los dichos se˝ores sus constituyentes, dentro de veinte dias primeros siguientes.

Lo qual todo que dicho es, e cada cosa e parte dello, los dichos Mercurinus de Gratinara, grand chanšiller de sus Magestades, e los dichos Don Fernando de Vega, comendador mayor de Castilla, e Don Garcia de Padilla, comendador mayor de Calatrava, e el Dottor Lorenšo Galindez de Carvajal, todos del su consejo, procuradores de los dichos mui altos e muy poderosos Reyna e Rey de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, e de Granada, e de las Dos Secilias, de Jherusalem, etc., y por virtud del dicho su poder, que de suso va encorş porado, los dichos Pero Correa de Atovia e el Dottor Juan de Faria, procuradores e embaxadores del dicho muy alto e muy exšelente prinšipe, el Se˝or Rey Don Johan de Portugal, e de los Algarves de aquende e allende el mar en Africa, se˝or de Guinea, etc., e por virtud del dicho su poder que de suso va encorporado, prometieron e seguraron en nombre de los dichos sus conş stituyentes, que ellos e sus subšesores e rreinos e se˝orios, para siempre jamas, ternan e guardaran e cumpliran rrealmente e con efecto, a buena fee e sin mal enga˝o, cessante todo fraude, cautela, enga˝o, fišion, e simulaş šion alguna, todo to que de suso se contiene, e es asentado e concertado, e lo que por los dichos diputados fuere sentenšiado e determinado, e cada cosa e parte dello, enteramente, segund e commo por ellos fuere hecho e ordenado e sentenšiado e determinado, bien asi e a tan cumplidamente commo si por los dichos sus constituyentes conformes fuese hecho y determinado e conş šertado e commo juizio dado por juezes competentes; e para que asy se guardara e cumplira, por virtud de los dichos poderes que de suso van encorporados, obligaron a los dichos sus partes, sus constituyentes, e a sus bienes muebles e rrayzes e de sus patrimonios e coronas rreales e de sus subšesores, para siempre jamas, que ellos ni alguno dellos, por si ni por interposita persona, directe ni indirecte, no yran ni vernan contra ello, ni contra cosa alguna ni parte dello, en tiempo alguno, ni por alguna manera, pensada o no pensada, que sea o ser pueda, so las penas en la dicha capitulaş šion que de suso se haze minšion contenidas, e, la pena pagada o non pagada o grašiosamente rremitida, que toda via esta escriptura e asiento e todo lo que por virtud delta fuere hecho e determinado quede y finque firme, estable, e valedero, para siempre jamas; e rrenunšiaron qualesquier leyes e derechos de que se puedan aprovechar las dichas partes e cada una deltas para yr o venir contra to suso dicho, o contra alguna cosa o parte dello, e por mayor seguridad e firmeza de to suso dicho juraron a Dios e a Santa Maria e a la se˝al de la Cruz, en que pusieron sus manos derechas, e a las palabras de los Santtos quatro Evangelios, donde quier que mas largamente son escripctos, en anima de los dichos sus partes, que ellos e cada uno dellos ternan, guardaran, e cumpliran todo lo suso dicho e cada una cosa e parte dello, rrealmente e con efecto, šesante todo enga˝o, cautela, e simulašion, e no lo contradiran en tiempo alguno ni por alguna manera, e so el dicho juramento juraron de no pedir absolušion de nuestro muy Santo Padre ni de otro legado ni perlado que se la pueda dar, y aun que de su proprio mottuo se la de no usaran della, e asi mesmo los dichos procuradores en el dicho nonbre se obligaron, so la dicha pena e juramento, que dentro de veinte dias primeros siguientes, contados desde el dia de la hecha desta capitulašion, daran la una parte a la otra e la otra a la otra, aprovašion e rratificašion desta dicha capitulašion, escriptas en pergamino e firmadas de los nombres de los dichos se˝ores, sus constituyentes, e selladas con sus sellos de plomo pendientes, de lo qual todo que dicho es otorgaron dos escripturas de un tenor, la una commo la otra, las quales firmaron de sus nombres e las otorgaron ante mi, el dicho secrettario e notario publico de suso escripto, e de los testigos de yuso escriptos, para cada una de las partes la suya, equalquier que paresšiere valga commo si ambas a dos paresšiesen, que fueron fechas e otorgadas en la dicha šibdad de Vittoria, el dicho dia e mes e a˝o suso dicho. Testigos que fueron presentes al otorgamiento desta escriptura, e vieron firmar en ella a todos los dichos se˝ores procuradores, e los vieron jurar corporalmente en manos de mi, el dicho secretario, Franšisco de Valenšuela, cavallero de la horden de Santiago, e Pedro de Salazar, capitan de sus magestades, e Pedro de Ysasaga, contino23 de sus magestades, e Go. Casco e Albaro Mexia e Bastian Fernandez, criados del dicho embaxador Pero Correa de Atuvia. Mercurinus, cancelarius, Hernando de Vega, comendador mayor, El comenş dador mayor,24 Dottor Carvajal, Pero Correa, Juan de Faria. Por testigo, Franšisco de Valenšuela. Por testigo, Go. Quasquo. Testigo, Bastian Ferş nandes, testigo, Alvaro Mexia, por testigo, Pedro de Ysasaga, por el dicho Salazar, Johan de Sama˝o; e yo, el dicho Francisco de los Covos, secretario de sus Cesarea y Catholicas Magestades, y su escriva˝o e notario publico en la su corte e en todos los sus rreynos e se˝orios de Castilla, presente fuy, en uno con los dichos testigos, al otorgamiento desta dicha escriptura e capitulaş šion e juramento della, e de rruego e otorgamiento e pedimiento de los dichos procuradores de ambas las dichas partes, que en mi rregistro ellos e los dichos testigos firmaron sus nombres, esta dicha escriptura fiz escrivir segund que ante mi paso, la qual va escripta en tres hojas de papel con esta en que va my signo, e di a cada una de las dichas personas la suya, por ende en testimonio de verdad fiz aqui este mio signo a tal.

Por ende nos, vista e entendida la dicha escriptura e asiento que de suso va encorporada e cada cosa e parte della, e siendo šiertos e certificados de todo lo en ella contenido, e queriendo guardallo e cumplilla, commo en ella se contiene, loamos, confirmamos, e aprovamos, rratificamos y, en tanto que es nesšesario, de nuevo otorgamos e prometemos23 guardar la dicha escriptura e asiento que asi por los dichos nuestros procuradores e procuş radores [del dicho se˝or e] muy exšelente rrey nuestro sobrino e primo fue asentado e conšertado en nuestros nombres, e cada cosa e parte dello, rrealmente e con efecto, a buena fee, sin mal enga˝o, cesante todo fraude e simulašion, e queremos e somos contentes que se guarde e cumpla segund e commo en ella se contiene, bien asi e a tan cumplidamente commo si por nos fuera fecho, asentado, e capitulado. Dada en Vitoria, a xxvii. dias del mes de Hebrero, a˝o del našimiento de nuestro Salvador Jhesu Christo de mill y quinientos e veynte y quatro a˝os.

YO, EL REY.

YO, FRANCISCO DE LOS COVOS,
secretario de sus Cesarea y Catholicas
Magestades la fize escrevir por su mandado [notarial sign].
M[ERCURINU]S, Canš [illerl.
HERNANDO DE VEGA, comendador mayor.
Lišentiatus Don GARăIA.
El Doctor CARVAJAL. ANDREUS . . ., chanšiller.

TRANSLATION.
Don Charles, by the grace of God king of the Romans and emperor ever august, Do˝a Joanna, his mother, and the said Don Charles, by the said grace, King and Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, Navarre, Granada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, the Majorcas, Seville, Sardinia, Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, the Algarves, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, the Indies, the islands and mainland of the ocean sea, count and countess of Barcelona, lord and lady of Biscay and Molina, duke and

____________________
23 See Doc. 9, note 19.
24 Don Garcia de Padilla, knight-commander of the Order of Calatrava.
25 A blot on the manuscript makes two words illegible.

duchess of Athens and Neopatras, count and countess of Roussillon and Cerdagne, marquis and marchioness of Oristano and Gociano, archduke and archduchess of Austria, duke and duchess of Burgundy and Brabant, count and countess of Flanders and Tirol, etc.: We have seen an instrument of agreement and treaty made in our name by Mercurino de Gattinara, our grand chancellor, and Don Hernando de Vega, chief knight-commander of Castile, and Don GarcÝa de Padilla, chief knight-commander of Calatrava, and Doctor Lorenzo GalÝndez de Carvajal, all members of our council, and Pero Corrŕa d'Atouguia, lord of the town of Bellas, and Doctor JoŃo de Faria, ambassadors and members of the council of the most serene and very excellent King of Portugal, our very dear and well-beloved nephew and cousin, and their representatives, the tenor of which is as follows:

In the name of God Almighty, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Be it maniş fest and known to all who shall see this public instrument, that in the city of Vitoria on the nineteenth day of the month of February, in the year of the nativity of our Saviour Jesus Christ, 1524, in the presence of me, Francisco de los Cobos, their majesties' secretary and notary public, and of the underş signed witnesses, there being present the lords Mercurino de Gattinara, grand chancellor of their Majesties, Don Hernando de Vega, chief knight- commander in Castile of the Order of Santiago, Don GarcÝa de Padilla, chief knight-commander of the Order of Calatrava, and Doctor Lorenzo GalÝndez de Parvajal, all members of the council of the very exalted and very powerş ful princes, Don Charles, by the divine clemency, emperor ever august, king of the Romans, and Do˝a Joanna, his mother, and the said Don Charles, her son, by the grace of God king and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, etc., their qualified representatives, on the one part, and the lords Pero Corrŕa d'Atouguia, lord of the town of Bellas, and Doctor JoŃo de Faria, both members of the council of the very exalted and very excellent lord, Dom John, by the grace of God king of Portugal, of the Algarves on this side of and beyond the sea in Africa, lord of Guinea and of the conquest, navigation, and commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, India, etc., their ambassadors and qualified representatives--as both the said parties proved by the letters, authorizations, and procurations, from the said lords, their constituents, the tenor of which, word for word, is as follows:

[Here follow the full powers granted by the Emperor Charles V. and Queen Joanna of Castile to Mercurino de Gattinara, Fernando de Vega, GarcÝa de Padilla, and Dr. Lorenzo GalÝndez de Carvajal, on January 25, 1524; and the full powers granted by John III. of Portugal to Pedro Corrŕa and Dr. JoŃo de Faria on January 13, 1524.]

And thereupon the said representatives of the said King and Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, etc., and of the said lord King of Portugal, of the Algarves, etc., said: That whereas there is a difference of opinion between the said lords, their constituents, as to the possession and ownership of the Moluccas, each of them claiming that those islands fall within the limits of his demarcation, which must be determined in accordance with the treaty and agreement concluded between the Catholic sovereigns, Don Ferdinand and Queen Do˝a Isabella, king and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, etc., and the very exalted and excellent lord, the lord king Dom John, king of Portugal, of the Algarves, lord of Guinea, etc.

(may they rest in glory)--therefore they, jointly and severally, in the said names, and by virtue of the said powers incorporated above, for the sake of peace and concord, and for the preservation of the relationship and affection which exists between the lords their constituents, authorized, conş sented to, and agreed to the following:

1. First,26 there shall be appointed by each one of the parties to this treaty three astrologers and three pilots and sailors for the determination of the demarcation, which must be made according to the terms of the said treaty. These men must assemble, and they shall assemble, by the end of the month of March first following, or before that time if possible, at the boundary line of Castile and Portugal, between the cities of Badajoz and Elvas, in order that by the end of the month of May next following, of this present year, they may determine, in accordance with the terms of the said treaty, the said demarcation--taking a solemn oath as soon as they have assembled, and before attending to anything else, in the form prescribed by law and before two notaries (one for each side) with public declaration and testimony, swearing in the presence of God and the blessed Mary, and upon the words of the four Holy Gospels, upon which they shall place their hands, that, laying aside all love and fear, hate, passion, or any interest, and with regard only to securing justice, they will examine the rights of the two parties involved.

2. Likewise three lawyers shall be appointed by each side, who, within the same period and at the same place, and after having taken the said oath with all the solemn forms and in the manner abovesaid, shall inquire into the possession of Molucca, and receiving the proofs, documents, treaties, witnesses, and rights that shall have been presented before them, shall deş termine the possession, doing everything that seems necessary for making the said declaration, just as they would do in court. Of the three above-mentioned lawyers, he who is named first in the commission shall take charge of assembling all the other deputies of his side, in order that greater care may be exercised in the negotiations.

3. Further, during the said period and up to the end of the said month of May, next following, neither of the parties to this treaty shall despatch expeditions to Molucca for purposes of trade or barter. But if before the end of the said period the question of possession or ownership shall be deş termined, then the side in whose favor the right of each of the said questions is declared may despatch expeditions and may barter. And in case the question of ownership and demarcation is determined, then that of possesş sion shall be understood to be decided and absorbed. If only the question of possession is determined by the [two] said lawyers, without their being able to determine that of ownership, as aforesaid, then what still remains to be determined of the said ownership, and likewise of the possession of the said Molucca, shall, in accordance with the terms of the treaty, remain in the same condition as before this present compact. All of the above must and shall be investigated without any prejudice to the rights of ownership and possession of either side, in accordance with the said treaty.

4. But if before the conclusion of the said period it shall appear to the lawyers first named in the commissions, as aforesaid, that the settlement

____________________
26 The translation of the six following articles is taken from Blair and Robertson, Philippine Islands, I. 160-163.

can, in all probability, be concluded and determined with some further conş tinuation of the time set, as abovesaid, or if another good way or manner of procedure, by which this matter could be determined better under one head or another, to wit, that of possession or that of ownership, should offer itself to them, the two lawyers, as aforesaid, may in either of these cases prolong, for so long a time as seems convenient to them, the brief determinaş tion of the matter. During the period of the said continuation, these lawyers and all the other deputies, each one in his own capacity, may investigate and ascertain, and they shall investigate and ascertain, just as if this extenş sion of time were within the principal period named in their commission. But the said time shall be understood to be continued under the same condiş tions and obligations as hereinbefore stated.

5. And all the actions taken in this case shall be signed by the two notaries appointed in his name by each of the parties to this treaty, as aforeş said. Each notary shall write the actions taken by his side; and the other, after having confirmed and collated them, shall sign them.

6. Item, each one of the sides must obtain the ratification and confirmaş tion of these articles from their said constituents, within the twenty days first ensuing.

All the foregoing, and every part and parcel of it, the said Mercurino de Gattinara, grand chancellor of their Majesties, the said Don Hernando de Vega, chief knight-conmmander of Castile, Don GarcÝa de Padilla, chief knight-commander of Calatrava, and Doctor Lorenzo GalÝndez de Carvajal, all members of their council, and representatives of the said very exalted and very mighty Queen and King of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Granada, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, etc., and by virtue of their said powers, incorporated above, [and] the said Pedro Corrŕa d'Atouguia and Doctor JoŃo de Faria, representatives and ambassadors of the said very exalted and very excellent prince, the lord King Dom John of Portugal and of the Algarves on this side of and beyond the sea in Africa, lord of Guinea, etc., by virtue of their said powers, incorporated above, promised and affirmed in the name of their said constituents. [They promised and affirmed] that they and their successors, and their kingdoms and lordships, forever and ever, shall keep, observe, fulfill, really and effectively, in good faith and without deception, renouncing all fraud, mental reservation, deception, fiction, and dissimulaş tion whatsoever, all that is set forth above, and that is agreed to and conş cluded, and that which shall be decided and determined by the said represenş tatives, and every part and parcel of it, entirely, according as it shall be enacted, ordained, adjudged, and determined by them, just as, and as comş pletely as, if it had been enacted, determined, and concluded, by their said concurring constituents, and rendered as a judgment by competent judges. In order that the above shall be thus observed and fulfilled, by virtue of the said powers incorporated above, they pledged the said parties, their constituş ents, and their goods, movable and real, their patrimonies and royal crowns, and those of their successors, forever and ever, that neither they nor any of them, of themselves or through agents, directly or indirectly, shall violate it, or any part or parcel of it, at any time or in any manner, premeditated or unş premeditated, that may or can be, under the penalties set forth in the said agreement mentioned above, and that whether the penalty be paid or not paid or graciously remitted, this instrument and treaty and whatsoever shall be enacted and determined by virtue thereof, shall nevertheless be and remain firm, stable, and valid, forever and ever. They renounced all laws and rights of which the said parties or either of them may avail themselves to violate the foregoing, or any part or parcel thereof, and for the greater security and stability of the aforesaid they swore before God and Holy Mary, and upon the sign of the Cross, on which they placed their right hands, and upon the words of the four Holy Gospels, wheresoever they are most largely written, on the consciences of their said constituents, that they, jointly and severally, will keep, observe, and fulfill all the aforesaid, and each part and parcel of it, really and in fact, renouncing all deception, mental reservation, and subterfuge, and they will not gainsay it at any time or in any manner. Under the same oath, they swore not to seek absolution from our most Holy Father, or from any other legate or prelate, who can give it to them, and even though he shall, proprio motu, give it them, they will not make use of it. Likewise the said representatives, acting in the said names, bound themselves under the said penalty and oath, that within the twenty days first following, reckoned from the date of this agreement, the parties will mutually exchange the confirmation and ratification of this said agreement, written on parchment, signed with the names of the said lords, their constituents, and sealed with their hanging leaden seals. Of all the foregoing they authorized two copies of the same tenor, both alike, which they signed with their names and executed before me, the said secretary and notary public, whose name is written above, and before the undersigned witnesses--one copy for each party. And whichever copy is produced it shall be as valid as if both should be produced, which were made and executed in the said city of Vitoria, on the day, month, and year aforesaid. Witnesses who were present at the execution of this instrument, and saw all the said representatives sign it, and saw them swear corporally by the hands of me, the said secretary: Francisco de Valenzuela, knight of the Order of Santiago, Pedro de Salazar, captain of their Majesties, Pedro de Ysasaga, contino of their Majesties, G[regori]o Casgas, Alvaro Mejia, and Sebastian Fernandez, servants of the said ambassador Pedro Corrŕa d'Atouguia. Mercurino, chancellor; Hernando de Vega, chief knight-commander; the chief knight- commander; Doctor Carvajal; Pedro Corrŕ?a; JoŃo de Faria. As witness, Francisco de Valenzuela. As witness, G[regori]o Casgas. Witness, Sebasş tian Fernandez; witness, Alvaro Mejia; as witness, Pedro de Ysasaga; for the said Salazar, Juan de Samano. And I, the said Francisco de los Cobos, secretary of his Imperial Majesty and of their Catholic Majesties, and their scrivener and notary public in their court and in all their kingdoms and lordş ships of Castile, was present, together with the said witnesses, at the executing of this said instrument and agreement and the oath respecting it, and at the request and petition, and with the authorization, of the said representatives of both the said parties, who with the said witnesses signed their names in my register, I caused this said instrument to be written just as it was executed before me. It is written on three leaves of paper, with this on which is my [notarial] sign, and I gave a copy to each of the said persons. Therefore, in testimony of truth, I made this my sign here, which is thus.

Therefore, having seen and understood the said instrument and treaty, incorporated above, and every part and parcel of it, and being certain and assured of everything set forth therein, and desiring to observe and fulfill it, just as it stands, we commend, confirm, approve, ratify, and, so far as necessary, authorize anew and promise to observe, the said instrument and treaty which thus by our said representatives and the representatives [of the said lord and] very excellent king, our nephew and cousin, was agreed to and concluded in our names, and every part and parcel of it, really and in fact, in good faith, without deception, and renouncing all fraud and subterş fuge. And we desire and are content that it shall be observed and fulfilled, just as it stands, in the same manner and as completely as if it had been made, agreed to, and concluded by us. Given in Vitoria on the twenty-seventh day of the month of February, in the year of the nativity of Our Savior Jesus Christ, 1524.

I, THE KING.

I, FRANCISCO DE LOS COBOS, secretary of his Imperial Majesty and of their Catholic Majesties,
have caused it to be written by his command.
[Notarial sign.]

MERCURINO, chancellor.
HERNANDO DE VEGA, chief knight-commander.
Licentiate Don GARCIA.
Doctor CARVAJAL. ANDRES . . ., chancellor.

14.*
* Draft of an unconcluded treaty between Spain and Portugal,
1526.

INTRODUCTION.
In fulfillment of the terms of the treaty of Vitoria,1 the "junta of Badajoz" was held on the Spanish-Portuguese frontier between Badajoz and Elvas from April 11 to the end of May, 1524, when the Spanish commissioners voted against its further continuance.2 The conference was without result. In the case on possession neither side would act as plaintiff. In the case on ownership its failure was, indeed, inevitable; for in the then existing state of knowledge it was impossible to prove the fundamental question of the length of an equatorial degree, and hence to locate the line of demarcation or determine the longitude of the Moluccas. The Portuguese commisş sioners insisted that the 370 leagues should be measured from the eastern islands of the Cape Verde group, while the Spaniards were determined that the measurement should begin at the most westerly of these islands. As measured on the Portuguese and Spanish maps respectively, the distance from the eastern Cape Verde Islands to the Moluccas differed by 46░. The Portuguese located the Moluccas 21░ east of the demarcation line; the Spaniards, a greater distance west of that meridian.

The conference having ended, diplomatic negotiations were resumed; and it was not till the lapse of nearly five years that the dispute was terminated,3 in a manner altogether different from that which was at first proposed. The most important stages in this negotiation, up to 1526, are indicated in the following draft of a treaty, which was probably drawn up at Seville,4 and was not concluded.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.
Text: MS. The draft is in the Archives of the Indies, Patronato, 1-2-2/16, no. 3, ramo 12. It has not, it is believed, been printed or translated hitherto.

References: See references to Doc. 13.

____________________
1 Doc. 13.
2 Documents relating to this conference are in Navarrete, Viages ( 1825- 1838), IV.; Blair and Robertson, Philippine Islands, I. 165-221; Medina, Documentos para la Hisş toria de Chile, II.; id., El PortuguÚs Esteban Gˇmez al Servicio de Espa˝a, 1518-1535 ( 1908), pp. 133 ff. For accounts of the conference, see A. de Herrera, Historia General, dec. III., lib. VI., cc. 6-8; and Pastells edition of Colin, Labor EvangÚlica, II. 606-612.
3 By the treaty of Saragossa, Docs. 15 and 16.
4 Herrera, op. cit., dec. IV., lib. V., c. 10; ed. 1728- 1730, II. 93.

TEXT.5
En el nonbre de Dios Todo Poderoso, Padre e Hijo e Espiritu Sancto. Magnifiesto e notorio sea a todos quantos este publico imstrumencto vieren, como en [blank], a [blank] dias del mes de [blank], a˝o del nasšimiento de nuestro Se˝or Jhesu Christo de mill e quinientos e veynte e seis a˝os, en presenšia de my, Franšisco de los Covos,6 secretario de sus Magestades e su notario publico, e de los testigos de yuso escritos, estando presentes los se˝ores Mercurinus de Gatinara,7 grand chanšiller de sus Magestades, e Don Fray Garšia de Loaisa,8 o Bispo de Osma, presidente del Consejo de las Yndias y confesor de su Magestad, e Don Garšia de Padilla,9 comendador mayor de Calatrava, y el Doctor Lorenšo Galindes de Carvajaly,10 todos del Consejo de los muy altos e muy poderosos prinšypes, Don Carlos, por la divina clemenšia Enperador semper augusto, rrey de Romanos, e Do˝a Johana su madre, y el mismo Don Carlos su hijo, por la grašia de Dios rreyes de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de las Dos Sešilias, de Jherusalem, de Navarra, de Granada, etc., sus procuradores bastantes de la una parte, y el se˝or Lišenšiado Asevedo,11 del Consejo del muy alto e muy exšelente se˝or, el Se˝or Don Johan, por la grašia de Dios rrey de Portogal, de los Algarves de aquende y allende el mar en Africa, se˝or de Guinea, e de la conquista, navegašion, e comeršio de Ytiopia y Aravia e Persia e de la Yndia, etc., su enbaxador e procurador bastante, segund anbas las dichas partes lo mostraron por las cartas e poderes e procurašiones de los dichos se˝ores, sus constiş tuyentes, su thenor de las quales, de bervo ad verbo, es este que se sigue:

Los dichos procuradores de los dichos se˝ores Reyes de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de las Dos Sešilias, de Jherusalem, etc., e del dicho se˝or Rey de Portogal, de los Algarves, etc., dixeron que, por quanto sobre la duda que entre los dichos se˝ores sus constituyentes ay sobre la propiedad e posesion de los Malucos, pretendiendo cada una de las partes que cae en los limites de su demarcašion, haziendose la demarcašion, como sea de haser, conforme al asiento y capitulašion12 que fue hecha entre los Catolicos Reyes Don Fernando e Reyna Do˝a Ysabel, etc., y el se˝or Rey, Don Johan de Portogal, etc., que ayan gloria, por parte del se˝or Rey de Portogal, estando el Enperador en la šibdad de Segovia13 el a˝o pasado de mill e quinientos e.

____________________
10 See Doc. 13, note 17.
11 One of the Portuguese commissioners at the conference of Badajoz. His powers to conclude a treaty with the Emperor, dated Oct. 18, 1525, are preserved in the Archives of the Indies, Patronato, 1-2-2/16, no. 1. A brief notice of his instructions, Mar. 24, 1525, is in , Algs. Docs., pp. 485-486. Many of his letters and papers relative to the Molucca negotiations are m the National Archives at Lisbon. Cf. Santarem, Quadro Elementar, II. 46 ff.
12 The treaty of Tordesillas, Doc. 9.
13 The Emperor was in Segovia from Sept. 7 to 14, 1525. M. de Foronda y Aguilera, "Estancias y Viages de Carlos V.", BoletÝn de la Sociedad Geogrßfica de Madrid, tom. XXXVII., no. 7, July, 1895.
5 The text is taken from a manuscript in the Archives of the Indies, Patronato, 1-2-2/16, no. 3, ramo 12.
6 See Doc. 13, note 20.
7 See Doc. 13, note 14.
8 This distinguished prelate, former general of the Dominican Order, and since 1523 the confessor and confidant of Charles V., had .great influence at court. Upon the reorş ganization of the Council of the Indies in 1524, he became its president, Later he was made cardinal, archbishop of Seville, and commissary-general of the Inquisition.
A. Touron, Histoire des Hommes Illustres de l'0rdre de Saint Dominique, IV. ( 1747), 93-107.
9 See Doc. 13, note 16.

veynte e šinco a˝os, fueron movidos y apuntados šiertos medios que son los siguientes:Los14 medios que por parte del Rey de Portogal se proponen sobre lo de Maluco, es 1o siguiente: 1. Que se haga asiento entre su Magestad y el, que por justišia e por letrados, de una parte e de otra, se vea el derecho de la posesion e propiedad de Maluco, segund forma de las capitulašiones hechas y de lo que rue asentado que se viese en la rraya, no limitando tienpo, mas prosiguiendo hasta que entre los dichos letrados se tomen conclusion de la manera que les parešiere derecho, y no siendo conformes se tomen teršeros que 1o determinen.

2. Yten, que en quanto por los letrados o teršero no se diere sentenšia finalmente en la posesion o en la propiedad, que ninguna de las partes enbie a Maluco, ni vengan de Maluco para aca, hasta dar se sentenšia final en la propriedad, y, determinandose primero la posesion que la propriedad, aquel por quien la posesion se juzgare pueda enbiar hasta que se determine la dicha propriedad.

3. Yten, que bolviendo las naos que agora sean enbiado por parte de su Magestad15 primero que se determine la dicha posesion o propiedad, que se mande ver la despensa que hizieron, y, si lo que traxeren valiere mas, aquella parte que mas valiere se ponga en deposito y secresto para se entregar a aquel por quien fuere juzgada la posession e propriedad.

4. Yten, que este asiento sea jurado por anbas partes y aprovado con todas aquellas solenidades y clausulas que para seguridad de tal caso se rrequiere[n].

A los quales medios, su Magestad, teniendo la voluntad que sienpre tuvo e tiene a la conservašion del gran devdo y amor que ay entre el y el dicho se˝or Rey de Portogal, mando rresponder en esta guisa:

Lo16 que se rresponde por parte del Enperador y Rey nuestro se˝or a lo que de parte del se˝or Rey de Portogal, su hermano, nuevamente sea rreplicado sobre lo de Maluco es lo siguiente:

Primeramente, que del amor que el dicho se˝or Rey tiene, y buena voluntad que muestra, a la conservašion de la amistad y verdadera unyon de entre su Magestad y el dicho Serenisimo Rey, nunca su Magestad a puesto duda en ello, antes lo ha sienpre tenido por firme, y que rrešiprocamente no deve el dudar que su Magestad no tenga el mysmo amor y voluntad con deseo de sastifazer [sic] alas cosas del dicho Serenisimo Rey, su hermano, quanto la rrason y los negošios lo sufren y que buenamente se podra haser.

Quantto a lo que el dicho Serenisimo Rey apunta, mostrando descontentaş miento de lo que su Magestad dixo, que por olvido, a causa de otras grandes ocupašiones, no se avia rrespondido al Lišenšiado Antonio de Azevedo sobre

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14 Another copy of the following articles, preserved in the Archives of the Indies, Patronato, 1-2-2/16, no. 2, is headed: "Enbio lo su Magestad de Segovia a Toledo", i. e., probably to the Portuguese ambassador, who had been in Toledo while the Cortes was in session there in August. When the Cortes ended the Emperor went to Segovia. P. de Sandoval, Historia de la Vida del Emperador Carlos V., I. ( 1618), 660, 665.
15 The Spanish fleet under command of GarcÝa Jofre Loaysa sailed from Coru˝a on July 24, 1525. Cf. Doc. 15, note 30.
16 Another copy of the following reply, preserved in the Archives of the Indies, Patronato, 1-2-2/16, no. 2, is headed as follows: "La respuesta que Su Magestad diˇ en Segovia al enbaxador sobre los medios."

el dicho negošio de Maluco antes que la dicha armada partiese, paresšiendo al dicho se˝or Rey ser cosa grave y que sus cosas no deven ser olvidadas, šierto su Magestad no piensa que el dicho se˝or Rey tenga por esto justa causa de descontentamiento, pues sabe la calidad y peso de los negošios tan grandes que entre tanto sean ofrešido a su Magestad, los quales son de tal ynportanšia que fueršan a honbre a olvidar aun sus cosas propias, quanto mas las agenas, y con ellas devria escusarse no solamente aver olvidado lo de Maluco, mas aun se escusaria lo olvidado de otras cosas, muy mas inportantes de sus rreynos hereditarios; y ansy mismo se deve escusar este olvido, segund en la otra rrespuesta esta dicho, pues consta que por el partir del armada no se hazia mudanša en lo que ya estava rrespondido, y no por esto deve pensar el dicho serenisimo rey, que su Magestad no tenga y quiera tener el mismo cuidado de sus cosas que de las propias de su Magestad.

Quanto a los medios que ofreše--A su Magestad plaze que por letrados y otras personas expertas en la negošiašion, tornados por la una parte y la otra, en ygual numero, se vea el derecho de la propiedad e posesion, segund e al thenor e forma de las capitulašiones17 hechas y otorgadas entre los rreyes Catolicos y los Serenisimos Reyes de Portogal, no limitando tienpo para ello, mas prosiguiendolo hasta que por las dichas personas se tome conş clusyon de la manera que les parešiere derecho, y que no siendo conformes, se tomen teršeros, clue lo determinen, y que se junten en lugar que les parešiere mas conviniente.

Quanto a lo que el dicho Serenisimo Rey de Portogal pide, que hasta que sea aya dado sentencia final en propiedad o posesion, ninguna de las partes enbie a Maluco, pareše que es contra justišia e derecho y no ygual. Pero terna su Magestad por bien que los diputados den sobresto la horden que les parešiere.

Quanto a lo que pide del secresto de lo que truxeren las naos de su Magestad que agora son ydas, y por que contiene el mismo agravio que el prešedente se rresponde lo mismo que a el esta rrespondido.

Quanto al postrero, que plase a su Magestad que el asiento que sobresto se fiziere sea jurado por anbas partes y aprovado con todas las clausulas e solenidades que para la seguridad del se rrequiere.

A lo demas de la instrucšion del dicho Lišenšiado Asevedo rrespondera M[o]ns. de la Chaulx.18

A los quales por parte del dicho se˝or Rey de Portogal fue dado otro memorial del thenor siguiente:

Estos 19 son los capitulos conforme a la rrespuesta de su Magestad para que sea de hazer el asiento para determinašion de la causa de Maluco en posesyon o propiedad.

[1.] Yten, que por tres letrados, nonbrados de parte de su Magestad y tres por parte del Rey de Portogal, mi se˝or, y tres astrologos e tres pilotos o marineros expertos, nonbrados por cada una de las partes, se determine la

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17 The treaty of Tordesillas, Doc. 9.
18 Charles Poupet de la Chaulx (in Spanish, Laxao) had been previously sent as imperial ambassador to Portugal to negotiate the marriage between the Infanta Isabella of Portugal and the Emperor Charles V. Santarem, Quadro Elementar ( 1842, etc.), II. 50, 51.
19 According to another copy of this document in the Archives of the Indies, Patronato, 1-2-2/16, the Portuguese ambassador gave these articles to his Majesty in Toledo in January 1526.

causa en posesion o propriedad, saber, por los letrados juristas de cada parte la causa de la posesyon solamente, segund el tenor e forma de las capitulaş šlones hechas entre los Catolicos Reyes, Don Fernando e la Reyna Do˝a Ysabel y el Rey Don Johan de Portogal, los quales letrados prošederan en la dicha causa, syn determinašion o prefinišion de tienpo, hasta que finalmente senş tenšiaren e determinaren la dicha causa posesoria, segund hallaren por derecho, y por que entre los letrados e procuradores de anbas partes se podrian ofresšer dudas y diferenšias sobre qual de las partes seria auttor o rreo, que por hebitar de luengas y diferenšias entre los dichos letrados e procuradores, y por mas brevemente se poder dar fin a la causa, se prošeda sin libello y sin toda manera de petišion masque los procuradores de cada una de las partes presenten, y ofrescan ante los letrados que la causa han de determinar sus capitulos e posišiones por las quales sean examinados los testigos de cada una de las partes por las suyas, e se rresšiban todas las mas provanšas de escrituras e instrumentos de que cada una de las partes se esperare ayudar, y que los testigos juren en presenšia de los procuradores de las partes, e sean examinados e ynterrogados por dos de los letrados, uno de cada una de las partes que la causa ovieren de determinar, y dadas e ofrešidas las dichas provanšas y testigos sobre las dichas pusyšiones e capiş tulos, los letrados determinen la dicha causa posesoria por las dichas pusišiones y capitulos, y por las provanšas escrituras e testigos sobre ellas ofresšidos, segund les parešiere justišia y derecho, e que, siendo determinada y jusgada la causa posesoria, aquella parte que oviere sentenšia por sy y vitoria de la causa posesoria pueda de la dada de la sentenšia mandar sus armadas e gentes al dicho Maluco y hazer en el sus tratos e mercaderias, y la otra parte, contra quien fuere dada la sentenšia, no podra alla mas enbiar armadas ni gentes hasta que finalmente se determine sobre la propriedad a qual de las partes el derecho della pertenesše.

[2.] Yten, que, sobre la propriedad e derecho della, los astrologos, pilotos, o marineros, declarados e nonbrados por cada una de las partes, en el lugar de la rraya donde fuere acordado se ovieren de juntar, consultaran, acordaran, e tomaran asiento, sobre la propiedad, conforme alas capitulašiones hechas entre el Rey Don Johan de Portogal y el Rey Don Fernando e la Reyna Do˝a Ysabel, en la qual causa los dichos astrologos, pilotos, y marineros, otrosy prošederan hasta lo que nešesario les parešiere, syn limitašion de tienpo, mas prosiguiendo en la dicha causa, segund esta dicho en la causa de la posesion.

[3.] Ytem, que quanto a cada una de las partes enbiar o no sus navios y gentes al dicho Maluco durante la contienda e juisio de la posesion, quede a los juezes de la causa, que daran ašerca dello la horden y asiento que les parešiere de derecho, y que lo que los dichos letrados juezes en ello deterş minaren y ordenaren se guarde enteramente por cada una de las partes syn duda ni ynpedimiento que a ello pueda poner, y el mismo modo e manera se tenga ašerca de aver se de secrestar, o no, todo aquello que truxeren los navios de su Magestad que para el dicho Maluco fueren partidos.

[4.] Ytem, por que, en anbas estas causas de posesion y propriedad, los diputados y declarados pot cada una de las partes con mas acatamiento de Dios y mas libremente procedan en las dichas causas, que el se˝or Enperador y el se˝or Rey de Portogal fagan juramento solene sobre los Santtos Evangeş lios, en presenšia de los letrados, astrologos, pilotos, o marineros, por ellos nonbrados para este negošio, cada uno destos se˝ores delante los suyos, en presenšia de notario e testigo, en que declaren que su yntinšion e verdadera voluntad es, que ellos, sus letrados, astrologos, pilotos, o marineros hagan en la determinašion destas causas, para que son nonbrados por jueses, aquello que verdaderamente les paresšiere just[icia] e verdad, con toda brevedad, segund esta declarado, no haviendo rrespeto a ser sus vasallos, ni a otra cosa alguna que ellos diputados puedan presumir ni rrešelar para dexar de hazer just[icia] a qual de los que los diputaron les parešiere que la tiene.

[5.] Yten, que, hecho el dicho juramento por los dichos se˝ores en el modo suso dicho, los letrados, astrologos, pilotos, o marineros, nonbrados por cada una de las partes para entender en estas causas, en el lugar de la rraya donde se ovieren de juntar los unos e los otros se confiesen, y todos juntamente rrešiban el sacramento, e juraran solenemente sobre el santto sacramento, que el sacerdote que los hoviere de comulgar terna en sus manos, en presenšia de publico notario, que dello pueda dar fee, que sin themor ni amor ni otra cosa alguna que los pueda o deva ynpedir, conosšeran de las dichas causas e dudas contenidas, ansy de la posesion e propriedad y de todo lo demas en esta capitulašion contenido, y todas e cada una de las dichas causas y dubdas que les seran cometidas por los dichos se˝ores, y las determinaran, dešidiran, y sentenšyaran definitiva y finalmente, conforme a derecho y justišia, guardando las capitulašiones, provanšas, e testigos, por las partes ofresšidas, y guardando en la determinašion de las dichas causas todo lo que les pareş sšiere derecho y justišia, de qualquiera de las partes que la toviere, prometiş endo ansy mismo, so el cargo del dicho juramento, de prošesar las dichas causas de posesion y propiedad con toda diligenšia que posible les fuere, para con toda brevedad despachar y determinar las dichas causas.

[6.] Yten, que el lugar de la rraya donde los diputados de la una y otra parte se ayan de ayuntar sea entre las šibdades de Elves y Badajos, donde ya fueron juntos los diputados queen esta causa los dias pasados entendieron pot ser lugares mas convinientes para ello.

[7.] Yten, que los letrados, astrologos, pilotos, o marineros que en esta causa han de entender, scan nonbrados hasta tanto, etc.

[8.] Yten, que siendo caso queen qualquiera de las dichas causas de la posesion o propiedad los letrados en la posesoria fueren diferentes e disş cordes, o ansy mismo los astrologos, pilotos, o marineros fueren discordes entre sy, que en tal caso los dichos se˝ores scan obligados a elegir teršero, o teršeros, tales que scan expertos e sšientes de la causa en que fuere la discordia entre los diputados, saber, que sy la discordia fuere entre los letrados juristas, que de la causa posesoria han de conosšer, los teršeros que los dichos se˝ores tomaren, o teršero, sea otrosy jurista, y, por la misma manera, sy la discordia o diferenšia fuere entre los astrologos, pilotos, o marineros, que ansy mismo los dichos se˝ores elijan arbitros, o teršeros, astrologos, pilotos, o marineros, y que aquel teršero, o teršeros, en que se ansy los dichos se˝ores [blank], vean las dichas causas, e, oydos los procuradores de las partes, fagan enteramente justišia ansy como por este asiento y capitulašion esta asentado que lo hiziesen los diputados y primero nonbrados, y los dichos teršeros o teršero en que los dichos se˝ores asentaren y eligieren, tomaran otrosy el juramento con aquella solenidad que ya esta declarada, confesandose y comulgundose, y que lo que pot los dichos diputados e declarados por cada uno de los dichos se˝ores, o por la mayor parte dellos, fuere determinado, asy en la causa posesoria por los letrados juristas como en la propriedad por los astrologos, pilotos, o marineros, fuere determinado finalmente, y asentado syendo estos discordes, los quales dichos teršero o teršeros hordenaren e determinaren y asentaren, juzgando finalmente, los dichos se˝ores, por sy y sus herederos e sušesores, prometen en sus fees rreales, de todo lo tener y guardar e mandar guardar, syn arte e syn cautela alguna; para sienpre jamas, y juraran sobre la se˝al de la Cruz y por las palabras de los Santtos Evangeş lios, de todo lo tener, mantener, e guardar y hazer guardar, so obligašion de todos sus bienes patrimoniales y de la corona de sus reynos, que para ello obligavan, etc.

[9.] Yten, que el primero nonbrado por cada uno de los dichos se˝ores presyda por su parte ansy como en la capitulašion pasada, que entre estos se˝ores fue hecha hera contenido.

Sobre todo su Magestad mando postreramente dar la rrespuesta siguiente:

Lo que se rresponde pot parte del enperador y rey nuestro se˝or a los capitulos que por parte del se˝or Rey de Portogal se enbian sobre lo de Maluco es lo siguiente:

Que a su Magestad plase mucho de que al se˝or Rey de Portogal aya parešido bien la rrespuesta que dio su Magestad, estando en Segovia,20 al enbaxador del dicho se˝or Rey de Portogal sobre los medios que por.su parte se movieren a su Magestad en lo de Maluco, y asy para la execušion dellos mandara luego nonbrar letrados y otras personas expertas en la negoş šiašion, e dalles todas las provisiones nesšesarias, ynserta en ellas la dicha rrespuesta, para que, conforme a ella y a la capitulašion hecha entre los Catolicos Reyes Don Fernando, e Do˝a Ysabel, rreyes de Castilla, etc., y el se˝or Rey Don Johan, rrey de Portogal, etc., entiendan en la determinašion del dicho negošio, y tiene por bien pot mas conplaser al dicho se˝or Rey de Portogal de hazer su Magestad a mandar que las dichas personas, nonbradas por su parte, hagan el juramento e solenidad que agora se pide de parte del dicho se˝or Rey de Portogal, para queen la determinašion del dicho negošio prošedan conforme a la dicha rrespuesta, e que, sy entre las dichas personas e diputados de anbas pares no se conšertaren, que sy la diferenšia fuere entre los letrados, que el teršero, o teršeros, que se ovieren de nonbrar, sean letrados, y sy la dicha diferenšia fuere entre los astrologos e pilotos, que el teršero que se oviere de nonbrar sea de aquella facultad, y que estos entiendan en el dicho negošio conforme a la rrespuesta que su Magestad dio en Segovia, que de suso va encorporada.

Por ende anbas las dichas partes, por virtud de los dichos poderes que tienen de los dichos se˝ores sus constituyentes, que de suso van encorporados, conş formandose con la dicha rrespuesta, dixeron, que seran contentos que, ansy en la dišisyon de la propiedad y posesion como en la horden e forma que en ello se ha de thener, se guarde e cunpla e haga, segund e como se contiene en la dicha rrespuesta, que de suso va encorporada, y en la capitulašion hecha por el Rey e Reyna Catholicos y el Rey Don Johan de Portogal, y que los diputados rresšiban conjuntamente las petišiones tales quales se dieren por las partes, y sobrellas prošedan en la causa, sinplemente y de plano, syn estrepitu ni figura de juisio, solamente, la verdad sabida, determinen lo que sea justišia.

Para lo qual todo que dicho es y cada cosa y parte dello, los dichos Mercuş rinus de Gatinara, gran chanšiller de sus Magestades, y Obispo Don Fray Garšia de Loaysa, y Don Garšia de Padilla, comendador mayor de Calatrava

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20 See above, note 16.

y el Doctor Lorenšo Galindes de Carvajal, todos del su consejo, procuradores de los dichos muy altos e muy poderosos Reyna e Rey de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de Granada, e de las Dos Sešilias, de Jherusalem, etc., e por virtud del dicho su poder que de suso va encorporado, el dicho Lišenšiado Asevedo, procurador y enbaxador del dicho muy alto e muy exšelente prinšipe, el senor Rey Don Johan de Portogal e de los Algarves de aquende y allende el mar en Africa, se˝or de Guinea, etc., e por virtud del dicho su poder, que de suso va encorporado, prometieron y seguraron en nonbre de los dichos sus constituyentes, que ellos y sus subšesores e rreynos e se˝orios, para syenpre jamas, ternan, guardaran, conpliran, rrealmente e con efetto, a buena fee, syn mal enga˝o, šesante todo fraude, cautela, enga˝o, fišion e disymulaş šion alguna, lo que de suso se contiene yes asentado e conšertado, y lo que por los dichos diputados fuere sentenšiado e determinado, e cada cosa e parte dello, enteramente, segund e como por ellos fuere hecho e ordenado y senş tenšiado e determinado, y cada cosa e parte dello enteramente, segund e como por ellos fuere hecho y ordenado e sentenšiado e determinado y conş šertado, e como juisio dado como juezes conpetentes, e para que ansy se guardara e cunplira, por virtud de los dichos poderes que de suso van encorporados, obligaron a los dichas sus partes, sus constituyentes, e a sus bienes muebles e rraises e de sus patrimonias e coronas rreales e de sus subšesores, para syenpre jamas, que ellos, ni alguno dellos, por sy ni por ynterposyta persona, directe ni yndirecte, no yran ni vernan contra ello, ni contra cosa alguna ni parte dello, en tienpo alguno, ni por alguna manera, pensada o no pensada, que sea o ser pueda, so las penas en la dicha capitulaş šion, que de suso se haze minšion, contenidas, y rrenunšiaron qualesquier leyes y derechos de que se puedan aprovechar los dichas partes, e cada una dellas, para yr o venir contra lo suso dicho, e contra alguna cosa e parte dello, e por mayor seguridad e firmesa de lo suso dicho juraron a Dios y a Sancta Maria y a la se˝al de la Crus en que pusyeron sus manos derechas y a las palabras de los Sanctos quatro Evangelios do quiera que mas largamente son escritos, en anyma de los dichos sus partes, que ellos, y cada uno dellos, ternan, guardaran, e cunpliran, todo lo suso dicho, e cada una cosa e parte dello, rrealmente e con efetto, šesante todo enga˝o, cautela, e symulašion, e no lo contradiran en tienpo alguno, ni por alguna manera, e so el dicho juramento juraron de no pedir asolušion de nuestro muy Santto Padre, ni de otto legado ni perlado que gela pueda dar, y aunque de su propio motuo gela de, no usaran della, e ansy mismo los dichos procuradores en el dicho nonbre se obligaron, so la dicha pena e juramento, que dentro de [blank] dias primeros siguientes, contados desde el dia de la fecha desta capitulašion, daran la una parte a la otra, y la otra a la otra, aprovašion e rratificašion desta dicha capitulašion, escritas en pargamino e firmadas de los nonbres de los dichos se˝ores, sus constituyentes, e selladas con sus sellos de plomo pendientes, de lo qual todo que dicho es otorgaron dos escrituras de un tenor, tal la una como la otra, las quales firmaron de sus nonbres e las otorgaron ante my, el dicho secretario y notario publico de suso escrito, e de los testigos de yuso escritos, para cada una de los partes la suya, y qualequiera que paresca, valga como sy anbas e dos parešiesen, que fueron hechas e otorgadas in la dicha [blank], el dicho dia et mes e a˝o suso dichos.

TRANSLATION.

In the name of God Almighty., Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Be it maniş fest and known to all who shall see this public instrument, that in on the day of the month of in the year of the nativity of Our Lord Jesus Christ, 1526, in the presence of me, Francisco de los Cobos, their Majesties' secretary and notary public, and in the presence of the undersigned witnesses, there being present the lords Mercurino de Gattinara, grand chanş cellor of their Majesties, Don Fray GarcÝa de Loaysa, bishop of Osma, president of the Council of the Indies and his Majesty's confessor, Don GarcÝa de Padilla, knight-commander of Calatrava, and Doctor Lorenzo GalÝndez de Carvajal, all members of the council of the very exalted and mighty princes, Don Charles, by divine clemency emperor ever august, king of the Romans, and Do˝a Joanna, his mother, and likewise DOn Charles, her son, by the grace of God king and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, Navarre, Granada, etc., their qualified representatives, on the one part, and Licentiate Azevedo, member of the council of the very exalted and very excellent lord, the lord Dom John, by the grace of God king of Portugal, and of the Algarves on this side and beyond the sea in Africa, lord of Guinea and of the conquest, navigation, and commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, India, etc., his ambassador and qualified representative, as both the said parties proved by the letters, powers, and procurations of the said lords, their constituents, the tenor of which, word for word, is as follows:The said representatives of the said lords, king and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, etc., and of the said lord King of Portugal, the Algarves, etc., declared that whereas, in the past year 1525, when the Emperor was in the city of Segovia, certain expedients, which are as follows, were proposed and written down, on the part of the King of Portugal, concerning the question existing between the said lords, their constituents, in regard to the ownership and possession of the Moluccas, each party claiming that they will fall within the limits of his demarcation when the demarcation is made, as it is to be made, in accordance with the treaty and agreement concluded between the Catholic king and queen, Don Ferdinand and Do˝a Isabella, etc., and the lord King Dom John of Portugal, etc.--may they rest in glory!The expedients proposed on the part of the King of Portugal in respect to the affair of the Moluccas, are as follows:

1. That a treaty be made between his Majesty [the emperor] and him to the effect that the right to the possession and ownership of the Moluccas shall be investigated by a tribunal and by lawyers of both sides, in accordance with the treaties already concluded and with the agreement that was reached when an investigation was made on the frontier, without the imposition of a time-limit, but continuing the inquiry until a conclusion is reached between the said lawyers in the manner that shall seem to them right; and if they shall not agree, umpires shall be chosen, who shall determine the question.

2. Item, that so long as no final sentence in regard to possession or ownerş ship shall be pronounced by the lawyers or umpire, neither side shall despatch expeditions to the Moluccas or from the Moluccas hither, until the final sentence in regard to ownership be given. If the question of possession be determined before that of ownership, he to whom possession shall be adjudged may despatch expeditions to the Moluccas until the said ownership be determined.

4. Item, that if the ships now despatched on the part of his Majesty return before the said right of possession or ownership be decided, orders shall be given to investigate the expense which they caused. If their cargo be worth more, the surplus shall be placed in deposit and sequestration so that it may be delivered to him to whom possession and ownership shall be adjudged.

5. Item, that this agreement be sworn to by both sides, and approved with all those solemn forms and clauses required in such cases for security.

To these expedients his Majesty, desiring, as he always had and has desired, the preservation of the close relationship and love that exist between him and the said lord King of Portugal, commanded answer to be made in the followş ing manner:

The answer returned on the part of the emperor and king, our lord, to the reply recently made on the part of the lord King of Portugal, his brother, in respect to the affair of the Moluccas is as follows:

First, that his Majesty has never questioned, but rather has always regarded as secure, the love that the said lord king feels and the good-will that he shows for the preservation of the friendship and true union between his Majesty and the said Most Serene King, and reciprocally he [i. e., the King of Portugal] ought not to doubt that his Majesty feels the same love and good-will, together with the desire to adjust satisfactorily the affairs of the said Most Serene King, his brother, so far as reason and negotiations permit, and it can easily be done.

As to what the said Most Serene King writes, showing displeasure at what his Majesty said, namely, that he had not replied to the licentiate, Antonio de Azevedo, about the said negotiation of the Moluccas before the said armada departed, because he had forgotten it on account of other important matters, while it appears to the said lord king that the matter is serious, and that his affairs ought not to be forgotten, certainly his Majesty does not think that this gives the said lord king just cause for displeasure, since he knows the character and gravity of the very important affairs that meanş while came before his Majesty. These are of such importance that they force a man to forget even his own business, much more another's, and because of them he ought to be excused not only for having forgotten the question of the Moluccas, but even for having forgotten other things much more important to his hereditary kingdoms. Likewise this forgetfulness ought to be excused, as is stated in the other reply, since it appears that the departure of the armada did not affect the reply already made; and the Most Serene King ought not to think on account of this forgetfulness that his Majesty has not and does not desire to have the same solicitude for the former's affairs as for his own.

As to the expedients that he offers, his Majesty is satisfied to have an equal number of lawyers and other persons expert in the negotiation chosen by each side, to investigate the right of ownership and possession according to and in the tenor and form of the treaties made and executed between the Catholic sovereigns and the most serene kings of Portugal. The inquiry shall have no time-limit, but shall be prosecuted until the said persons shall reach a conclusion, in the manner that shall seem to them right. If they do not agree, umpires shall be chosen to decide the question, and these shall meet in the place they deem most convenient.As to the said Most Serene King of Portugal's request that, until the final sentence regarding ownership or possession shall have been given, neither side shall send expeditions to the Moluccas, this appears contrary to justice and right, and is unfair. But his Majesty will be content to have the deputies regulate this as they shall think best. As to the King of Portugal's request for the sequestration of the cargo which shall be brought by his Majesty's ships that have already sailed, since this contains the same injury as the preceding expedient, the answer is the same as is given to that.As to the last expedient, his Majesty is satisfied to have the agreement that shall be made in regard to this matter sworn to by both sides, and approved with all the clauses and formalities required for its security. M. de la Chaulx will answer the rest of the said Licentiate Azevedo's instructions.Another memorial of the following tenor was given on the part of the said lord King of Portugal to the above.These are the articles drawn up in accordance with the reply of his Majesty in order that the agreement for determining the cause on possession and ownership of the Moluccas may be made. 1. Item, that the cause in respect to possession and ownership shall be determined by three lawyers, named on the part of his Majesty, and by three named on the part of the King of Portugal, my lord, and by three astrologers and three pilots or experienced mariners, named by each side. That is, the cause of possession alone shall be determined by the learned lawyers of each side, in accordance with the tenor and form of the treaties concluded between the Catholic sovereigns, Don Ferdinand and Queen Do˝a Isabella, and the King Dom John of Portugal. The lawyers shall carry on the said cause without a predetermined time-limit until they shall finally decide and conclude the said possessory cause, in accordance with their just findings. And because doubts and differences might arise between the lawyers and repreş sentatives of both sides as to which side should be plaintiff or defendant, in order that delays and controversies between the said lawyers and repreş sentatives may be avoided and that the cause may be finished more quickly, the process shall be carried on without written charge and without any kind of petition, except that the representatives of each side shall present and exhibit before the lawyers who have to determine the cause their articles and interrogatories by which the witnesses of each side shall be mutually examined, and all additional written and documentary evidence whereby either side shall hope to be aided shall be admitted. The witnesses shall take the oath in the presence of the representatives of the parties, and they shall be examined and questioned by two of the lawyers, who shall have to deterş mine the cause--one lawyer from each side. After the said evidences and witnesses for the said interrogatories and articles shall have been presented and given, the lawyers shall determine the said possessory cause by means of the said interrogatories and articles, and by means of the written evidence and witnesses presented in respect to them, as shall seem just and right to them. After the possessory cause is determined and adjudged, the side receiving judgment in its favor and victory in the possessory cause, may, from the time of the giving of the sentence, order its fleets and people to the said Moluccas, and carry on its trade and traffic in them, and the other side, against whom sentence shall have been given, shall not be able to despatch any more fleets or people thither, until the question to which side the right of ownership pertains shall be finally determined.

2. Item, that, in regard to ownership and the right thereto, in the place on the frontier where it shall be agreed that the astrologers, pilots, or mariners chosen and nominated by each side are to assemble, they shall deliberate and come to an agreement and understanding in respect to ownership, in accordş ance with the treaties concluded between King Dom John of Portugal and King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. Moreover, the said astrologers, pilots, and mariners shall carry on this cause as long as they shall deem it necessary, without time-limit, but shall prosecute the said cause as is said in respect to the cause of possession.

3. Item, the question whether during the dispute and trial concerning possession either side shall or shall not send his ships and people to the said Moluccas, shall be left to the judges of the cause, who shall make in regard to it what arrangement and agreement shall seem to them right. What the said learned judges shall decide and ordain in the matter shall be wholly observed by each side without question or hindrance being opposed thereto, and the same procedure shall be followed in deciding whether or not the cargo of his Majesty's ships that shall have departed for the said Moluccas is to be sequestrated.

4. Item, in order that in both these causes of possession and ownership, the deputies and witnesses for each party may conduct the said causes with the more reverence to God and more freely, the lord Emperor and the lord King of Portugal shall take solemn oath on the Holy Gospels in the presence of the lawyers, astrologers, pilots, or mariners named by them for this cause-- each lord before his men in the presence of a notary and witness. In this oath they shall declare that their intention and true purpose is, that their lawyers, astrologers, pilots, or mariners, in deciding these causes for which they are named as judges, shall do what shall veritably seem to them just and true with all despatch, as is declared, regardless of their vassalage or of any other fact that the said deputies may suspect or fear should deter them from doing justice to whichever of the parties that deputed them shall seem to be in the right.

5. Item, that after the said oath has been taken by the said lords in the manner aforesaid, the lawyers, astrologers, pilots, or mariners named by each side to judge these causes, should at the place on the boundary line, where both deputations are to assemble, confess themselves, and all receive the sacrament at the same time. They shall solemnly swear on the holy sacraş ment--which the priest who shall have to administer it to them will hold in his hands in the presence of the notary public, who may certify thereto--that without fear or favor or any other thing that may or ought to hinder them, they will try the said causes and the unsettled points comprised therein, both of possession and ownership and of everything else contained in this treaty, and all and each of the said causes and unsettled points which shall be inş trusted to them by the said lords. They shall determine, decide, and pronounce judgment upon them, definitively and finally, according to right and justice, paying regard to the treaties, evidence, and testimony, presented by the parties, and observing in the decision of the said causes all that appears to them right and just to whichever side these shall pertain. They shall promise likewise under obligation of the said oath to institute the said causes of possession and ownership with all possible diligence, in order to despatch and determine them as quickly as possible.

6. Item, that the place at the boundary line where the deputies of both sides are to assemble shall be between the cities of Elvas and Badajoz, where the deputies who were employed in this cause in past days assembled, beş cause these places are the most convenient for the business.

7. Item, that the lawyers, astrologers, pilots, or mariners who are to be employed in this cause shall be named up to the required number.

8. Item, that in either of the said causes of possession or ownership-- if, in the possessory cause, the lawyers shall differ and disagree, or if, in like manner, [in the cause of ownership] the astrologers, pilots, or mariners shall disagree among themselves, in such case the said lords shall be obliged to choose as umpire or umpires, such men as are experienced and learned in the cause in which the dispute between the deputies shall arise--that is, that if the dispute shall be between the learned jurists who are to try the possesş sory cause, the umpire or umpires whom the said lords shall select shall likeş wise be jurists, and, similarly, if the dispute or difference shall be between the astrologers, pilots, or mariners, the said lords shall likewise choose astrologers, pilots, or mariners as arbitrators or umpires. The umpire or umpires whom the said lords thus [agree on] shall investigate the said causes, and having heard the representatives of both sides they shall do entire justice, just as by this agreement and treaty it is arranged that the first named deputies should do. The said umpire or umpires whom the said lords shall agree on and choose will likewise take the oath with the formalities already described, confessing themselves and receiving the sacrament. The decision reached by each of the said persons, or by a majority of the said persons, deputed and named by each of the said lords, both in the possessory cause by the learned jurists and in the cause of ownership by the astrologers, pilots, or mariners, shall be a final decision. After these disagreements are adjusted, which the said umpire or umpires shall regulate, decide, and adjust, giving the final judgment, the said lords shall promise on their royal faith, for themselves and for their heirs and successors, wholly to keep and observe the judgment, and order it to be observed, without any deception or evasion whatsoever, forever and ever; and on the sign of the Cross and by the words of the Holy Gospels, under pledge of all their patrimonial wealth and that of the crown of their realms, which they pledged therefor, etc., they shall swear wholly to keep, maintain, and observe it, and cause it to be observed.

9. Item, that the deputy first named by each of the said lords shall preside over his deputation just as was stipulated in the former treaty made between these lords.

Lastly, his Majesty commanded that the following response be given in regard to the whole matter:

The answer made on behalf of the emperor and king, our lord, to the articles sent on behalf of the lord King of Portugal in respect to the negotiations of the Moluccas is as follows:

His Majesty is greatly pleased that the lord King of Portugal has apş proved the reply given by his Majesty, while in Segovia, to the ambassador of the said lord King of Portugal, in regard to the expedients which would be offered in behalf of the latter to his Majesty in the negotiations relating to the Moluccas. Therefore in order to execute them, he will immediately command that lawyers and other persons expert in the negotiation be named, and he will give them all the necessary documents, including the said reply, so that, in accordance with the reply and with the treaty made between the Catholic king and queen, Don Ferdinand and Do˝a Isabella, sovereigns of Castile, etc., and the lord King Dom John, king of Portugal, etc., they may employ themselves in determining the said matter. Moreover in order to please the said lord King of Portugal better, his Majesty deems it good to cause the said persons, named on his behalf, to be commanded to perform the oath and ceremony, now asked for on behalf of the said lord King of Portugal, so that in determining the said matter they may proceed in accordance with the said reply. And if no agreement shall be reached between the said persons and deputies of both parties, if the difference shall be between the lawyers, the umpire or umpires who are to be named shall be lawyers, and if the said difference shall be between the astrologers and pilots, the umpire to be named shall be of that profession, and they shall be employed in the said matter in accordance with the reply that his Majesty gave in Segovia, which is incorporated above.

Therefore, both the said parties by virtue of the said powers, delegated from the said lords, their constituents, and incorporated above, declared, in conformity with the said reply, that they will be satisfied, both in the judgment upon ownership and possession and in the method and order to be followed in it, to have the contents of the said reply, which is incorporated above, and of the treaty made by the Catholic king and queen, and King Dom John of Portugal, observed, fulfilled, and performed; and to have the deputies receive conjointly such petitions as shall be given by the parties and to carry on the cause upon them, simply and openly, without clamor or distortion of judgment, only, the truth being known, they shall determine what may be just.

For all the aforesaid and every part and parcel of it, the said Mercurino de Gattinara, grand chancellor of their Majesties, Bishop Don Fray GarcÝa de Loaysa, Don GarcÝa de Padilla, chief knight-commander of Calatrava, and Doctor Lorenzo GalÝndez de Carvajal, all members of the council of the said very exalted and very mighty Queen and King of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Granada, and the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, etc., and their representatives, and by virtue of their said power, incorporated above, and the said Licentiate Asevedo, representative and ambassador of the said very exalted and very excellent prince, lord King Dom John of Portugal and the Algarves on this side and beyond the sea in Africa, lord of Guinea, etc., and by virtue of his said power, incorporated above, promised and asserted in the name of their said constituents, that actually and in fact, in good faith, without deception, and renouncing all fraud, craft, evasion, deception, pretense, and dissimulaş tion whatsoever, they and their successors, and their kingdoms and lordships, forever and ever, will keep, observe, and perform, what is contained, adjusted, and agreed to above, and what shall be decided and determined by the said deputies, and every part and parcel of it, wholly, just as it shall be done, arranged, decided, determined, and concerted by them, and given as a judgş ment by them as competent judges. In order that it shall be thus observed and performed, by virtue of the said powers incorporated above, they pledged their said parties, their constituents, and their movable and landed property and that of their patrimonial and royal crowns and that of their successors, forever and ever, that neither they nor any of them, by himself or by an agent, directly or indirectly, shall contravene or prevent it, or any part or parcel of it, at any time or in any manner, premeditated or unpremeditated, that may or can be, under the penalties contained in the said above-mentioned treaty, and they renounced all the laws and privileges of which the said parties and each of them may avail themselves in order to contravene or hinder the aforesaid or any part and parcel of it, and for the greater security and stability of the aforesaid, they swore before God and Holy Mary and upon the sign of the Cross, on which they placed their right hands, and upon the words of the four Holy Gospels, wherever they are most largely written, on the consciences of their said constituents, that they and each of them will keep, observe, and perform all the aforesaid, and each part and parcel of it, actually and in fact, renouncing all evasion, deception, and subterfuge, and they will not gainsay it at any time or in any manner, and under the said oath they swore not to seek absolution of our very Holy Father, or of any other legate or prelate, who may be able to give it to them, and even though he shall give it to them of his own motion, they will not use it. Likewise the said representatives bound themselves in the said name, under the said penalty and oath, that within days next ensuing, reckoned from the date of this treaty, the parties will exchange an approval and ratifiş cation of this said treaty, written on parchment, and signed with the names of the said lords, their constituents, and sealed with their hanging leaden seals. Of all the aforesaid they executed two copies of one tenor, both alike. These they signed with their names, and executed them before me the said secretary and notary public above-written and the undersigned witnesses one for each party. And whichever copy shall be produced, it shall be as valid as if both should be produced, which were made and executed in the said the said day and month and year aforesaid.

15.
Treaty between Spain and Portugal concluded at Saragossa,
April 17, 1529. Not ratified.

INTRODUCTION.
Near the beginning of the year 1527, the Emperor Charles V., urgently needing money, entertained the project of selling, or pawning, to the Portuş guese crown, his claim to the Moluccas.1 At about the same time, through the English ambassador in Spain, he attempted to interest Henry VIII. in purş chasing the islands.2 As a condition of entering into the contract, the King of Portugal, John III., required it to be approved and authorized by the Cortes of Castile,3 to whom the Emperor had given his word that he would not alienate the Moluccas.4 The Emperor, on the other hand, adduced various reasons to prove that such authorization was unnecessary. It was finally agreed to refer the question of the legal necessity for such approval and authorization to the ten leading lawyers of the Emperor's Royal Council. If the lawyers agreed that the necessity did not exist, the King of Portugal promised to abide by their decision.5

Near the beginning of 1528, when the Emperor was on the eve of war with France and England, he despatched Lope Hurtado as ambassador to Portugal, to procure the assistance of that crown against Spain's enemies.6

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1 Santarem, Quadro Elementar, tom. II., p. 55, no. 244.
2 See Edward Lee's letter of Jan. 20, 1527, calendared in Letters and Papers of the Reign of Henry VIII. (ed. Brewer, 1872), vol. IV., pt. II., no. 2813, and Thorne's letter to Lee in R. Hakluyt, Principal Navigations ( 1903), II. 164-181.
3 Oct.- Dec., 1527. Archives of the Indies, Patronato, 1-2-2/16, no. 9.
4 Besides his promise to the Cortes of 1523, mentioned above, Doc. 13, note 12, the Emperor appears to have made a similar promise to the Cortes of 1525. Cf. below, art. II, and Doc. 16, art. II.
5 National Archives at Lisbon, gav. 15, mašo 10, no. 21.
6 A draft of a treaty of defensive alliance between Spain and Portugal, preserved in the Archives of the Indies, Patronato, 1-2-2/16, no. 3, ramo 3, dates from about this time. The articles that refer to the new discoveries follow. In explanation of the third article it may be said that the Mare Parvum was situated off the Barbary Coast. See the article by M. JimÚnez de la Espada, "Espa˝a en BerberÝa", in the BoletÝn de la Sociedad Geogrßfica de Madrid, tom. IX. ( 1880).
"3. Item, conventum, concordatum, et conclusum est, pro majori stabilitate, et firmitate, dicte presentis confederationis et ut omnis rupture ipsius atque dissidii tollatur occasio, quod via amicabili arbitrorum juris per eos et eorum quemlibet elligendorum facient decidi et determinari, controversiam sive diferenciam, quam inter se habent de et super Malach, et Mari parvo, cabo de Ager, juxta et secundum quod in capitulationibus et confederationibus alias initis et conclusis inter prefatos felicis memoriae Ferdinandum et Elisabeth, Catholicos et serenissimum Portugalie reges, cautum et conventum fuit. Et ex nunc compromisserunt ac de alto et basso compromissum fecerunt et convenerunt, ac eorum quilibet in spectabiles [blank for names] tamque arbitros, juris dantes ipsis

Hurtado was also instructed 7 to persuade King John to dismiss the French ambassador, HonorÚ de Caix, who, objectionable on other grounds, apparently desired some concessions from Portugal in the matter of the spice trade.8 Hurtado was instructed not to negotiate concerning the Spice Islands--that negotiation was being conducted chiefly through the Portuguese ambassador at the Spanish court--but his correspondence shows that both sovereigns were anxious to settle the long controversy. The Emperor's habitual need of money was intensified by his war with France and by his projected journey to Italy for his coronation, and, in Hurtado's opinion, the King of Portugal's unwillingness to endanger his commerce by engaging in the Spanish war would make him the more ready to satisfy the Emperor in regard to the Spice Islands. Moreover, another Spanish fleet was being fitted out at Coru˝a.9

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plenam liberam et omnimodam potestatem laudandi et terminandi predictam controş versiam, infra spatium [blank] mensium, a die dat' presentium computandorum, proş mittentes, et eorum quilibet gratum, firmum, et ratum, perpetuo habituros totum id et quicquid per dictos arbitros juris laudatum sentenciatum et diffinitum fuerit. . . . "10. Item, conventum, concordatum, et conclusum est, quod prelibate suppetie non prestabuntur ex necessitate hujus conventionis, pacis, atque federis, nisi pro tuitone ac defensione regnorum, provinciarum, statuum, terrarum, civitatuum, villarum, opidorum, et locorum, Castelle, Legionis, Aragonie, Valentie, Navarre, Catalonie, Biscaye, Portuş galie, et partium Africe sive Indie.

"11. Item, conventum, concordatum, et conclusum est, quod per Sanctam Sedem Apostolicam, quondam Regibus Castelle et Legionis, predecessoribus dictorum Catholiş corum Regum necnon suis heredibus et successoribus, donate, concesse, et assignate fuerunt insule omnes et terre firme detecte et detegende, reperte et reperiende, versus occidentem et meridiem, et postea, ut discordiarum evitaretur causa et materia, inter prefatos q. Castelle et dictum Portugalie Reges conventum et capitulatum fuit, quod eorum quilibet respective contentus foret insulis et terris detectis et detegendis intra terminos et limites in tractatu et capitulatione super hoc inito et laudato expressos, quod nemo ipsorum regum aggredietur, deteget, aut occupabit, per se, subditos, aut alios aliquid intra limites seu terminos alterius, et, si aliquid occupat vel occupabit per se vel suos intra terminos alterius, hoc sine difficultate et absque processu restituet et restitui faciet quam primum per regem intra cujus terminos seu limites continetur si fuerit ad hoc requisitus, qui vero vasallorum et subditorum predictorum Regum cujusş cumque gradus, status, aut conditionis fuerint et quacumque auctoritate poleant secus fecerint vel attentaverint tamquam pacis et federum effractores et violatores eos coş hercere et plecti faciet Rex confederatus sub cujus ditione et dominio erunt."

7 His instructions are in M. Navarrete, Col. de Docs. para la Hist. de Espa˝a ( 1842- 1895), I. 128 ff. Transcripts of several of Hurtado's letters written from Lisbon to the emperor, are among the Bergenroth manuscripts in the British Museum. They are mostly noticed in Cal. of St. Pap., Spain, vol. III., pt. II. See also P. de Gayangos, Catalogue of Spanish Manuscripts, II. ( 1877), pp. 569 ff.
8 During a great part of the period between 1518 and 1559, HonorÚ de Caix repreş sented France at the court of Lisbon. Commission des Archives Diplomatiques, Recueil des Instructions donnÚes aux Ambassadeurs et Ministres de France: III. Portugal, by Vicomte de Saint-Aymour ( 1886), p. xv. Hurtado was to point out that the Hapsburg dominions were a better distributing centre for spices than France and Engş land. Navarrete, op. cit., I. 137, 138. By a treaty of offensive alliance concluded on Apr. 30, 1527, between France and England against the Emperor, it had been provided that spices carried in Portuguese ships into the Channel during the war might not be sold in the Low Countries, i. e., at the spice-market at Antwerp, but only in France and England; and that in case the King of Portugal declared in favor of the Emperor his goods and subjects should be adjudged good prize. Lord Herbert of Cherbury, The Life and Reign of King Henry VIII., in A Complete History of England ( 1706), II. 81.
9 A. RodrÝguez Villa, El Emperador Carlos V. y su Corte seg˙n las Cartas de Don MartÝn de Salinas ( 1903). p. 417. Cf. Doc. 13, introduction, and Doc. 14, note 15.

The protest of the Cortes assembled at Madrid in the spring of 1528, was of no avail.10 At Saragossa, on April 17, 1529, the plenipotentiaries of Spain and Portugal concluded a treaty whose principal provisions were, briefly, as follows:

The Emperor pledged his right in the Moluccas to the King of Portugal for 350,000 ducats, but might redeem his right by returning the money; there should be a line of demarcation from pole to pole, 17░ east of the Moluccas, and its position was to be shown on a standard map; Castilians who traded beyond the line might be punished by the Portuguese. Imported spices should be sequestrated, pending investigation, and afterwards assigned to that king from whose lands they were found to have come. Castilians should be punished if they crossed the aforesaid line (except through necesş sity or ignorance), or if, in the seas navigated by Portugal's India fleet, they sailed further than the direct course to the Strait of Magellan required. If this agreement were proved to have been violated by command of either king, his right should be transferred to the other; the provisions for the punishment of Castilians should not be in force until the Castilians already despatched to the Moluccas should have been notified; astrologers and pilots should be named by both sides to examine the claims of the Emperor and King of Portugal to the Moluccas. If the decision favored Castile it should not be executed until the Emperor returned the 350,000 ducats to Portugal; if it favored Portugal, Castile must return the 350,000 ducats within four years; the King of Portugal was not to build any new fortress in the Moluccas or repair his fortress now there; the King of Portugal and his people should not harm the fleets already despatched by the Emperor to the Moluccas, or hinder their trade; the Emperor should immediately send inş structions to his people in the Moluccas to return at once and trade there no more; both kings should swear to fulfill this treaty, and should ask the Pope to confirm it; the Emperor should declare that this treaty was as binding as though approved by the Cortes, and that he cancelled all laws conflicting with it. He was to order his royal council to find out whether it could be made without the approval of the pueblos; the treaty of Tordesillas should remain in force save in matters otherwise determined by this treaty; the King of Portugal was to do justice to persons whose goods had been seized in Portugal because they served the Emperor; the Emperor gave the King of Portugal the difference between 350,000 ducats and the actual value of the Moluccas; the party violating this treaty should forfeit to the party that observed it any right derived from it, and a fine of 100,000 ducats. If the Emperor violated it, the sale became unconditional.

Most of these provisions appear, in somewhat altered form, in the definiş tive treaty concluded five days later.11

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10 Cˇrtes de los Antiguos Reinos de Leon y de Castilla (Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid, 1861, etc.), IV. 461, 462. 11 Doc. 16.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.
Text: MS. The original manuscript, signed by the plenipotentiaries of both crowns, is in the Archives of the Indies at Seville, Patronato, 1-2-2/16, no. 9, ramo 1. This text has not, it is believed, been printed or transş lated hitherto.

References: Contemporary and early writings. Viscount de Santarem, Quadro Elementar ( 1842- 1876), II. 55 ff.; J. Ramos-Coelho, Alguns Documentos ( Acad. Real das Sciencias of Lisbon, 1892), pp. 487, 492- 495; Calendar of State Papers, Spain, vol. III. ( 1877), pt. II., pp. 616- 617, 628, 817, 914-915, 996; F. Lopez de Gˇmara, Historia General de las Indias, in B. C. Aribau, Biblioteca de Autores Espa˝oles: Hisş toriadores Primitivos de Indias, XXII. ( 1852) 222; A. de Herrera, Historia General de los Hechos de los Castellanos ( 1728- 1730), dec. IV., lib. V., c. 10. On Spanish-Portuguese relations in the Moluccas from 1521 to 1532, see Navarrete, Coleccion de Viages ( 1825- 1837), V., parts of which are translated or abstracted in C. R. Markham, Early Spanish Voyages to the Strait of Magellan ( Hakluyt Soc., 2d ser., no. XXVIII., 1911), and in Blair and Robertson, Philippine Islands ( 1903- 1909), II.; B. Leonardo de Argensola, Conquista de las Islas Malucas ( 1609), lib. I., translation in J. Stevens, A New Collection of Voyages and Travels ( 1708, etc.), I.

TEXT.12
En el nonbre de Dios Todopoderoso, Padre y Hijo y Spiritu Santo, tres personas y un solo Dios verdadero. Notorio y manifiesto sea a todos quantos este publico ynstrumento vieren, commo en la šibdad de ăaragoša,13 a diez e syete dias del mes de Abril, a˝o del nasšimiento de nuestro Salvador Jhesu Christo de mill e quinientos y veinte y ˝ueve a˝os, en presenšia de my, Francisco de los Covos,14 secretario y del consejo del Enperador e Reyna e Rey de Castilla y su escrivano y notario publico en la su corte y en todos los sus rreynos e se˝orios, estando presentes y juntos los se˝ores, el grand chanšiller, Mercurino de Gatinara,15 conde de Gatinara, y el muy reverendo Don Fray Garcia de Loaysa,16 obispo de Osma, confesor, y anbos del consejo de los muy altos y muy poderosos prinšipes, Don Carlos, por la divina clemenšia emperador semper augusto, rrey de Alemania, y Do˝a Juana, su madre, y el mismo Don Carlos, su hijo, por la gracia de Dios rreyes de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de las Dos Sešilias, de Jherusalem, de Navarra, de Granada, etc., sus procuradores bastantes de la una parte, y el se˝or Antonio de Azevedo,17 cutino, del consejo y enbaxador del muy alto e muy poderoso se˝or Don Juan, por la gracia de Dios rrey de Portugal, de los

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12 The text is from the original manuscript in the Archives of the Indies, Patronato, 1-2-2/16, no. 9, ramo 1.
13 The Emperor stopped at Saragossa on his way from Toledo to Barcelona, whence he sailed to Italy for his coronation. He left Saragossa on Apr. 17 ( M. de Foronda y Aguilera , "Estancias y Viages de Carlos V." in BoletÝn de la Sociedad Geogrßfica de Madrid, tom. XXXVII., no. 7, July, 1895), or on Apr. 19 ( Villa, op. cit., p. 431).
14 See Doc. 13, note 20.
15 The Count of Gattinara was also one of the negotiators of the treaty of Vitoria.
See Doc. 13, note 14.
16 See Doc. 14, note 8.
17 See Doc. 14, note 11.

Algarves de aquende y allende el mar en Africa, se˝or de Guinea y de la conquista, navegašion, y comeršio de Etiopia y Aravia y Persia y de la India, etc., su procurador bastante de la otra parte, dixeron que por quanto entre los dichos muy altos y muy poderosos Catolicos se˝ores, Enperador y Reyes de Castilla, de Leon, dAragon, de las Dos Sešilias, de Jherusalem, etc., y el dicho muy alto y muy poderoso se˝or Don Juan, rrey de Portugal y de los Algarves, etc., viendo ser asy cunplidero a servišio de Dios, nuestro Se˝or, y al bien de sus rreinos y por conservaršion de la hermandad, debdo, y amor que entrellos ay, se ha hablado y tratado de tomar, šierto asiento y conšierto y enpe˝o y rretro vendendo sobre las yslas de Maluco y otras tierras y mares de las Indias, que cada uno dellos pretende tener derecho, y para tomar, tratar, y capitular, hazer y asentar el dicho asiento y conšierto y enpe˝o de rretro vendendo entre los dichos sus constituyentes, han dado a ellos sus poderes cunplidos, firmados de sus nonbres y sellados con sus sellos, segund mas largamente en los dichos poderes, que anbas las dichas partes mostraron, firmados de los dichos se˝ores Enperador y Rey de Castilla, y del dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, sellados con sus sellos, commo dicho es, se contiene, el thenor de los quales, de verbo ad verbum, uno en pos de otro, es este que se sigue:

[Here follow the full powers granted by the Emperor Charles V. and Queen Joanna of Castile to the Count of Gattinara and the Bishop of Osma on April 14, 1529; and the full powers granted by John III. of Portugal to Antonio d'Azevedo, on October 18, 1528.]

Porende los dichos se˝ores, grand chanšiller y obispo de Osma, del consejo de los dichos muy alto y muy poderoso se˝or Enperador e Reyes de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de las Dos Sešilias, de Jherusalem, etc., y sus procuraş dores, y el dicho se˝or Antonio Dazevedo, cutino, del consejo del dicho muy alto y muy poderoso se˝or Rey de Portugal y de los Algarves, etc., y su procurador, por virtud de los dichos poderes, que de suso van incorporados, y usando dellos, asentaron, concordaron, capitularon, y otogaron, en nonbre de los dichos se˝ores, sus constituyentes, los capitulos que de yuso seran contenidos, en esta manera:

I. Primeramente,18 es concordado y asentado quel dicho se˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla da en enpe˝o y venta de rretro vendendo al dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal el derecho que tiene a las yslas de Maluco y a la contratašion y comeršio en las otras yslas y tierras a ellas comarcanas, y questan y se incluyem dentro de la linea que se ha de hechar por la forma y manera que se yuso sera declarado, por prešio y quantia de trezientos y šinquenta mill ducados de oro y de peso, dea trezientos y setenta e šinco maravedis19 da moneda Castellana, cada ducado, quel dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal ha de dar al dicho se˝or Enperador v Rey de Castilla, pagados en esta manera, los

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18 This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 1.
19 The weight of the excelente of Granada, the equivalent of the ducat, was fixed by law in 1497 at 3.52 grammes of gold 95/96 fine. Since the gold dollar of the United States contains about 1.5 grammes of pure gold, the gold in a ducat of 1529 would be worth about $2.32 in terms of our currency. The maravedi was the unit of reckoning for the whole coinage system. M. J. Bonn, Spaniens Niedergang wńhrend der Preisş revolution des 16. Jahrhunderts, pp. 36, 43, in MŘnchener Volkswirtschaftliche Studien (ed. L. Brentano and W. Lotz, no. 12, 1896); and L. Saez, Demostracion Histˇrica del Verdadero Valor de as Monedas ( Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid, 1805), pp. 236 ff. See also W. G. Sumner, "The Spanish Dollar and the Colonial Shilling", American Historical Review, III. 607 ff.

dozientos e šinquenta mill ducados dentro de treynta dias primeros siguientes desdel dia queste asiento se otogare, pagados en Castilla o en Lisboa, dondel dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal mejor los pudiere dar en monedas de oro y de peso, o su justo valor en monedas de plata, y los šientos mill ducados restantes en la feria de Mayo de Medina del Campo20 deste presente a˝o, al tienpo de los pagamentos della, en la forma e manera suso dicho, que ha de pagar los dichos dozientos y šinquenta mill ducados primeros, los quales todos se daran y pagaran a los dichos tienpos, en contado e fuera de canbio, y los que se ovieren de pagar en Portugal seran en moneda que valga en Castilla los dichos trezientos y setenta y šinco maravedis, cada ducado, a la persona o personas quel dicho se˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla para ello nombrare; el qual dicho enpe˝o y venta de rretrovendendo el dicho se˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla haze al dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, commo dicho es, con tal pacto y condišion que cada y quando y en qualquier tienpo quel dicho se˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla, o sus herederos o subcesores en los rreynos de Castilla, quisieren quitar, luyr, e rredemi el dicho derecho que asi le enpe˝a y vende, commo dicho es, bolviendo el prešio que asy rrešibe, lo puedan hazer, y el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal sea obligado a lo rrešebir, quedando asy al dicho se˝or Enperador e Rey de Castilla commo al dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal y a sus subšesores, su derecho a salvo en el mismo estado y segund y por la manera que primero le tenian, y sin que se les aya hecho ni causado, haga ni cause, perjuizio ni novedad alguna en el, por virtud deste asiento y capitulašion.

2. Yten,21 es asentado y concordado que se heche, y desde agora se aya por hechada, una linea simiširculo de polo a polo, diez y siete grados de los Malucos a oriente, que son dozientas y noventa y siete leguas y media,22 questa misma linea dizen que pasara por las yslas de Santo Tome de las Velas,23 questa en este merediano, y a nordeste y subdueste y quarta del este con los Malucos, que asy mismo dizen que dista dellos diez e nueve grados por este rrunbo de nordeste y subdueste, y siendo caso que las dichas yslas de Santo Tome de las Velas esten e disten de Maluco mas o menos, todavia

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20 By 1529 the fair of Medina del Campo, long the chief centre in Spain for the exş change of merchandise, had become even more important for the settlement of accounts and the transaction of other financial business. Descriptions of the fair and of the activities of the money changers or bankers are given in M. Colmeiro, Historia de la Economia PolÝtica en Espa˝a ( 1863), tom. II., c. 74, and C. Espejo and J. Paz, Las Antiguas Ferias de Medina del Campo ( 1912), c. 3.
21 This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 2.
22 Cf. Doc. 7, note 19. Magellan and most of the experts at the junta of Badajoz reckoned that a degree of longitude at the equator equalled 17Ż Castilian leagues. Actually it equalled about 18ż Castilian leagues. The methods employed at this period to determine latitude and longitude are described in A. Pigafetta, Treatise on the Art of Navigation, printed by A. do Mosto in the Raccolta Colombiana, vol. III., pt. V., and, in a translation of an abridged version, in Lord Stanley, First Voyage round the World ( Hakluyt Soc., no. LII., 1874), pp. 164 ff. See also the works written or edited by J. Bensaude, mentioned in Doc. 9, note 6.
23 "Santo Tome de las Velas" appears here as the name of a single group of islands, whereas in the corresponding article of the treaty of Apr. 22 (Doc. 16), the expression "las islas de las Velas y de Santo Thome" might be taken to indicate two distinct groups. The Islas de las Velas Latinas, said to have been thus named by Magellan because the canoes of the natives carried lateen sails ( A. de Herrera, Descripcion de las Indias, 1730, p. 56), and commonly known as the Ladrones or Mariannas, are situş ated in about 12░ to 21░ N. and 144░ to 145░ E. If the name Santo Thome really belongs to them, it may be because Magellan discovered them on the day preceding the festival of St. Thomas Aquinas, Mar. 6, 1521.

quede la dicha linea hechada a las dichas dozientas y noventa e siete leguas y media mas al oriente, que hazen los dichos diez e nueve grados al nordeste de las sobre dichas yslas de Maluco, y que para saber se por donde la dicha linea es lanšada, se haga luego un padron,24 en que se hechara la dicha linea por el modo sobre dicho, y que dara asi asentada para declarašion del punto y lugar por donde ella pasa, y este sera firmado del dicho se˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla, y del dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, y sellado con sus sellos, y por el mismo modo, y conforme al dicho padron, se hechara la dicha linea en todas las cartas de navegašion por las quales navegaran los subdittos y naturales de los rreynos del dicho se˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla y del dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, y que, para hazer el dicho padron, se nonbren por los dichos se˝ores rreyes por cada uno dellos tres personas, para que sobre juramento hagan el dicho padron, y hechen la dicha linea conforme a lo suso dicho, y asi hecho, los dichos se˝ores Enperador e Rey de Castilla y el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal lo firmen de sus nonbres, y manden sellar con los sellos de sus armas, y por el se hagan las dichas cartas de marear, segund dicho es, para que los subdittos y naturales de los dichos se˝ores rreyes naveguen por ellas, durante el tiempo quel dicho se˝or Rey de Castilla no luyere y redimiere el dicho derecho; pero que rredimiendo lo e quitandolo, y acabado este asiento y contrato, y el tal patron y cartas de navegar que asy se hizieren conforme a lo suso dicho, no pare perjuizio a ninguna de las partes en su derecho, mas syn enbargo dello quede todo en el mismo estado que agora esta, y entranto quel dicho patron no se hiziere por qualquier causa que sea, la dicha linea quede hechada des del otorgamiento deste contrato, y los que la pasaren incurran en las penas que abaxo seran contenidas, segund y en la forma y manera que adelante sera declarado.

3. Yten,25 es asentado y concordado que en todas las yslas y tierras que entraren dentro de la dicha linea, no puedan las armadas y navios del dicho se˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla, ni de sus subditos, ni de otros por su manş dado y consentimiento, o fabor, o ayuda, tratar, ni comeršiar, ni cargar, y que si algunos subditos del dicho se˝or Enperador e Rey de Castilla, o otros algunos, despues deste asiento, fueren tomados dentre de los dichos limites, rescatando, contratando, comeršiando, o cargando, que puedan ser presos por los capitanes e gentes del dicho se˝or rrey, e oydos y castigados, conforme a justišia, y que lo mismo puedan hazer contra los que les fuere provado que conş trataron, rescataron, comeršiaron, y cargaron dentro de los dichos limites, despues deste asiento, aunque no sean hallados ni tomados en ellos, y que sy

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24 In 1508 the King of Spain ordered the officials of the Casa de Contrataciˇn of Seville to cause a standard map to be constructed showing the lands and islands of the Indies discovered hitherto. The revision of the map was entrusted to the aforesaid officials and to the chief pilot, Navarrete, Viages, III. 300. In 1515 and in 1526 pilots were appointed to revise the map. No copy of the model map is known to exist, but several extant Spanish charts, dating from 1525-1530, are doubtless derived from it. H. Harrisse, Diplomatic History ( 1897), pp. 142-151; id., Discovery of North America ( 1892), pp. 258-268, 631-633, et passim; M. de la Puente y Olea, Los Trabajos Geogrßficos de la Casa de Contrataciˇn ( 1900). The Weimar chart of 1529, executed by the cosmogş rapher royal, Diego Ribero, was believed by J. G. Kohl to have been compiled in accordş ance with the terms of the treaty of Saragossa, Die Beiden Aeltesten General-Karten von Amerika ( 1860), pp. 37, 38. Harrisse, however, dissents from this conclusion, Disş covery of North America, p. 569. On Ribero's maps, see also E. L. Stevenson, "Early Spanish Cartography of the New World", in Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, new ser., vol. XIX., pt. III. ( 1909).
25 This article corresponds to Doc. 16, arts. 4, 5, and 6.

algunos subditos del dicho se˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla, o otras personas, traxieren espešeria o drogueria, de qualquier suerte que fuere, que en qualesş quier puertos y partes donde llegaren y vinieren de anbos los dichos se˝ores rreyes, o de qualquier dellos, o de otros que no sean de enemigos, se depositen y esten enbargados por anbos los dichos se˝ores rreyes, hasta que se sepa de cuya demarcašion fueron tirados y traidas, y sabido y determinado, se entreguen sin ningund detenimiento aquien pertenešieren, o su justo valor, y que para se saber si el lugar y tierra, donde las dichas espešerias e droguerias fueren traydas, cae dentro de la demarcašion y limites que, conforme a este contrato, ha de quedar con el dicho se˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla, ynbiaran los dichos se˝ores rreyes dos o quatro navios, tantos uno commo otro, en los quales yran personas que entiendan y sepan de aquella arte, tantos de una parte commo de otra, a los dichos lugares y tierras donde dixieren que tiraron y truxieron las dichas espešerias e droguerias para ver y determinar en cuya demarcašion caen las dichas tierras donde asy las dichas espešerias e droguerias se dixere que fueren tiradas, y hallando que las dichas tierras y lugares caen dentro de la demarcašion del dicho se˝or Rey de Castilla, y que en ellas ay las dichas espešerias e droguerias en tanta cantidad que razonablemente las pudiese traer dellos, el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal sea obligado a gelas bolver, o su justo valor, estando secrestadas en sus rreynos. E sy fuere hallado y determinado que las hallaron e traxieş ron de tierras de la demarcašion del dicho Serenissimo Rey de Portugal, no sea obligado a gelas bolver, y que si estovieren secrestadas en los rreinos del dicho se˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla, el sea obligado a las bolver y restituyr luego al dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, y que por la misma manera se haga, siendo secrestadas en otros qualesquier rreynos e tierras que no sean de los dichos se˝ores rreyes, y que dentro de medio a˝o despues que las dichas espešerias e droguerias fueren secrestados, commo dicho es, los dichos se˝ores rreyes sean obligados a inbiar los dichos navios y personas para hazer la dicha averiguašion commo dicho es, y en quanto las dichas espešerias y droguerias estovieren enbargadas y secrestadas, commo dicho es, el dicho se˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla, ni otro por el, ni con su fabor ni consentiş miento, no yran, ni inbiaran, a la dicha tierra, o tierras, donde las dichas espešerias e droguerias vinieren, y sea obligado a mandar castigar, conforme a justišia, los que contra lo suso dicho fueren, o pasaren, commo malhechores y quebrantadores de fee y de paz. Pero entienda se que la navegašion por la mar del Sur ha de quedar y queda libre al dicho se˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla y a sus subditos, para poder por alli navegar e contratar, conforme a la capitulašion hecha entre los reyes Catholicos y el Rey Don Juan de Portugal,26 que aya gloria, con tanto que no puedan entrar, ni entren, ni pasar, ni pasen, de las mares de la dicha linea a dentro, salvo entrando en ellas con nešesidad de tienpos o de bastimentos, o por ynoranšia,27 no sabiendo la dicha linea, y que en tal caso los navios que asy entraren del dicho se˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla, y de sus subditos, dentro de la dicha linea, no caygan en las dichas penas, pero que, hallando dentro de la dicha linea algunas tierras o yslas, no contraten en ellas, sino que las dexen luego y se salgan dellas y de la dicha linea, para que queden libres al dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, durante este contrato, segund dicho es, commo sy por sus capitanes

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26 The treaty of Tordesillas, Doc. 9.
27 In a letter to Azevedo, dated Jan. 13, 1529, the King of Portugal objected to exş cepting from punishment those who passed the line in ignorance. Lord Stanley edition of De Morga, Philippine Islands ( Hakluyt Soc., no. XXXIX., 1868), app., p. 394.

y gente fuesen descubiertas y halladas, y que siendo caso que asy por hierro o nešesidad o tienpos contrarios, los tales navios del dicho se˝or Enperador e Rey de Castilla o de sus subditos, llegasen a alguna tierra de las que asi entraren en la dicha linea, y por virtud deste asiento pertenešieren al dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, que sean tratados por los moradores della commo vasallos de su hermano, y asi commo el dicho se˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla mandaria tratar a los suyos que en esta ma˝era aportasen a sus tierras de la Nueva Espa˝a, o de otras de aquellas partes, lo qual se entienda, en quanto no constare claramente que los dichos navios y los que en ellos anduvieren, entraron en los mares y tierras que entran en la dicha linea, con la dicha ynoranšia o nešesidad o tienpo contrario, y que no saliendo fuera, šesada la dicha nešesidad, caygan en las dichas penas; pero que las naos e navios del dicho se˝or Rey de Castilla e de sus subditos, vasallos, y naturales, puedan navegar y naveguen por los mares del dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, por donde sus armadas van para la Yndia,28 tan solanmente quanto les fuere nešesario para tener su derrota derecha por el Estrecho de Magallanes, y haziendo lo contrario, navegando mas por las dichas mares, yncurriran en las dichas penas, reservando tanbien en esto la ynoranšia, o nešesidad, o tienpos contrarios, commo esta dicho, y averiguandose y provandose primeraş mente que por mandado del dicho se˝or Enperador e Rey de Castilla, o con su fabor, ayuda, o consentimiento, se contravino a lo suso dicho, en tal caso de cayga luego del derecho que toviere a ello, y aquel quede aplicado a la parte que por este contrato estoviere y lo guardare, y este enpe˝o y retroş vendendo quede resoluto, y la venta pura y linpia, commo sy al prinšipio fuera fecha syn ninguna condišio. En la qual dicha pena ansymismo ha de incurrir e incurra el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, averiguandose que por qualquier manera ha contravenido a lo que por su parte es obligado a guardar y cunplir.

4. Yten,29 es asentado y concordado que lo que toca a que, sy algunos subditos del dicho se˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla, o otros algunos, fueren tomados rescatando, contratando, comeršiando, o cargando, dentro de los dichos limites, despues deste asiento, sean presos por los capitanes y gentes del dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, y oydos y castigados conforme a justišia, y que lo mismo puedan hazer contra los que le fuere provado que contrataron, rescataron, y comeršiaron, y cargaron, dentro de los dichos limites, despues este asiento, aunque no se han hallados ni tomados en ellos, y lo demas que se asienta por este contrato, en quanto toca a no pasar la dicha linea ningunos subditos del dicho se˝or Enperador e Rey de Castilla, ni otros algunos por su mandado, consentimiento, fabor, o ayuda, y las penas que cerca desto se ponen, aunque esta dicho ariba, despues este asiento, se entienda desdel dia que fuere notificado a los subditos del dicho se˝or Enperador y gentes que por aquellas mares y partes navegan y andan en adelante, y que antes de la notificašion no incurran en las dichas penas; pero esto se entienda quanto a las gentes de las armadas de su Magestad que hasta agora a aquellas partes son ydas,30 y que desdel dia de lo otorgamiento deste contrato en adelante,

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28 The Atlantic. east of the demarcation line of 1494.
29 This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 7.
30 Three Spanish fleets despatched to the Moluccas before 1529 reached the islands-- Magellan's, Loaysa's (cf. Doc. 14, note 15), and Saavedra's. Cortes sent the last from Mexico, by order of the Emperor, to relieve the Spaniards of Loaysa's fleet, who had established themselves at Tidore and Gilolo. For accounts of these expeditions, see Navarrete, Viages, V.; Blair and Robertson, Philippine Islands, II.; and Markham, Early Spanish Voyages ( Hakluyt Soc., 2d ser. no. XXVIII., 1911).

durante el tienpo del dicho enpe˝o y rretrovendendo, no pueda inbiar otras algunas de nuevo syn incurrir en las dichas penas.

5. Yten,31 porque los dichos se˝ores Enperador y Rey de Castilla y Rey de Portugal desean que el derecho de las dichas yslas se determine, es asentado y concertado que para la declarašion del derecho que cada una dellas pretende tener a las dichas yslas de Maluco y otras, que cada uno dellos pretende estar en sus limites y demarcašion, se nonbren astrologos, pilotos, o marineros, por cada una de las partes en ygual numero, dentro de un a˝o, o dos, o tres, o mas, commo el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal lo quisiere, que vean el derecho dentre anbas partes en propiedad, conforme a la capitulašion hecha entre los dichos Reyes Catolicos y el dicho Rey Don Juan de Portugal, y a la respuesta que el dicho se˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla dio en Segovia,32 que es conforme a derecho y a la dicha capitulašion; y que no alšen la mano dello despues que lo comenšaren hasta dar sentenšia en fabor de aquel que les parešiere que tiene el derecho,33 y en caso que se determine en fabor del dicho se˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla, o de sus subšesores, que la sentenšia que se diere no se execute, sin que primero buelva rrealmente y con efetto, los dichos trezientos y šinquenta mill ducados, que rrešibe, por el dicho enpe˝o y venta de rretro vendendo, y en caso que la sentenšia sea en fabor del dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, o de sus subšesores, que el dicho so˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla sea obligado a le bolver e rrestituyr los dichos trezientos y šinquenta mill ducados, que asy da el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal por el dicho enpe˝o y venta, dentro de quatro a˝os primeros siguientes despues que se declarare.

6. Otrosy,34 es concordado y asentado que el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, en las dichas yslas de Maluco, ni en las otras tierras questan dentro de la dicha linea, ni en parte alguna de los terminos que en ella se incluyen, no pueda hazer, ni haga de nuevo fortaleza alguna, ni otro hedefišio que sea fuerte, y quanto a la fortaleza que esta hecha al presente en una de las dichas yslas35 de Maluco por el dicho sen˝or Rey de Portugal, que aquella se quede y este, durante el dicho tienpo del enpe˝o, en el punto y estado que stara dendel dia queste asiento se otorgare y firmare, en un a˝o y medio, sin que se labre, ni edifique, de nuevo en ella, mas de sostenella en el estado en que al dicho tienpo estoviere, dentro del qual dicho tienpo el dicho se˝or rrey podra mandar notificar a sus capitanes y gente, que tiene en aquellas partes, lo que por este asiento es obligado a tener y guardar šerca desto, y quel dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal jure y prometa de guardar lo asy.

7. Yten,36 es asentado que las armadas, que el dicho se˝or Enperador e Rey de Castilla hasta agora tiene ynbiadas a las dichas partes, sean miradas y bien tratadas y faborešidas del dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal y de sus gentes, y no les sea puesto enbarašo ni ynpedimiento en su navegašion e contratašion, y que si da˝o alguno, lo que no se cree, ellas ovieren rrešebido, o rešibieren, de sus capitanes o gentes, o les ovieren tomado alguna cosa, quel dicho se˝or rrey sea obligado de hemendar y satisfazer y rrestituyr y pagar luego todo aquello en quel dicho se˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla e su armada e subditos ovieren sido dagnificados, y de mandar pugnir y castigar a los que lo hizieren, y de proveer qtte las armadas y gentes del dicho Se˝or Enperador

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31 This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 3.
32 See Doc. 14, p. 133, and note 16.
33 This was one of Portugal's demands. The Spaniards had taken advantage of the time-limit of Badajoz.
34 This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 8.
35 In Ternate.
36 This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 9.

y Rey de Castilla se puedan venir quando quisieren, libremente sin inpediş miento alguno.

8. Iten,37 es asentado quel dicho se˝or Emperador y Rey de Castilla mande dar luego sus cartas y provisiones para sus capitanes y gentes que estovieren en las dichas yslas que luego se vengan y no contraten mas en ellas, con que les dexen traer libremente lo que ovieron rrescatado, contratado, y cargado.

9. Yten,38 es asentado que anbos los dichos se˝ores Enperador e Rey de Castilla e Rey de Portugal, y cada uno dellos, jure solpnemente de guardar y cunplir este asiento y contrato, e todo lo en el contenido, y prometen por el dicho juramento, por sy y por sus subšesores, de nunca en ningund tienpo, venir contra el, en todo ni en parte, por sy ni por otro, en juizio ni fuera del, por ninguna via, forma, modo, ni manera que sea y pensar se pueda, y que, por sy ni por otro, no pediran, en ningund tienpo, rrelaxašion del dicho juramento, y que puesto que nuestro muy Santo Padre, syn ser pedida [sic] por ellos, ni alguno dellos, gelo rrelaxe, que no lo ašebtaran, ni usaran, de la tal rrelaxašion, en ningund tienpo, ni se ayudaran, ni aprovecharan della, por ninguna manera ni via que sea, en juizio ni fuera del.

10. Iten,39 que, para mayor firmeza e validašion deste asiento y contrato y de to en el contenido, anbos los dichos se˝ores Enperador y Rey de Castilla y Rey de Portugal den petišion y suplicašion a su Santidad para que to aprueve e confirme, e mande despachar las bullas de la dicha confirmašion e aprovašion, selladas con su sello, inserto en ellas este contrato y asiento de verbo ad verbum, y que se ponga en ellas sentenšia de excomunion, asy a las partes prinšipales commo a qualesquier otras personas queste dicho asiento y contrato no guardaren y cunplieren, y contra el fueren, en parte o en todo, por qualquier via, modo, o manera que sea, en la qual sentenšia de excomunion declare y mande que yncurran ypso fatto los que contra el dicho contrato fueren, en todo o en parte del, por la manera suso dicha, syn para ello ser rrequiridos ni ser nešesaria otra sentenšia de excomunion ni declarašion della, y que, en caso que por alguna causa o respetto su Santidad no quiera a provar e confirmar este dicho contrato y asiento, o se dexe de confirmar por otra qualquier cabsa, pensada o no pensada, que toda via quede firme y valedero, commo sy no fuese asentado que sea aprovado e confirmado por su Santidad, commo dicho es.

11. Iten,40 es asentado y conšertado que en las provisiones y cartas que šerca deste asiento y contrato ha de dar y despachar el dicho se˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla, se ponga y diga que lo que, segund dicho es, se asienta y generales con consentimiento espreso de los procuradores dellas, y que, para validašion dello, de su poderio rreal absoluto, de que commo rey e se˝or natural, no reconošiente superior en lo tenporal, quiere usar e usa, abroga e deroga, casa y anula la suplicašion que los procuradores de las šibdades y villas destos rreynos en las cortes que se šelebraron en la šibdad de Toledo el a˝o pasado de quinientos y veinte y šinco le hizieron, šerca de lo tocante a la contratašion de las dichas yslas y tierras, e la respuesta que a ella dio, capitula y contrata, valga bien, asi commo sy fuese hecho y pasado en cortes

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37 This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 10.
38 This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 16.
39 This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 17. 40 This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 11.

y qualquier ley que en las dichas cortes sobre ello se hizo, y todas las otras que a esto puedan ostar.41

12. Yten,42 quel dicho Se˝or Enperador e Rey de Castilla, por mas seguridad de lo contenido en este asiento y contentamiento del dicho Se˝or Rey de Portugal, y porque por su parte le ha sydo pedido, mandara que los del su consejo rreal vean sy este asiento y conšierto puede haser sin aprovašion y otorgamiento de los pueblos del rreyno, y que sy hallaren que se puede hazer sin la dicha aprovašion e otorgamiento, lo den firmado de sus nonbres ocho o diez dellos.

13. Yten,43 es asentado y concordado que las capitulašiones hechas entre los dichos Reyes Catolicos y el dicho Rey Don Juan de Portugal sobre la demarcašion del mar ošeano se guarden y queden en su fuerša e vigor, salvo en aquellas cosas y casos que por este asiento van de otra manera asentados y declarados, para que aquellas se guarden durante el tienpo deste enpe˝o e rretrovendendo, commo dicho es, y despues las dichas capitulašiones enş teramente commo en ellas se contiene.

14. Iten,44 que el dicho Se˝or Rey de Portugal, porque se escusen las particulares querellas que el dicho Se˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla conş tinuamente tiene de sus subditos y de otros de fuera de sus rreinos, que le vinieron a servir, que se quexan que en su Casa de la India45 y en su rreyno les tienen enbarašadas sus haziendas, promete de mandar hazer clara y abierta y breve justišia, syn tener respetto a enojo que dellos se pueda tener, por aver servido e venido a servir al dicho se˝or enperador.

15. Iten,46 es concordado y asentado que puesto quel derecho quel dicho Se˝or Enperador e Rey de Castilla pretenda tener a lo que por este asiento y contrato da en el dicho enpe˝o y contrato de rretro vendendo, commo arriba esta dicho, sepa šierto y de šierta sabiduria por šierta ynformašion de personas que lo saben y entienden, que es de mucho mayor valor y estimaş šion y allende de la mitad del justo prešio de los dichos trezientos e šinquenta mill ducados quel dicho Se˝or Rey de Portugal le da por el dicho enpe˝o e rretrovendendo que al dicho Se˝or Enperador e Rey de Castilla le plaze de hazer donašion al dicho Se˝or Rey de Portugal y a sus herederos y subšesores y a la corona de sus rreynos, commo de hecho la haze, desde agora para todo sienpre entre vivos de la dicha mas estimašion e valor de lo que el dicho derecho que asi le enpe˝a y vende con la dicha condišion vale allende de la mitad del justo prešio por mucha mayor cantidad y valor que sea, la qual dicha mayor valor y estimašion allende de la mitad del justo prešio el dicho Se˝or Enperador e Rey de Castilla renunšia e quita e aparta de sy e de sus subšesores y desmienbra de la corona de sus rreynos para sienpre durante el dicho enpe˝o y venta de rretrovendendo y lo traspasa todo por virtud desta donašion y contrato al dicho Se˝or Rey de Portugal y a sus

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41 The cuadernos of the Cortes held at Toledo in 1525 do not include the petition here mentioned. Cˇrtes de Leon y de Castilla, IV. 404 ff.
42 The provisions of this article are omitted from the ratified treaty. See Doc. 16, introduction.
43 This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 13.
44 This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 12.
45 The Portuguese House of India (Casa da India) and House of Guinea dealt with the cargoes destined for and received from India. Ch. de Lannoy and H. Vander Linden , L'Expansion Coloniale: Portugal et Espagne ( 1907), p. 83.
46 This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 14.

herederos y subšesores y en la corona de sus reinos para sienpre jamas rrealş mente y con efetto, durante el dicho tienpo.

16. Yten,47 es asentado y concordado que qualquiera de las dichas partes que contra lo contenido en este asiento y contrato o alguna cosa dello fuere o pasare por qualquier manera, pensada o no pensada, por el mismo caso pierda todo el derecho que toviere a lo suso dicho por qualquiera via, modo, o manera que sea, y asi mismo qualquier otro derecho que toviere por virtud deste contrato durante el dicho enpe˝o y rretrovendendo, y que todo luego quede aplicado, junto, e adquerido a la parte que por este contrato estoviere, y lo guardare y no contra viniere, a el y a la corona de sus rreynos averiş guandose y provandose primeramente el mandado de la parte que contraviş niere, y que provandose y averiguandose primeramente commo dicho es quel dicho Se˝or Enperador y Rey de Castilla ha contravenido por su parte a lo suso dicho que en tal caso quede luego rresoluto este contrato de enpe˝o y rretrovendendo e la venta pura y linpia commo si al prinšipio fuera fecha, sin condišion alguna, e que porque lo contenido en esta capitulašion y asiento sea mas firme e valedero e se guarde para sienpre, los dichos se˝ores rreyes se obliguen por sy e por sus subšesores, que qualquier dellos que contra ello fuere, en qualquier manera que sea, pagara a la parte que lo guardare cient mill ducados de pena y en nonbre de pena, e interese en la qual yncurra, tantas vezes quantas contra lo contenido en este asiento y contrato fuere en parte o en todo, averiguando y provandose primeramente, commo dicho es el mandado de la parte que contraviniere, y que la pena lievada o no llevada, todavia el dicho contrato quede firme y valedero para sienpre durante el dicho enpe˝o y venta de rretrovendendo, para lo qual obliguen todos sus bienes patrimoniales y fiscales.

Los quales dichos capitulos de suso escripttos, y todas las cosas en ellos y en cada uno dellos contenidos, los dichos se˝ores Grand Chanšiller y Obispo de Osma, del consejo y procuradores de los dichos muy altos y muy poderosos se˝ores Enperador e Reyes de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de las Dos Sešilias, de Jherusalem, etc., y el dicho se˝or Antonio Dazevedo, contino, del consejo y procurador del dicho muy alto e muy poderoso se˝or Rey de Portugal y de los Algarves, etc., en nonbre de los dichos se˝ores sus conş stituyentes, por virtud de los dichos poderes a ellos dados e otorgados, que de suso van encorporados, dixieron que se obligaban y obligaron, e prometian y prometieron, y aseguraron, en el dicho nonbre, que los dichos se˝ores, sus constituyentes, y cada uno dellos haran, cunpliran, e guardaran e pagaran, rrealmente y con efetto, šesante todo fraude, dolo, y cautela, todo lo contenido en esta capitulašion y asiento y conšierto, conviene a saber, cada uno dellos lo que le perteneše e incumbe e toca de hazer, cunplir, e guardar y pagar, segund y en la forma e manera que en ella se contiene, y que no yran ni vernan contra ello, ni contra cosa alguna ni parte dello, en tienpo alguno ni por alguna manera, por sy ni por otro, direte ni indirete, ni por ninguna via, pensada o no pensada, so las penas en esta capitulašion contenidas. Dixeron que obligaban e obligaron los bienes de los dichos se˝ores, sus conş stituyentes, patrimoniales y de las coronas de sus rreynos, y, por mayor firmeza e validašion de todo lo suso dicho, juraron a Dios y a Santa Maria y a la se˝al de la Cruz ? en que corporalmente tocaron sus manos derechas, en nonbre y en las animas de los dichos se˝ores, sus constituyentes, por virtud

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47 This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 15.

de los dichos poderes, que ellos y cada uno dellos ternan, manternan, y guardaran ynbiolablemente esta dicha capitulašion y todo lo en ella contenido y cada cosa y parte dello a buena fee, syn mal enga˝o, e sin arte ni cabtela alguna, y prometian e prometieron y se obligaron en el dicho nonbre que los dichos se˝ores, sus constituyentes, aprovaran e rratificaran, firmaran y otorgaran de nuevo, esta capitulašion y todo lo en ella contenido, y cada cosa y parte dello, y prometeran y [se] obligaran e juraran de la guardar y cunplir, cada una de las partes por lo que a el incunbe y ata˝e de hazer, y que daran y entregaran y haran dar y entregar, cada una dellas a la otra, aprovašion y rratificašion desta dicha capitulašion y de lo en ella contenido, jurada y firmada de su nonbre, y sellada con su sello, desdel dia de la fecha desta capitulašion en veynte dias luego siguientes, en firmeza de lo qual los dichos se˝ores procuradores otorgaron dos escriptturas de un thenor, tal la una commo la otra, y firmaron sus nonbres en el rregistro, y las otorgaron ante mi, el dicho secretario, Francisco de los Covos, escrivano e notario publico de suso escripto, y de los testigos de yuso escriptos, para cada una de las dichas partes la suya, para que qualquiera que parezca, valga commo sy anbas a dos parešiesen, que fecha y otorgada en la dicha šibdad de ăaragoša al dicho dia, mes, y a˝o suso dicho. Testigos que fueron presentes al otorgaş miento desta escriptura, e vieron firmar en ella a todos los dichos se˝ores procuradores, y los vieron jurar corporalmente en manos de mi, el dicho secretario, Hernando Rodriguez de Sevilla, prothonotario apostolico, y Alvaro Pexoto, y Hernando Rodriguez, criados del dicho se˝or enbaxador y proş curador del dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, y Graviel Calderon, y Alonso de Ydiaquez, criados de mi, el dicho secretario.

MERCURINUS, cancellarius.
FR. G[ARCIA], episcopus Oxomen[sis].
ANTONIO DAZEVEDO, continho.

TRANSLATION.
In the name of God Almighty, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, three Persons and only one true God. Be it known and manifest to all who shall see this public instrument, that in the city of Saragossa, on the seventeenth day of the month of April, in the year of the nativity of our Savior Jesus Christ, 1529, in the presence of me, Francisco de los Cobos, secretary and member of the council of the Emperor and Queen and King of Castile, and their scrivener and notary public in their court and in all their kingdoms and lordships, there being present and assembled their worships the Grand Chancellor, Mercurino de Gattinara, count of Gattinara, and the very reverş end Don Fray GarcÝa de Loaysa, bishop of Osma, confessor, both members of the council of the very exalted and very mighty princes, Don Charles, by divine clemency emperor ever august, king of Germany, and Do˝a Joanna, his mother, and the same Don Charles, her son, by the grace of God king and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, Navarre, Granada, etc., their qualified representatives, on the one part, and Se˝or Antonio d'Azevedo, contino, member of the council and ambassador of the very exalted and very mighty lord, Dom John, by the grace of God king of Portugal, of the Algarves on this side and beyond the sea in Africa, lord of Guinea and of the conquest, navigation, and commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India, etc., his qualified representative, on the other part, they declared that, inasmuch as there has been debate and negotiation between the said very exalted and very mighty Catholic lords, the emperor and king and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, etc., and the said very exalted and very mighty lord, Dom John, king of Portugal and of the Algarves, etc., about concluding a certain treaty, agreement, pledge, and retrovendendo in respect to the Molucca Islands and other lands and seas of the Indies, to which each of them claims to have the right, seeing that it might be accomplished for the service of God, our Lord, and for the well- being of their kingdoms and for the preservation of the friendship, relaş tionship, and love that exist between them, and in order that they may underş take, negotiate, conclude, make, and adjust the said treaty, agreement, and pledge of retrovendendo between their said constituents, these have given them their full powers, signed with their names and sealed with their seals, as is more fully stated in the said powers, which both the said parties showed, signed by the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, and by the said lord King of Portugal, sealed with their seals, as is said, the tenor of which, word for word, one after the other, is as follows:

[Here follow the full powers granted by the Emperor Charles V. and Queen Joanna of Castile to the Count of Gattinara and the Bishop of Osma on April 14, 1529; and the full powers granted by John III. of Portugal to Antonio d'Azevedo, on October 18, 1528.]

Therefore the said lords, the grand chancellor and the bishop of Osma, members of the council of the said very exalted and very mighty lord Emperor and King and Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, etc., and their representatives, and the said Se˝or Antonio d'Azevedo, contino, member of the council of the said very exalted and very mighty lord King of Portugal and of the Algarves, etc., and his representative, by virtue of the said powers, incorporated above and making use of them, adjusted, agreed, concluded, and executed, in the name of the said lords, their constituents, the articles that will be set forth below, as follows:

First, it is covenanted and agreed that the said lord Emperor and King of Castile gives to the said lord King of Portugal in pledge and sale of retrovendendo the right that the emperor has to the Molucca Islands and to trade and commerce in the other neighboring islands and lands, lying and included within the line that is to be drawn in the method and manner to be set forth below, for the sum and amount of 350,000 ducats of gold, of due weight, each ducat being of 375 maravedis of Castilian money. This sum the said lord King of Portugal is to give to the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, paid as follows: within the thirty days next following the day on which this treaty shall be executed, 250,000 ducats, paid in Castile or in Lisbon, where the said lord King of Portugal shall be better able to deliver them, in money of gold, of due weight, or their just value in silver money; and the remaining 100,000 ducats at the May fair of Medina del Campo in this present year, at the time of the payments of the said fair, in the form and manner aforesaid. He is to pay the first said 250,000 ducats, which shall all be delivered and paid at the same time, in cash, and over and above the exchange; and those that should be paid in Portugal will be paid to the person or persons whom the said lord Emperor and King of Castile shall name for that purpose, in money that is worth in Castile the said 375 maravedis per ducat. The said lord Emperor and King of Castile makes the said pledge and sale of retrovendendo to the said lord King of Portugal, as aforesaid, with the stipulation and condition that whenever and at whatş ever time the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, or his heirs or sucş cessors in the kingdoms of Castile, shall wish to release, to pay off the pledge, and to redeem the said right which thus he pledges and sells as aforesaid, this may be done by returning the amount which is thus received, and the said lord King of Portugal shall be obliged to receive it. The right of the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, as well as of the said lord King of Portugal, and their successors, shall remain in full force, in the same condition and under the same form as they had it at first, and this right shall not have suffered or undergone, nor shall it suffer or undergo, any prejudice or innoş vation by virtue of this contract and agreement.

Item, it is agreed and covenanted that there shall be drawn, and henceforth there shall be considered as drawn, a semicircular line from pole to pole, 17 degrees (which equal 297Ż leagues) east of the Moluccas. It is said that this same line will pass through the islands of Santo Thome de las Velas, which are on this meridian northeast by east from the Moluccas. It is likewise said that they are 19░ distant from the Moluccas in this northeast and southwest course. In case that the said islands of Santo Thome de las Velas lie, or be situated, a greater or a less distance from the Moluccas, nevertheless the said line shall be drawn the said 297Ż leagues farther east, which equal the said 19░ to the northeast of the aforesaid Molucca Islands. In order that it may be known where the said line falls, a model map shall at once be made on which the said line shall be drawn in the manner aforesaid, and it will thus be agreed to as a declaration of the point and place through which the line passes. This map shall be signed by the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, and by the said lord King of Portugal, and sealed with their seals. In the same manner, and in accordance with the said model map, the said line shall be drawn on all the navigation charts whereby the subjects and natives of the kingdoms of the said lord Emperor and King of Castile and of the said lord King of Portugal shall navigate. In order to make the said model map, three persons shall be named by each of the said lord kings to make the said map upon oath, and they shall make the said line in conformity to what has been said above. When the map has thus been made, the said lord Emperor and King of Castile and the said lord King of Portugal shall sign it with their names, and shall order it to be sealed with the seals of their arms; and the said marine charts shall be made from it as aforesaid, in order that the subjects and natives of the said lord kings may navigate by them so long as the said lord King of Castile shall not redeem and buy back the said right. But if he redeem and ransom his right, after the completion of this treaty and contract and of such model map and marine charts as shall thus be made in conformity with the aforesaid, no prejudice to the right of either party shall result, but in spite of this everyş thing shall remain in its present state; and so long as for any cause whatever the said model map shall not be made, the said line shall be drawn immediately after the execution of this contract; and those who pass it shall incur the penalties that shall be set forth below, according to and in the form and manner hereafter to be declared.

Item, it is agreed and covenanted that the fleets and ships of the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, or of his subjects, or of others acting by his command, consent, favor, or aid, may not trade or traffic or take on cargo in any of the islands or lands that fall within the said line. If after this agreement any subjects of the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, or any other persons, shall be taken within the said limits bartering, trafficking, trading, or taking on cargo, they may be taken prisoners by the captains and people of the said lord king and tried and punished in accordance with justice. They may treat in the same way those who shall be proved to have trafficked, bartered, traded, and taken on cargo within the said limits, after the signing of this treaty, even though they shall not have been found or taken within them. If any subjects of the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, or any other persons, shall bring spices or drugs of any sort whatsoever into any ports or places to which they shall arrive or come, beş longing to either of the said lord kings or to others, who may not be enemies, they shall be placed in deposit and under embargo by both the said lord kings, until it shall be known from whose demarcation they were taken and brought; and when that is known and determined, they, or their true value, shall be delivered without any delay to whomsoever they may belong. To ascertain whether the place and land whence the said spices and drugs shall be brought fall within the demarcation and limits that, in accordance with this contract, should belong to the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, the said lord kings shall send two or four ships--one sending as many as the other--in which persons, skilful and intelligent in that art, as many of one party as of the other, shall go to the said places and lands (whence the aforesaid subjects or others shall say that they obtained and brought the said spices and drugs), in order to see and determine in whose demarcation the said lands fall, where it shall be said that the said spices and drugs were thus obtained.

If they find that the said lands and places fall within the demarş cation of the said lord King of Castile, and contain such a quantity of the said spices and drugs that they might credibly have been drawn thence, the said lord King of Portugal shall be obliged to restore them or their just value, if they were sequestrated in his realms. If it shall be discovered and determined that they were found in and brought from lands within the demarcation of the said Most Serene King of Portugal, he shall not be obliged to return them, and if they shall have been sequestrated in the kingdoms of the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, he shall be obliged to return and restore them immediately to the said lord King of Portugal. The same procedure shall be followed if they are sequestrated in any kingş doms or lands whatsoever that do not belong to the said lord kings. Within half a year after the said spices and drugs shall have been sequestrated, as aforesaid, the said lord kings shall be obliged to despatch the said ships and persons to make the said investigation, as aforesaid; and so long as the said spices and drugs shall have been embargoed and sequestrated, as aforesaid, neither the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, nor any other person for him or with his favor or consent, shall go or send to the said land, or lands, from which the said spices and drugs shall come, and he shall be obliged to order those who go or pass contrary to the aforesaid to be punished, in accordance with justice, as malefactors and disturbers of faith and peace. But it shall be understood that navigation through the South Sea should and shall be free to the said lord Emperor and King of Castile and to his subjects, so that they may be able to navigate and trade that way in accordş ance with the agreement made between the Catholic sovereigns and King Dom John of Portugal--may he rest in glory--provided that they shall not be able to enter or pass, nor shall they enter or pass, the seas beyond the said line, except on account of foul weather, need of provisions, or through ignorance, because of not knowing the said line. In such cases the ships of the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, and of his subjects, thus entering within the said line, shall not incur the said penalties, but if they find any lands or islands within the said line, they shall not trade in them, but shall immediately leave and depart from them, and from the said line, so that such lands or islands may be undisturbed for the said lord King of Portugal during this contract, as aforesaid, as if they had been discovered and found by his captains and people. If for the sake of anchorage, or on account of necessity or foul weather, the said ships of the said lord Emperor and King of Castile or of his subjects should come to any land lying within the said line, and by virtue of this agreement pertaining to the said lord King of Portugal, they shall be treated by the inhabitants of the land as vassals of his [i. e., the Emperor's] brother, and in the same manner as the said lord Emperor and King of Castile would order the King of Portugal's subjects to be treated, who should in like manner make port in his lands of New Spain, or in other lands in those parts. It shall be understood that they shall incur the said penalties in so far as it is not clearly evident that the said ships and their crews entered the seas and lands situated within the said line on account of the said ignorance, necessity, or foul weather, or unless they depart when the said necessity is over; except that the vessels and ships of the said lord King of Castile, and of his subjects, vassals, and people, may and shall navigate through the seas of the said lord King of Portugal, through which his fleets sail to India, but only so far as shall be necessary in order to hold their direct course through the Straits of Magellan. If they act contrary to this by navigating farther through the said seas, they shall incur the said penalties, with exemption in this case likewise of what is done because of ignorance, necessity, or foul weather, as aforesaid. If it shall first be proved upon investigation, that the aforesaid [agreement] has been violated by command of the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, or with his favor, aid, or consent, he shall in such case immediately lose the right that he might have for such navigation, and that right shall be assigned to the other party, who shall hold and keep it by this contract, and this pledge and retrovendendo shall be dissolved, and the sale shall be pure and simple, as though it had been made unconditional at the start. Similarly the said lord King of Portugal must and shall incur the said penalty, if it be found that he has in any way violated what he, on his side, is bound to observe and perform.

Item, it is agreed and covenanted, with respect to the agreement, that if, after this treaty, any subjects of the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, or any others, shall be caught bartering, trafficking, trading or taking on cargo, within the said limits, they shall be taken by the captains and people of the said lord King of Portugal and tried and punished in accordance with justice, and that the latter may treat in the same way those proved to have trafficked, bartered, traded, and taken on cargo after this treaty within the said limits, even though they have not been found or taken within them, and the rest agreed to by this contract touching the prohibition of crossing the said line by any subjects of the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, or any others by his command, consent, favor, or aid, and the penalties attached thereto:--although the expression "after this treaty" is used above, this shall be understood to mean, from and after the day when the subjects and people of the said lord Emperor, now in and navigating those seas and regions shall be notified--and that before the notification they shall not incur the said penalties. This, however, shall be understood as referring to the people of his Majesty's fleets hitherto despatched to those parts. From and after the day of the execution of this contract, during the period of the said pledge and retrovendendo, he may not despatch any other new expediş tions without incurring the said penalties.

Item, because the said lord Emperor and King of Castile and the lord King of Portugal desire their right to the said islands to be determined, it is agreed and covenanted that in order to determine the right that each of them claims to have to the said Moluccas and other islands, which each asserts are within his limits and demarcation, an equal number of astrologers, pilots, or mariners, shall be named by each side within one, two, three, or more years, as the said lord King of Portugal shall wish, to examine the claim of both parties as to ownership, in accordance with the agreement made between the said Catholic kings and the said King Dom John of Portugal, and with the reply given in Segovia by the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, which accords with right and with the said agreement. After they shall begin the inquiry they shall not relinquish it before proş nouncing sentence in favor of him who seems to them to have the right. In case the decision shall be in favor of the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, or of his successors, the sentence pronounced shall not be executed until he shall first actually return the said 350,000 ducats received for the said pledge and sale of retrovendendo. In case the sentence shall be in favor of the said lord King of Portugal, or of his successors, the said lord Emperor and King of Castile shall be obliged, within the first four years following the decision, to return and restore to him the said 350,000 ducats, given by the said lord King of Portugal for the said pledge and sale.

Moreover, it is covenanted and agreed that the said lord King of Portugal neither may nor shall build de novo any fortress, or other edifice that may be fortified, in the said Molucca Islands, or in the other lands within the said line, or in any part of the regions included within the line. As to the present fortress built in one of the said Molucca Islands by the said lord King of Portugal, it shall be left standing during the said period of the pledge in the state and condition in which it shall be in a year and a half from the day when this treaty shall be executed and signed, without any more new work or construction on it than shall keep it in the state in which it shall be at the said time. Within the said period, the said lord king will be able to order his captains and people, whom he has in those parts, to be notified of that which by this treaty he is obliged to keep and observe in this respect; and the said lord King of Portugal shall swear and promise to observe it thus.

Item, it is agreed that the fleets, which the said lord Emperor and King of Castile has hitherto despatched to the said regions, shall be well regarded, treated, and favored by the said lord King of Portugal and his people. No obstruction or hindrance shall be opposed to their navigation and trade, and if they shall have received, or shall receive, any harm from the King of Portugal's captains or people, which is incredible, or if these latter shall have taken anything from them, the said lord King of Portugal shall be obliged to give satisfaction, restore, make good, and pay immediately all such damages suffered by the said lord Emperor and King of Castile and his fleet and subjects, and to order the offenders to be punished and chasş tised and to arrange that the fleets and people of the said lord Emperor and King of Castile may come when they please, freely, without any impediment.

Item, it is agreed that the said lord Emperor and King of Castile shall order his letters and instructions to be given immediately to his captains and people, who shall be in the said islands, commanding them to return at once, and trade there no more, provided that they be allowed to bring freely what they shall have already bartered, traded, and shipped.

Item, it is agreed that both the said lord Emperor and King of Casş tile and the lord King of Portugal, and each of them, shall solemnly swear to observe and fulfill this treaty and contract, and all contained therein, and shall promise by the said oath, for themselves and for their successors, never, at any time, to violate it, in whole or in part, by themselves, or by another, in court or out, in any way, shape, form, or manner that may be, or may be thought of, and that never at any time, by themselves, or by another, will they seek release from the said oath; and even though our Very Holy Father, without being asked by them or either of them, shall release them from it, they will not at any time accept or avail themselves of such release, or help themselves by it, or take advantage of it, in any way or manner whatsoever, in court or out.

Item, [it is agreed] that in order further to strengthen and validate this treaty and contract and its contents, both the said lord Emperor and King of Castile and the lord King of Portugal shall petition and implore his Holiness to approve and confirm it and order bulls of the said confirmaş tion and approval to be despatched, sealed with his seal, and having this contract and treaty inserted verbatim in them; and that sentence of excomş munication shall be imposed in the bulls both against the principal parties and against all other persons who shall not observe and fulfill this said treaty and contract, but shall violate it in part or in whole, in any way, shape, or manner whatsoever. In this sentence of excommunication his Holiness shall declare and ordain that those who shall violate the said contract, in whole or in part, in the manner aforesaid, shall, ipso facto, incur excommunication, no other sentence of excommunication, or declaration thereof, being required or necessary for that purpose. If for any cause or consideration his Holiness shall not wish to approve and confirm this said contract and agreement, or if for any other cause whatsoever, premeditated or unpremeditated, it shall not be confirmed, it shall nevertheless be firm and valid as if there had been no agreement that his Holiness should approve and confirm it as aforesaid.

Item, it is agreed and covenanted that in the instructions and letters that the said lord Emperor and King of Castile is to give and despatch in regard to this treaty and contract, it shall be set down and declared that what is adjusted and concluded and contracted, as aforesaid, shall be as binding as if it had been made and executed in the General Cortes with the express consent of the deputies of that body, and that, in order to validate it, by his absolute royal power, which as king and natural lord, recognizing no superior in temporal affairs, he wishes to exercise and does exercise, he abrogates, repeals, abolishes, and annuls the petition concerning the trade of the said islands and lands made to him by the deputies of the cities and towns of those realms in the Cortes held in the city of Toledo, the past year, 1525; and [he abrogates] the reply that he gave to the petition and any law made in the said Cortes on this matter, and all other laws that may conflict with this.

Item, [it is agreed] that for the greater security of the contents of this treaty, and the satisfaction of the said lord King of Portugal, and because the emperor has been asked on [the King of Portugal's] behalf, the said lord Emperor and King of Castile will order the members of his royal council to ascertain whether this agreement and contract can be made without the approval and license of the towns of the realm. If they shall find that it can be made without the said approval and license, eight or ten of them shall give the decision, signed with their names. Item, it is agreed and covenanted that the agreements concluded between the said Catholic sovereigns and the said King Dom John of Portugal in regard to the demarcation of the ocean sea shall be observed and shall remain in force and effect, save in those matters and cases which are otherş wise settled and determined by this treaty, so that those agreements shall be observed during the period of this pledge and sale of retrovendendo, as aforesaid, and afterwards the said agreements shall be observed in their entirety.

Item, [it is agreed] that the said lord King of Portugal promises to command manifest, sincere, and summary justice to be done, in order to put an end to the individual complaints that the said lord Emperor and King of Castile continually receives from his subjects and others, aliens to his realms, but in his service, who complain that their possessions have been seized by the former's India House of Trade, and in his kingdom, without regard to the annoyance caused them thereby, because they have served the said lord emperor, and have entered his service.

Item, it is covenanted and agreed, that, although the said lord Emperor and King of Castile has certain definite knowledge through exact information from persons who know and understand the matter, that the right which the said lord Emperor and King of Castile claims to have to that which he gives in the said pledge and contract of retrovendendo by this agreement and contract as aforesaid, is of much greater value and worth and more than the half of the just price--the said 350,000 ducats--that the said lord King of Portugal gives to him for the said pledge and retrovendendo, the said lord Emperor and King of Castile is pleased to make a gift to the said lord King of Portugal and to his heirs and successors, and to the crown of his kingdoms--as in fact he does make it, henceforth for all time, among the living--of the said excess in value and worth that the said right, which he thus pledges and conditionally sells, is worth above the half of the just price, however much greater the amount and value may be. The said greater value and worth beyond the half of the just price, the said lord Emperor and King of Castile renounces and gives up for himself, and his successors, and separates it from the crown of his kingdoms, forever during the period of the said pledge and sale of retrovendendo, and by virtue of this gift and conş tract he transfers it all to the said lord King of Portugal, and to his heirs and successors, and to the crown of his kingdoms forever, really and effectş ually, during the said time.

Item, it is agreed and covenanted that whichever of the said parties shall violate or refute the contents of this treaty and contract, or any part thereof, in any manner, premeditated or unpremeditated, he shall, thereby, lose all the right that, in any way, shape, or manner whatsoever, he shall have to the aforesaid, and likewise any other right he shall have by virtue of this contract during the said pledge and sale of retrovendendo. The whole shall be immediately adjudged and given to, and acquired by the party who shall abide by this contract and observe and not violate it, to him and to the crown of his realms, after the mandate of the party who shall violate it has been first investigated and proved. When it has been proved and found as aforesaid that the said lord Emperor and King of Castile has, on his part, violated the aforesaid, in that case this contract of pledge and retrovendendo shall be immediately dissolved, and the sale shall be pure and simple, as if it had been made at the beginning without any condition. In order that the contents of this agreement and treaty may be more binding and valid and in order that it may be observed forever, the said lords kings shall bind themselves, for themselves and their successors, that whichever of them shall violate it, in any manner whatsoever, he will pay to the party who shall abide by it, 100,000 ducats, as a penalty, and under the name of fine and interest. This fine he shall incur as often as he shall violate the contents of this treaty and conş tract, in part or in whole, after, as has been said, the mandate of the party who shall violate it has been investigated and proved. Whether the fine is exacted or not, the said contract shall remain secure and valid forever, during the said pledge and sale of retrovendendo. For this they shall pledge all their patrimonial and fiscal possessions.

In regard to the above-written articles and all the matters contained in them and each of them, the said Grand Chancellor and Bishop of Osma, members of the council and representatives of the said very exalted and very mighty lords, the Emperor and King and Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, etc., and the said Lord Antonio d'Azevedo, contino, member of the council, and representative of the said very exalted and very mighty lord King of Portugal and of the Algarves, etc., in the name of the said lords, their constituents, by virtue of the said powers given to them and executed, which are incorporated above, declared that they bound themş selves, and they did bind themselves, and promised, and they did promise and affirm, in the said name, that the said lords, their constituents, and each of them, shall do, fulfill, observe, and pay, really and in truth, renouncing all deception, evasion, and mental reservation, everything contained in this treaty, agreement, and bargain--that is, each of them, what pertains to, is incumbent upon, and concerns him to do, fulfill, observe, and pay, according to and in the form and manner contained therein. They will not violate or refute it, or any part or parcel of it, at any time or in any manner, of themş selves or through another, directly or indirectly, or in any way, premeditated or unpremeditated, under the penalties contained in this agreement. They said that they pledged, and they did pledge, the possessions of the said lords, their constituents, patrimonial and belonging to the crowns of their realms, and for the greater security and validity of all the aforesaid they swore before God and Holy Mary and upon the sign of the Cross, which they actually touched with their right hands, in the name and on the consciences of the said lords, their constituents, by virtue of the said powers, that they and each of them will inviolably hold, maintain, and observe this said agreeş ment, and everything contained therein, and each part and parcel of it, in good faith, without deception, evasion, or mental reservation whatsoever; and they promised, and they did promise and bind themselves in the said name that the said lords, their constituents, will approve and ratify, and sign and execute anew this agreement and everything contained in it and each part and parcel of it, and they will promise, bind themselves, and swear to observe and fulfill it, each of the parties for that which is incumbent on and appertains to him to do; and each of them will give and deliver, and will cause to be given and delivered to the other party, an approval and ratificaş tion of this said agreement and of its contents, sworn to and signed with his name and sealed with his seal, within the twenty days immediately following the date of this agreement. To secure this, the said lord representatives executed two instruments of one tenor, both alike, and signed their names in the register, and executed them before me, the said secretary, Francisco de los Cobos, the scrivener and notary public whose name is above written, and before the undersigned witnesses, each of the said parties having his own instrument, so that, whichever shall be shown, it shall be as binding as though both were shown together. This was made and executed in the said city of Saragossa, on the day, month, and year abovesaid. Witnesses who were present at the execution of this instrument and saw all the said lord deputies sign it and saw them take the corporal oath before me, the said secretary, [were] Fernando Rodriguez de Sevilla, apostolic protonotary, and Alvaro Pexoto and Fernando Rodriguez, servants of the said lord ambassador and representative of the said lord King of Portugal, and Graniel Calderon and Alonso de Ydiaquez, servants of me, the said secretary.

MERCURINO, chancellor.
FRAY GARC═A, bishop of Osma.
ANTONIO D'AZEVEDO, contino.

16.
Treaty between Spain and Portugal concluded at Saragossa,
April 22, 1529.
Ratification by Spain, April 23, 1529, and by Portugal, June 20, 1530.

INTRODUCTION.
The treaty concluded at Saragossa on April 17, 1529,1 by the plenipotenş tiaries of Spain and Portugal, was not ratified. Five days later, in the same city, the same plenipotentiaries, with one additional representative of Spain,2 concluded a second treaty. This differed from the first in several particulars, most strikingly in the omission of the provisions of the twelfth article--that the Emperor should order his Royal Council to find out whether the treaty could be legally made without the approval of the pueblos. The omission of this article is explained by a document preserved in the National Archives at Lisbon, which contains: (1) the decision reached by lawyers of the Royal Council to the effect that the Emperor and King of Castile might legally enter into the contract in respect to the Moluccas, and that the consent, authorization, and approbation of his towns were not necessary; (2) the Emperor's confirmation and promise to regard the lawyers' decision, and his abrogation of all contrary laws and regulations. The Emperor's letter is dated April 23, 1529.3

____________________
1 Doc. 15.
2 GarcÝa de Padilla, who signed the treaty of Vitoria, and was employed in the negotiations of 1526. See Doc. 13, note 16, and Doc. 14.
3 "Don Carlos, por la divina clemencia etc. enperador semper augusto, rrey de Alema˝a, Dona Juana, su madre, y el mismo Don Carlos, su hijo, por la gracia de Dios rreyes de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de las Dos Sicilias, de Jerusalem, de Navarra, de Granada, de Toledo, de Valencia, de Galizia, de Mallorcas, de Sevilla, de Cerdena, de Cordova, de Corcega, de Murcia, de Jaen, de los Algarves, de Algezira, y de Gibraltar, de las Islas de Canaria, de las Indias, Islas, e tierra firme del Mar Oceano, archiduques d'Austria, duques de Borgo˝a, y de Brabante, condes de Barcelona, Flandes, y Tirol, se˝ores de Viscaya, y de Molina, duques de Atenas, y de Neopatria, condes de Ruysillon, y de Cerdenia, marquezes de Oristan, y de Gociano, etc.

"Hacemos saber a Jos que esta nuestra carta vieren, que nˇs mandamos vŕr a los del nuestro Real Consejo cierta dubda, sy podriamos concordar e asentar con el Serenissimo, muy Alto, y muy Poderozo Rey de Portugal, nuestro muy caro, y muy amado hermano, sobre las Islas de Maluco, y otras islas, e mares y tierras a ellas comarcanas, y vimos su declaracion, y determinacion en las espaldas d'esta nuestra carta escrita, y dada, y fecha por ellos, y la leimos, y entendimos: la qual aprovamos, confirmamos, e avemos por buena, firme, e valiosa, como en ella es contenido; y esto sin enbargo de qualesquier leyes, derechos, hordenaciones, capitulos de C§rtes, determinaciones, sentencias, glosas, haza˝as, y opiniones de dottores, y de qualesquier otras cosas, que en contrario sean, o puedan ser, puesto que sean tales, que por derecho se deva hacer dellas espresa mencion, y derogacion, y abrogamos, y derogamos, e avemos por casadas, e anulladas todas las leyes, e derecho, que en contrario sean, y las leyes, y direchos, que disponen que general renunciacion no vale: Y promettemos por nˇs, y por nuestros subcesores de nunca yr,

The treaty concluded on April 22, ratified by the Emperor on the following day and by the King of Portugal more than a year later, was disliked in Spain. As late as 1548, the Cortes petitioned the Emperor that the whole realm should redeem the Moluccas in order that Spain might have the benefit of their spice-trade, if only for six years.4

By the terms of the treaty of Saragossa, the Philippine Islands fell within the Portuguese demarcation; and when, in 1542-1543, Ruy Lopez de Villaş lobos led a colonizing expedition thither from New Spain, the Portuguese governor of the Moluccas protested vigorously, demanding his withdrawal on the ground that his occupation of the Philippines violated the aforesaid treaty.5 In 1568 a fruitless protest was made against Legazpi's colonization;6 in 1580 Spain's annexation of the Portuguese crown quieted the dispute. Upon the separation of the crowns in 1640, however, as the Portuguese claimed, "the conditions of the Deed of Saragossa gave rise to a new title by which Portugal [might] claim restitution of or equivalent for all that the Spaniards had occupied to the west" of the line fixed by this treaty.7 The controversy was not ended until 1750, when, by the first and second articles of a Spanish-Portuguese treaty signed at Madrid, it was stipulated that the demarcation lines provided for in the bull of Alexander VI.8 and

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ny venir, ny consentir, ny premitir que sea ydo, ny venido contra esta determinacion, ny parte alguna della, direte ny indirete en juizio ny fuera del, por causa alguna ny color, que sea, y pueda ser pensada, o no pensada; y para certinidad, e firmeza de todo, mandamos pasar esta nuestra carta firmada de my, el Rey, y sellada con nuestro sello. "Dada en Lerida a veinte tres de Abril, a˝o del nascimiento de Nuestro Salvador Jesus Christo de mil e quinientos e veinte e nueve a˝os. Yo el Rey. Yo Francisco de los Covos, secretario de Sus Cesarea y Catholicas Magestades, la fize screvir por su mandado. Lugar do sello. Herbijna, chanciller. Registrada. Ydiaques. Mercurinus, cancelaritis. Fray Garcia, episcopus Oxomensis. El Comendador Mayor. Vuestra Magestade confirma, e ha por bueno el parecer, que los del Consejo dieron sobre la contratacion de Maluco, que estß escritß, e firmada dellos en esta otra parte.

"Parecer dos Conselheiros d' Estado sobre a carta acima.--Sacra Catholica Mageş stad: Los del Consejo Real de Vuestra Magestad dizen, que por justas causas, e consideraciones, que a Vuestra Magestad han dicho, y consultado de palavra con Vuestra Real Persona, son de voto, y parecer que en la capitulacion, e assiento que entre Vuestra Magestad, y el Serenissimo Rey de Portugal se concierta, sobre el empe˝o de Maluco, que para seguridad d'este empe˝o, que es con condicion para la poder redemir, y quitar, que n§ es necessario que entrevengan procuradores de Cortes, ny de ciddades, ny que sean llamados para lo otorgar.

Licentiatus de SANTIAGO.
Licentiatus POLANCO. Licentiatus AGUIRRE.
Doctor GUEVARA. NUNUS ALVARES. MARTINUS Doctor.
El Licenciado MEDINA. FORTUNIUS DERCILLA Doctor."
National Archives at Lisbon, gav. 18, mašo 3, no. 39.

4 B. Leonardo de Argensola, Conquista de las Islas Malucas ( 1609), pp. 46, 47. F. Lˇpez de Gˇmara, Annals of the Emperor Charles V. (ed. R. B. Merriman, 1912), p. 138, and note 4, same page.
5 Colecciˇn de Documentos InÚditos relativos al Descubrimiento . . . de Ultramar (Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid), 2d ser., tom. II. ( 1886), pt. I., pp. 66-94.
A. de Morga, Philippine Islands ( Hakluyt Soc., no. XXXIX., 1868), app. V., pp. 394-396.
6 J. A. Robertson, "Legazpi and Philippine Colonization", in Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the year 1907 ( 1908), p. 154.
7 Preamble to the treaty of Madrid, 1750, translated in the Statement submitted by the United States of Brazil to the President of the United States of America as Arbiş trator . . . between Brazil and the Argentine Republic ( 1894), III. 5. 8 Doc. 7.

in the treaties of Tordesillas9 and Saragossa should be annulled; that Spain should permanently retain the Philippines, "in spite of the conditions conş tained in the Deed signed at Saragossa on the 22d of April, 1529"; and that the crown of Portugal should not be entitled to recover any part of the price which it paid under the sale effected by the said deed.10

BIBLIOGRAPHY.
Text: MS. An original manuscript of the ratification, signed by the King of Portugal at Lisbon, June 20, 1530, is in the National Archives at Lisbon, gav. 18, mašo 8, no. 29. One of the original protocols is in the Archives of the Indies at Seville, Patronato, 1-2-2/16, no. 9.

Text: Printed. The Portuguese ratification is printed in J. Ramos-Coelho, Alguns Documentos ( 1892), pp. 495-512, and in G. F. von Martens, SupplÚment au Recueil des TraitÚs ( 1802- 1842), I. 398-421. Navarrete, Coleccion de Viages ( 1825- 1837), tom. IV., no. 41, pp. 389-406, prints the protocol, but from a copy instead of from the original manuscript. As an appendix to the treaty of 1750, the treaty of Saragossa is printed in J. Ferreira Borges de Castro, CollecšŃo dos Tratados de Portugal, desde 1640 ( 1856- 1858), III. 64-82, and elsewhere.

References: See Doc. 15, Bibliography.

TEXT.11
Dom Joham, per graca de Deus rrey de Portugal e dos Algarves daquem e dalem mar em Africa, senhor de Guinee e da comquista, naveguacam, e comercio de Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, e da Imdia. A quantos esta minha carta de confimacam, aprovacam, e rretificacam virem, faco saber que antre mym e Dom Carlos, emperador sempre augusto, rrey dAlemanha, de Castela, de Liam, dAraguam, das Duas Cezilias, de Jerusalem, etc., meu muito amado e precado irmaŃo, avia duvida e debate sobre a propiedade e pose, on quasy pose, e dereito, naveguacam, e comercio de Maluquo e outras ilhas e mares, por cada huum de nos dizer lhe pertencer e estar em pose de todo o sobredito, e pelo muy coniuncto divido,12 que anbos temos, e porque amtre nosos vasalos e naturaes se nam podese nunca seguir descontentamento e fose sempre consservado o muito amor, rrezam, e obriguacam que antre nos ha, nos concertamos sobre o que dito he de que se fez por nosos soficientes e abastantes precuradores, pera ello deputados, carta de contrauto, capiş tolacam, e asento, da qual o teor de verbo a verbo, he o seguinte:

Dom Carlos, por la divina clemencia electo emperador semper augusto, rrey de Alemania, Do˝a Juana, su madre, y el mismo Dom Carlos, su hiyo,

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10 For a sketch of Spanish-Portuguese disputes over the demarcation line subsequent to 1529, see E. G. Bourne, "The Demarcation Line of Pope Alexander VI.", in Essays in Historical Criticism ( 1901), pp. 212-214.
11 The text is from the original manuscript of the ratification by John III. in the National Archives at Lisbon, gav. 18, mašo 8, no. 29.
12 In 1524 the King of Portugal, who was the Emperor's first cousin, married the Emperor's sister, Catherine, and soon after the Emperor married the Infanta Isabella, sister to John III.
9 Doc. 9.

por la gracia de Dios rreies de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de las Dos Secilias, de Jerusalem, de Navarra, de Granada, de Toledo, de Valencia, de Galizia, de Sevilla, de Cordova, de Corcega, de Murcia, de Jahen, de los Algarves, de Algezira, de Gibraltar, de las yslas de Canaria, de las Indias, yslas e tiera firme del mar Oceano, archiduques de Abstria, duques de Borgo˝a y de Bravante, condes de Barcelona, Flandes, e Tirol, se˝ores de Viscaya e de Molina, duques de Atenas e de Neopatria, condes de Ruisellon e de Cerdania, marqueses de Oristam e de Gociano, etc., vimos e leimos una escriptura de capitolacion e asiento de venta com pacto de rretro vendendo del derecho y posesion, o casy posesion, y action de las yslas de Maluquo, que em ellas tenemos o podriamos tener, por qualquier via que nos pertenezca y pertenecer pueda, y en las tierras, yslas, e mares contenidas em la dicha contratacion e asiento, fecho en nuestro nombre por Mercurio de Gatinara,13 conde de Gatinara, gran chamciller de my, el rrey, y por Don Fray Garcia de Loaysa,14 obispo de Osma, my confesor, y por Dom Garcia de Padilla,15 comendador mayor de Calatrava, todos del nuestro conseyo y nuestros procuş radores, y por Amtonyo dAzevedo, couthi˝o,16 del conseio y embaxador del serenisimo, muy alto, e muy poderoso Rey de Portugal, nuestro muy caro e muy amado hermano, e su procurador, el tenor del qual de verbo ad verbum es este que se sigue:

En el nonbre de Dios Todopoderoso, Padre e Hijo y Espiritu Santo, tres Personas y un solo Dios verdadero. Notorio e manifiesto sea, a quantos este publico ynstrumento de transacion e contrato de venta com pacto de rretro vendendo vieren, como en la cibdad de Carogoša, que es en el rreino de Aragon, a veinte e dos dias del mes de Abril, a˝o del nacimiento de nuestro Salvador Jhesu Christo de mill e quinientos e veinte e nueve a˝os, em presencia de my, Francisco de los Covos, secretario e del conseio del emperador, Dom Carlos, e de la rreyna, Do˝a Juana, su madre, rreina e rrey de Castilla, y su escriva˝o y notario publico, y de los testigos de yuso escriptos, parecieron los se˝ores, Mercurino de Gatinara, comde de Gatinara, gran chanciler del dicho se˝or emperador, y el muy rreverendo Dom Fray Garcia de Loaysa, obispo de Osma, su confesor, y Dom Frey Garcia de Padilla, comendador maior de la Ordem de Calatrava, todos tres del consejo de los dichos muy altos e muy poderosos se˝ores principes, Dom Carlos, por la divina clemencia electo emperador senpre augusto, rrey de Alemania, y Do˝a Juana, su madre, y el mismo Don Carlos, su hiyo, por la gracia de Dios, rreies de Castilla, de Leon, y de Aragon, de las Dos Cezilias, de Jeruş salem y de Navarra y de Granada, etc., en nonbre e como procuradores de los dichos se˝ores, Emperador e Reies de Castilla, de la una parte, y el se˝or Antonyo de Azevedo, couti˝o, del consejo y embaixador del muy alto y muy poderoso se˝or, Dom Juam, por la gracia de Dios rrey de Portugal e dos Algarves de aquende y de allende el mar em Africa, se˝or de Guinea y de la conquista, navegašion, e comercio de Ethiopia, Arabia, e Persia e de la India, etc., em nombre y como su procurador, de la otra, segun luego mostraron por sus soficientes e abastantes procuraciones para este contrato firmadas por los dichos se˝ores Emperador e Rey de Castilla e Rey de Portugal, seladas con sus sellos, de las quales dichas procuraciones los treslados, de verbo ad verbum, son los seguientes:

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13 See Doc. 13, note 14, and Docs. 14 and 15.
14 See Doc. 14, note 8, and Doc. 15.
15 See Doc. 13, note 16, and Doc. 14.
16 See Doc. 14, note II, and Doc. 15.

[Here follow the full powers granted by the sovereigns of Castile to the Count of Gattinara, the Bishop of Osma, and the Chief Knight-Commander of Calatrava on April 15, 1529, and the full powers granted by JoŃo III. of Portugal to Antonio d'Azevedo on October 18, 1528.]

Asy presentadas las dichas precuraciones por los dichos se˝ores procuraş dores, fue dicho que, por quanto antre el dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de las Dos Secilyas, de Jherusalem, etc., y el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugual, e de los Algarves, etc., avia dubda sobre la propiedad y posesion y derecho o posesiom, o quasy posesiom, navegacion, e comercio de Maluquo y otras yslas y mares, lo qual cada uno de los dichos se˝ores, Emperador e Rey de Castilla y Rey de Portugual, dize pertenecerle, asy por vertud de las capitolaciones17 que fueron fechas por los muy altos y muy poderosos y Catholicos princepes Dom Fernando y Do˝a Ysabel, rreies de Castilla, abuelos del dicho se˝or emperador y con el rrey Dom Juan el segundo de Portugal, que ayan gloria, acerqua de la demarcacion del mar oceano, como por otras rrezones y derechos que cada uno de los dichos se˝ores emperador e rreis dezia tener e pretendian a las dichas yslas, mares, y tierras ser suias, e estar em posesiom dellas; y que, aviemdo los dichos se˝ores emperador y rreis rrespecto al muy coniuncto deudo e gramde amor que antre ellos ay, lo qual no solamente deve, com mucha rezam, ser conş servado, mas, quanto posible fuere, mas acrecentado, y que, por se quitar de dudas e demamdas e debates que antre ellos podria aver, y muchos inconş vinientes, que antre sus vasallos y subditos y naturales se podriam seguir, som aguora los dichos se˝ores emperador e rreis y los dichos procuradores em su nombre concordados e concertados sobre las dichas dubdas e debates, en el modo y forma seguiente:

1. Primeramente,18 dixeron los dichos Gran Chailciler y Obispo de Osma y Comendador Maior de Calatrava, procuradores del dicho se˝or Emperador e Reis de Castilla, que ellos, em su nonbre, por vertud de la dicha su precuş racion, vendian, como luego de fecho vendieron, deste dia pera siempre jamas, al dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, pera el y todos sus sobcesores de la corona de sus rreinos, todo el derecho, action, dominio, propiedad, y posesiom, o quasi posesion, y todo el derecho de navegar y contratar y comerciar por qualquier modo que sea, que el dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla dize que tiene y podria tener por qualquier via, modo, o manera que sea, em el dicho Maluquo, ysllas, luguares, tierras y mares, segundo abaxo sera declarado; e esto, con las declaraciones y limitaciones y comdiciones y clausulas abaixo contenidas y declaradas, por precio de trezientos e cimş quoenta mil ducados de oro, paguados em monedas corientes en la tierra de oro o de plata, que valguan em Castilla trezientos y satenta y cinquo maravedis, cada ducado, los quales el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal dara e pagara al dicho se˝or Emperador y Rey de Castilla y a las personas que su Magestad pera ello nonbrare, en esta manera: los ciento e cinquoenta mil ducados dellos em Lixbona. demtro de quinze o veinte dias primeros seguientes despues que este contrato, comfirmado por el dicho se˝or Emperador y Rey de Castilla, fuere llegado a la cidad de Lixboa, o a domde el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal estuviere;19 e trinta mil ducados pagados em Castilla, los vinte

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17 The treaty of Tordesillas, Doc. 9.
18 Cf. Doc. 15, art. 1, and notes.
19 An order from the King of Portugal, dated June 1, 1529, directed Hernando Alvarez, his treasurer, to pay to Lope Hurtado de Mendoza, the Castilian ambassador in Portugal, 150,000 cruzados toward the amount due for the Moluccas. Two days later the ambassador gave the treasurer a quittance for the sum paid. Santarem, Quadro Elementar, II. 67.

mil em Valhadolid, e los dez mil em Sevilla, hasta veinte dias del mes de Maio primero que viene deste a˝o; y setenta mil ducados em Castilla, paguados en la feria de Maio de Medina del Campo deste dicho an˝o, a los terminos de los pagamientos della, y los ciem mil ducados restantes, en la feria de Otobre de la dicha villa de Medina del Campo deste dicha an˝o, a los plazos de los paguamientos della, pagado todo fuera del cambio; y asy fuere necesario, se daran luego cedulas pera el dicho tiempo; y, si el dicho se˝or Emperador y Rey de Castilha quisiere tomar a canbio los dichos cem mil ducados en la dicha feria de Maio deste dicho a˝o, para socorrerse dellos, pagara el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugual a rrazom de cinquo o seis por ciento de canbio, como su tesorero, Hernand Alvarez, los suele tomar de feria a feria; la qual dicha venta el dicho se˝or Emperador y Rey de Castilla haze al dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal com condiciom que, em qualquiera tiempo que el dicho se˝or Emperador y Rey de Castilla o sus sobcesores quisieren tornar, y con efecto tornaren, todos los dichos trezientos e cinquoenta mil ducados, y sin dellos faltar cosa alguna, al dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal o a sus sobcesores, que la dicha vienta quede desfecha, y cada uno de los dichos se˝ores enperador y rreies quede con el derecho e action que agora tienen y pretiendem tener, asy en el derecho de la posesiom, o casy posesiom, como en la propiedad, por qualquier via, modo, y manera que pertenecerles pueda, como se este contrato non fuera hecho, y de la manera que primero to tenian y pertendian tener, sin que este contrato les haga ni cause per juizo ni ynovacion alguna.

2. Item,20es comcordado e asentado entre los dichos procuradores, em nombre de los dichos se˝ores sus constituientes, que, pera se saber las yslas, lugares, tierras, y mares y derecho y actiom dellos que, por este contrato, el dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla asy vende, con la comdiciom que dicha es al dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, desde agora pera todo siempre, han por hechada una linia de polo a polo, conviene a saber, del norte al sul, por huum semicirculo que diste de Maluquo al nordeste, tomando la quarta del este, diez y nueve grados, a que conrrespondem diez y sete grados escasos en la equinocial, em que montam dozientas y novienta y sete legoas y media mas a oriente de las islas de Maluquo, dando diez y sete legoas e media por grado equinocial, en el qual merediano y rrunbo del nordeste y quarta del este, estam situadas las islas de las Velas y de Santo Thome, por donde pasa la sobredicha linia y semicirculo; y, siemdo caso que las dichas yslas estiem y distem de Maluquo mas o menos, todavia, han por bien e sam concordes que la dicha lynia quede lancada a las dichas dozientas y novienta y sete legoas y media mas a oriente, que hacem los dichos diez e nueve grados al nordeste y quarta de leste de las dichas yslas de Maluquo, como dicho es; y dixeron los dichos procuradores que, pera se saber por donde se ha la dicha linia por lancada, se hagan dos padrones de huu tenor, conformes al padron que esta en la Casa de la Contratacion21 de las lmdias de Sevilha, por donde navegan las armadas y vasallos y subditos del dicho se˝or Emperador y Rey de Castilla, y dentro de treinta dias despues de la fecha deste contrato se

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20 Cf. Doc. 15, art. 2, and notes.
21 Cf. Doc. 15, note 24. The Casa de Contratacion, or India House of Trade at Seville, founded in 1503, supervised all matters connected with maritime affairs. See the article by B. Moses in the Report of the Am. Hist. Asso. for 1894, pp. 93-123, and J. Piernas Hurtado, La Casa de la Contrataciˇn de las Indias ( 1907), articles published in La Lectura and Ateneo.

nombre dos personas de cada parte, pera que vean y hagan luego los dichos padrones, conforme a lo suso dicho, y en ellos sea lancada la dicha linia, por el modo sobre dicho, y que los dichos senores emperador e rreies los firmen de sus nonbres y sellen com sus sellos, pera quedar a cada uno el suyo, y dende em adelante quede la dicha linia por lancada pera declaracion del punto y lugar por donde ella pasa; y tambien pera declaracion del sitio en que los dichos vasallos del dicho se˝or Emperador y Rey de Castilla tienen situado y asentado a Maluquo, la qual durante el tienpo deste contrato se vea que esta puesta en el tal sitio, puesto que, en la verdad este em menos o mas distancia a oriente de lo que en los dichos padrones es sytuado, y para que en el punto de la situacion em que en los dichos padrones esta situado Maluquo se continuen los dichos diez y siete grados a oriente, que, por biem deste contrato el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal ha de aver, y que, non se alhando en la Casa de la Contratacion de Sevilha el dicho padron, las dichas personas, nombradas por los dichos se˝ores emperador y rreis, dentro de huum mes hagan los dichos padrones y se firmen y sellen, como dicho es, y por ellos se haguan cartas de navegar em que se lance la dicha linia en la manera suso dicha, pera que de aquy adelante naveguen por ellas los dichos vasallos, naturales, y subditos del dicho se˝or Emperador y Rey de Castilba, y para que los naveguantes de una parte y de otra sean ciertos del sitio de la dicha linia y distancia de las sobredichas dozientas y novienta y sete leguas y media, que aya entre la dicha linia y Maluquo.

3.Item,22es concordado e asentado por los dichos procuradores que em qualquier tiempo que el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal quisiere que se vea el derecho de la propiedad de Maluco, y las tierras y mares contenidas em este contrato, y puesto que, al tal tienpo, el dicho se˝or Emperador y Rey de Castilla no tenga tornado el dicho precio, ny el dicho contrato sea rresoluto, se vea en esta manera, conviene a saber, que cada uno de los dichos se˝ores nombre tres astrologos y tres pilotos o tres marineros, que sean expertos en la navegacion, los quales se ajuntaran em huum logar de la rraya dentre sus rreynos, donde fuere acordado que se juntem desdel dia que el dicho se˝or Emperador y Rey de Castilha o sus sobcesores fueren rrequerydos por parte del dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, que se nombren hasta quatro meses, y ally consultaran y acordaran y tomaran asiento de la manera em que ha de hyr a se ver el derecho de la dicha propiedad, conforme a las dichas capitolaş ciones e asiento que fue fecho antre los dichos Catholicos rreis, Dom Fernando y Do˝a Isabel, y el dicho rrey, Dom Juam el segundo de Portugual; y, siemdo caso que el derecho de la dicha propiedad se juzge al dicho se˝or Emperador y Rey de Castilla, no se executara ni usara de la tal sentencia sim que, primero, el dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla y sus sobcesores tornem rrealş mente y com efecto, todos los dichos trezientos e cinquoenta mil ducados que, por vertude deste contrato, fueron dados; e, juzgandose el derecho de la propiedad por parte del dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, el dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla y sus sobcesores seran obligados a tornar, rrealmente e com efecto, los dichos trezientos e cimquoenta mil ducados al dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal o a sus sobcesores desdel dia em que la dicha sentencia fuere dada, hasta quatro annos primeros seguientes.

4. Item,23 fue concertado e asentado pelos dychos procuradores em nombre de los dichos se˝ores sus constetuientes, que, siendo caso que em

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22 Cf. Doc. 15, art. 5.
23 Cf. Doc. 15, art. 3.

quanto este comtrato de venta durar y nom fuere desfecho, desdel dia de la fecha del em adelante, vinieren alguunas especiarias o drogarias, de qualquier suerte que seam, a qualesquier puertos o partes de los rreynos e senhorios de cada uno de los dichos se˝ores constetuientes que seam traidas por los vasallos, subditos, y naturales del dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla, o por otras qualesquier personas, puesto que sus subditos y naturales e vasallos non sean, que el dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla em sus reinos e senhorios, y el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal en los suios, seam obligados a mandar e hazer e mandem e hagan depositar las dichas especiarias o drogarias em tal manera que el tal deposito quede seguro, sim que aquel a cuya parte viniere sea por el otro pera esto rrequerido, pera que asy estem depositadas em nombre de ambos, em poder de aquella persona o personas em quiem cada uno de los dichos se˝ores em sus tierras e se˝orios las mamdaren e hizierem depositar; el qual deposito seram los dichos se˝ores obligados a hazer e mamdar hazer por la manera sobredicha, aguora las dichas especerias o droguerias se hallem en poder de aquellos que las traxeren, o en poder de qualquier otra persona o personas, en qualesquier luguares o partes donde fuerem halladas, y los dichos se˝ores emperador y rreies seram obligados de lo mandar asy noteficar desde aguora em sus reinos e se˝orios para que asy se cumpla, em modo que nom se pueda alegar ignorancia; y viniendo a aportar las dichas especirias o droguerias a qualesquier puertos o tierras que de cada uno de los dichos se˝ores constituientes no fueren, no siendo de enemigos, cada uno dellos por virtud deste contrato podra rrequerir, em nombre de ambos, sin mas mostrar ninguna provisam ni poder de otro a las justicias de los rreinos e senhorios domde las dichas especerias o droguerias vinieren a parar, o fuerem halladas, que las manden depositar e depositen, y em qualquier de las dichas partes donde asy fueren halladas las dichas especearias o droguerias, estaram embargadas e depositadas por ambos hasta se saber de cuya demarcacion fueron sacadas; y para se saber si el lugar e tierras de donde las dichas especearias o droguerias fueron traidas e sacadas caem dentro de la demarcaciom e limites que por este contrato quedan con el dicho se˝or [Emperador] e Rey de Castilla, e ay em ellas las dichas especearias o droguerias embiaram los dichos se˝ores emperador y rreis dos o quatro navios, tantos el uno como el otro, en los quales yran personas juramentadas que biem lo emtendam, tantos de la una parte, como de la otra, a los dichos luguares e tierras donde dixeren que sacarom y traxerom las dichas especearias o droguerias, pera ver y determinar em cuia demarcacion caen las dichas tierras e luguares de domde asy las dichas especerias o droguerias se dixere que fueron sacadas, e hallamdose que las dichas tierras e luguares caem dentro de la demarcaciom del dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla y que em ellas ay las dichas especerias e droguerias en tanta cantidad que rrazonablemente pudiesen traer las dichas especerias o droguerias, en tal caso, se alcara e quitara el dicho deposito, y se entreguaran libremente al dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla, syn que por ello seam obligados a pagar ningunas costas ny gastos, ny intereses, ny otra alguna cosa; e siendo hallado que fueron sacadas de las tierras e luguares de la demarcaciom del dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, asy mesmo sera alcado y quytado el dicho deposito, y se entregaram al dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, sim que por ello sea obligado a pagar ningunas costas ni gastos, ny intireses, ny otra alguna cosa de qualquier calidad que sea; y las personas que asy las truxerem seram pugnidos e castigados por el dicho se˝or emperador, rey de Castilla, o por sus justicias, como quebrantadores de fee y de paz, conforme a justicia; y los dichos se˝ores Enperador e Rey de Castilla y el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal seram obligados de enbiar los dichos sus navios e personas tanto que por cada uno dellos al otro fuere rrequerido y, enquanto asy las dichas especerias o droguerias estuvieren depositadas y enbargadas en el modo sobredicho, el dicho se˝or emperador, rey de Castilla, ny otro por el, ni con su favor ni consentimiento, no iran ni enbiaran a la dicha tierra o tierras de donde asy las dichas especerias e droguerias fueron traidas, y todo lo que dicho es en este capitulo acerca del deposito de las especerias o droguerias, no avra lugar ny se entendera en las especiarias o droguerias que vinieren a cualesquier partes pera el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugual.

5. Item,24es concordado y asentado que en todalas yslas, tieras y mares que fueren de la dicha linea para dentro no puedam las naos, navios, e gentes del dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla ny de sus subditos, vasallos, e naturales ny otras algunas personas, puesto que sus subditos ny vasallos naturales no seam por su mamdado, consentimiento, favor e ajuda, o sin su mamdado, favor ni aiuda entrar, navegar, tratar ny comerciar ny cargar cosa alguna que en las dichas yslas, tieras, y mares oviere de qualquier suerte o manera que sea, y que qualesquier de los sobredichos que de aquy adelante el contrario de todas las dichas cosas y cada una dellas hiziere, o fuerem conş prendidos e hallados de dentro de la dicha linea sean presos por qualquier capitan o capitanes o gentes del dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal e por los dichos sus capitanes oydos e castigados e pugnidos como cosarios e quebrantadores de paz; e, no siendo hallados dentro de la dicha linea por los dichos capitanes o gentes del dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, se vinieren a qualquier puerto, tiera o senhorio del dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla, que el dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla e sus justicias donde asy vinieren o fueren hallados, seam tenidos e obligados de los tomar y prender, entanto que les fueren presentados autos e pesquisas que les fueren embiados por el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal o por sus justicias por que se muestre ser culpados en cada una destas cosas sobredichos y los pugnir e castigar enteramente como malhechores e quebrantadores de fee e de paz.

6. Item,25es concordado e asentado por los dichos procuradores que el dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla no embie por sy ny por otro a las dichas islas, tierras y mares dentro de la dicha linea ni consientan que alla vayan de aquy adelante sus naturales e subditos e vasallos o estranjeros, puesto que sus naturales e vasallos ny subditos no sean ny les de para ello ajuda ni favor ny se concierte com ellos para ellos alla yr contra la forma e asiento deste contrato, antes sea obligado de lo defender, estorvar e inpedir quanto en el fuere, e ynbiando el dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla por sy o por otro a las dichas yslas, tierras o mares de dentro de la dicha linea, o consentiendo que alla vaiam sus naturales, vasallos, subditos o extranjeros, puesto que sus naturales, vasallos ny subditos no sean, dandoles pera ello ayuda o favor o concertandose com ellos para que alla vayan contra la forma e asiento deste contrato e sy lo no defendiere y estorvare e inpidiere quanto en el fuere, que el dicho pacto de rretro vendendo quede luego rresoluto, y el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal no seia mas obligado a rrecibir el dicho precio ny al rretro vender el derecho e acion que el dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey

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24 Cf. Doc. 15, art. 3.
25 Cf. Doc. 15, art. 3.

de Castilha, por qualquier via e manera que sea, podria tener a ello, antes que aquel por virtud deste contrato tenga vendido e rrenunciado y traspasado en el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal y por el mismo fecho la dicha venta quede pura e valedera para sienpre jamas, como si al principio fuera fecha sin condiciom y pacto de rretro vendendo; pero, porque poderia ser que, naveş guando los sobredichos por los mares del sur, donde los subditos e naturales e vasallos del dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilha puedem navegar, les podria sobrevenir tienpo tam forcoso e contrario o necesidad com que fuesem costre˝idos, continuando su camino e naveguacion a pasar la dicha linea, en tal caso, no incurriran em pena alguna, mas, antes que, aportamdo e lleguamdo em qualquier de los dichos casos a alguna tierra de las que asy entraren en la dycha linea, e por vertud deste contrato pertenecieren al dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, que sean tratados por sus subditos e vasalos e moraş dores della como vasalos de su hermano y asy como el dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilha mandaria tratar a los suyos que desta manera aportasen a sus tieras de la Nueva Espa˝a o a otras de aquellas partes, con tanto que, cesando la dicha necesidad, se salgam lueguo y se buelvan a sus mares del sur; y, siendo caso que los sobre dichos pasasem por ignorancia la dicha linea, es concordado e asentado que no incurram por ello em pena alguua, em quanto no constare claramente que, sabiendo ellos que estavan dentro de la dicha linea, no se bolvieren e salieren fuera della, como es acordado e asentado em el caso que entrasem con tiempo forcoso y contrario o de necesidad; porque, quamdo esto constare, se avra por probado que com malicia pasaran la linea, y seran pugnidos y avran aquelas penas que han de aver aquellos que entraren dentro de la linea, como dicho es, y en este contrato es contenido y declarado; y hallando los sobredichos o descubriendo emquanto dentro de la dicha linea ansy anduvieren algunas yslas o tierras dentro de la dicha linea, que las tales yslas o tierras quedem luego libremente e con efecto al dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal e a sus sobcesores, como sy por sus capitanes e vasallos descuviertas e halhadas e poseydas al tal tempo fuesen; y es concordado y asentado por los dichos procuradores que las naaos e navios del dicho se˝or Emperador Rey de Castilla y de sus subditos, vasalos, e naturales puedam yr e navegar por los mares del dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, por donde sus armadas vam para la Imdia, tanto solamente quanto les fuere necesario para tomar sus derrotas derechas para el estrecho de Magalhanes; y haziemdo lo contrario de lo suso dicho, naveguando mas por los dichos mares del dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, de lo que dicho es, yncuriran por el mismo fecho, asy el dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla, constando que to hizieron por su mandado, favor y ajuda o consentimiento, y los que asy navegaren y fueren contra lo suso dicho en las penas sobredichas, asy e de la manera que de suso em este contrato es declarado.

7. Item,26fue asentado e comcordado que lo que toca a que sy algunos subditos del dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castella o otros algunos fueren tomados e hallados, de aquy adelante, dentro de los dichos limites ariba declarados, seam presos por qualquier capitan o capitanes o gentes del dicho se˝or Rey de Portuguall, y por los dichos sus capitanes, oydos, castigados y pugnidos como cosarios, violadores e quebrantadores de paz; y que, no siendo hallados dentro de la dicha linea, y viniendo a qualquier puerto del dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla, su magestad e sus justicias seam

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26 Cf. Doc. 15, art. 4.

obligados de los tomar e premder, tanto que les fueren presentados autos e pesquisas que les fueren enbiados por el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal e por sus justicias, por los quales se muestre ser culpados en las cosas suso dichas y los pugnir y castigar enteramente, como malhechores y quebrantadores de fee y de paz y lo demas que se asienta por este contrato, em quanto toca a no pasar la dicha linea nimgunos subditos del dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilha, ni otros algunos por su mamdado, consentimiento, favor o ayuda; y las penas que cerca desto se ponen, se entienda desdel dia que fuere noteş ficado a los subditos del dicho se˝or Emperador y gentes que por aquellas mares e partes estam y naveguan, en adelante; y que, antes de la tal notifiş cacam, no incurram en las dichas penas; pero esto se entienda quanto a las gentes de las armadas del dicho se˝or emperador, que, hasta aguora, a aquelas partes son ydas, y que desd el dia del otorgamiento deste contrato em adelante, durante el tempo que la dicha venta no fuere desfecha en la forma suso dicha, no pueda embiar ni embie otras algunas de nuevo, sin incorrir en las dichas penas.

8. Item,27 fue concordado e asentado por los dichos procuradores que el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal no hara por sy ny por otro ny mandara hazer de nuevo fortaleza alguna em Maluco, ny al rrededor del com veinte leguas, ny de Maluco hasta donde por este contrato se ha por lancada la linea; y es asentado y son concordes todos los dichos procuradores de la una parte y de la otra que este tempo de nuevo se entienda, comviene a saber, desd el tiempo que el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal pudiere alla embiar a noteficar que no se haga ninguna fortaleza de nuevo, que sera en la primera armada que fuere del dicho rreino de Portugal para la Imdia, despues deste contrato ser conş firmado e aprobado por los dichos se˝ores sus constituientes, y selado de seus sellos; y, quanto a la fortaleza que aguora estaa fecha em Maluquo, no se hara mas obra alguna em ella de nuevo, desdel dicho tiempo em adelante, solamente se rreparara e sosterna em el estado em que estuviere al dicho tiempo, si ell dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal quisiere, el qual jura e prometa de gardalo e comprilo asy.

9. Item,28 es asentado e concordado que las armadas que el dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilha hasta aguora tiene enbiadas a las dichas partes seam miradas y bien tratadas e favorecidas del dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal y de sus gentes, y no les sea puesto embaraco ni impidimiento en su naveguacion e contratacion, y que si da˝o alguno, lo que no se cree, ellos ubieren rrecebido o rrecebieren de sus capitanes o gentes, o les ubieren tomado alguna cosa, que el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal sea obligado de emmendar e satisfazer e rrestetuir y pagar luego todo aquelo em que el dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla y sus subditos y armadas ubieren sido danificados, e de mamdar pugnir y castigar a los que lo hizieren y de proveer que las armadas y gentes del dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla se puedam venir quando quisieren, libremente sin impidimiento alguno.29

10. Item,30 es asentado que el dicho se˝or Emperador y Rey de Castilla mamde dar luego sus cartas y provisiones para sus capitanes e gentes que

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27 Cf. Doc. 15, art. 6.
28 Cf. Doc. 15, art. 7.
29 A fierce struggle was kept up in the Moluccas for several years between the Portuş guese at Ternate and the Spaniards at Tidore and their respective native allies. See Doc. 15, bibliography, for references to the history of the two nationalities in the Moluccas from 1521 to 1532.
30 This article is the same as art. 8 of Doc. 15.

estuvieren en las dychas yslas que lueguo se vengam y no contraten mas em ellas, com que les dexem traer libremente lo que ubieren rrescatado y conş tratado y cargado.31

11. Item,32 es asentado e comcordado que en las provisiones e cartas que cerca deste asiento e contrato ha de dar e despachar el dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla, se ponga e digua que lo que, segun dicho es, se asienta, capitula e contrata, valga biem asy como se fuese fecho e pasado em cortes generales com consentimiento expreso de los procuradores dellas; y que, para validacion dello, de su poderio rreal absoluto de que, como rrey e se˝or natural, no rreconociente superior en lo temporal, quiere usar e usa, abroga e deroga, casa e anula la supplicacion que los procuradores de las cibdades e vyllas destos rreynos en las cortes que se celebraron en la cibdad de Toledo el a˝o pasado, de quinientos e veinte e cinquo, le hizieron cerca de lo tocante a la contrataciom de las dichas yslas e tierras y la rrespuesta que a ello dio y qualquier ley que en las dichas cortes sobre ello se hizo y todas las otras que a esto puedam obstar.

12. Item, 33 es asentado que el dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal, porque algunos subditos del dicho se˝or Emperador y Rey de Castilla y otros de fuera de sus rreynos que le vinieron a servir se quexan que em su Casa de la Imdia y em su rreyno le tienem embaracadas sus haziendas, promete de mandar hazer clara e abierta e breve justicia, sin tener rrespecto a henojo que dellos se pueda tener, por aver venido a servir y servido al dicho se˝or Emperador.

13. Item,34 fue asentado y concordado por los dichos procuradores em nombre de los dichos sus constetuientes que las capitulaciones hechas entre los dichos Catolicos rreies, Dora Fernando e Do˝a Ysabel, y el rrey, Dom Juam el segundo, de Portugal, sobre la demarcaciom del mar oceano, quedem firmes e valederas em todo e per todo, como en ellas es contenido e declarado, tirando aquelas cosas em que, por este contrato, em otra manera som conş cordadas e asentadas; y, siendo caso que el dicho se˝or Emperador y Rey de Castilla torne el precio que, por este contrato, le es dado, en la manera que dicha es, em modo que la venta quede desfecha, en tal caso, las dichas capituş laciones hechas entre los dichos Catholicos rreyes, Dom Fernamdo e Do˝a Ysabel, y el dicho rrey, Dom Juam el segundo, de Portugal, quedaran em toda su fuerca e vigor, como si este contrato no fuera fecho, como en elias es contenido; y seran los dichos se˝ores sus constituientes obligados de las complir e gardar em todo e por todo, como en ellas es asentado.

14. Item,35 es acordado e asentado por los dichos procuradores que puesto que el derecho e action que el dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla dize que tiene a las dichas tierras, lugares e mares e yslas que ansy por el modo sobredicho vende al dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal valgua mas de la mitad del justo precio que por ello le da, el dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla sepa cierto e de cierta sabiduria por cierta informacion de personas em ello expertas, que lo muy biem saben y entiendem que es de mucho maior valor y estimacion, alende de la mitad del justo precio que el dicho se˝or Rey de

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31 The Spaniards in the Moluccas, who had been defending the claims of the Emperor there, first heard of the sale of the islands from the Portuguese in 1532. Navarrete, Viages, V. 148, 395.
32 This article is the same as art. 11 of Doc. 15.
33 This article corresponds to Doc. 15, art. 14.
34 This article corresponds to Doc. 15, art. 13. Note that the words "enpe˝o y retroş vendendo" in the corresponding article of the earlier treaty are changed to venta. 35 This article corresponds to Doc. 15, art. 15.

Portugal da al dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla a plaze hazer donaş cion, como de hecho la haze, donde el dicho dia para siempre jamas entre bivos valedera de la dicha maior valia y estimacion que asy vale mas e alemde de la mitad del justo precio por muy gran mas valia que sea, la qual maior valia y estimacion, alende de la mitad del justo precio, el dicho se˝or Emperador e Rey de Castilla dimitte de sy e de sus subcesores y desmienbra de la corona de sus rreynos para sienpre, y todo trespasa al dicho se˝or Rey de Portugal e a sus subcesores y corona de sus rreynos, rrealmente e com efecto, por el modo sobredicho, durante el tienpo deste contrato.

15. Item,36 es concordado y asentado por los dichos procuradores que qualquier de las partes que contra este contrato o parte del fuere, por sy o por otro, por qualquier modo, via, o manera, que sea, pensada o no pensada, que por el mismo hecho pierda el derecho que tiene por qualquier via, modo, o manera que sea; y todo lueguo quede aplicado, junto, e adquirido a la otra parte, que por el dicho contrato estuviere y contra el no fuere y a la corona de sus rreynos, sin para ello el que contra el fuere, sea mas citado, oydo, ni rrequerido, ny ser necesario sobre ello darse mas otra sentencia por juez ni juzgador alguno que sea, averigandose y provandose primeramente el mandado o consentimiento o favor de la parte que contra ello viniere; y alende desto, el que contra este contrato fuere, por qualquier modo e manera que sea, em parte o em todo, pague a la otra parte que por el estuviere, duzientos mil ducados de oro, de pena, y en nombre de pena e intarese, en la qual pena incuriran tantas vezees quantas contra el fueren, em parte, o em todo, como dicho es; y la pena llevada o no llevada, todavia este contrato quedara firme y valedero y estable para siempre jamas em favor de aquel que por el estuviere, y contra el o parte del no fuere, para lo qual obligaron todos los bienes patrimoniales e fiscales de los dichos sus constetuientes y de las coronas de sus rreinos, de todo conplir y mantener asy e tan cumplidamente como em ellos se contiene.

16. Item,37 fue asentado e concordado por los dichos procuradores que los dichos se˝ores sus constetuientes y cada uno dellos, juraram solenemente y prometeran por el dicho juramiento, que por sy e por sus sucesores nunca em ninguun tiempo vendram contra este contrato em todo ny em parte, por sy ny por otro, en juizio ny fuera del, por ninguna via, forma, ny manera que sea y pensar se pueda, y que nunca em tiempo alguno, por sy ny por otro, pediran rrelaxacion del dicho juramiento a nuestro muy Sancto Padre, ny a otro que, pera ello, poder tenga; y, puesto que Su Santidad, o quiem pera ello poder tuviere, sin le ser pedido, de su propio motu, les rrelaxe el dicho juramiento, que lo no aceptaran, ny nunca em alguun tiempo usaran de la dicha rrelaxacion, ny se aiudaran della, ni aprovecharan em ninguna manera ny via que sea, em juizio, ny fuera del.

17. Item,38 fue comcordado e asentado por los dichos procuradores que, para mas corroborašion y firmeza deste contrato, que este contrato e tranş sacion, com todas sus clausulas, comdiciones, pactos, obligaciones y declaraş ciones del, asy e por la manera queen el som contenidas, sea juzgado por sentencia del papa, e confirmado e aprobado por Su Santidad, por bulla appostolica, com su sello, en la qual bula de sentencia, confirmacion, e aprobaş cion sera inserto todo este contrato, de verbo ad verbum; y que Su Santidad,

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36 This article corresponds to Doc. 15, art. 16.
37 This article corresponds to Doc. 15, art. 9.
38 This article corresponds to Doc. 15, art. 10.

en la dicha sentencia, supla e aya por suplido, de su cierta sciencia, e poderio absoluto, todo e qualquier defeto e solenidad que de hecho e de derecho se rrequiera para este contrato ser mas firme e valedero en todo e qualquier parte dello; y que Su Sanctidad ponga sentencia descomunion, asy en las partes principales, como em qualesquier otras personas que contra el fueren y lo no gardaren, em todo o em parte, por qualquier via, modo, e manera que sea, en la qual sentencia descomunion declarara e mandara que incurram ipso facto los que contra el dicho contrato fueren, em todo o em parte, sin para ello se rrequiera ni sea necesaria otra sentencia descomunion ny declaraş ciom della, y que los tales no puedam ser absueltos por Su Sanctidad, ny por otra persona por su mandado, sin consentimiento de la otra parte a quien tocare, y sim primero set para la tal absolucion citada e rrequerida e oyda; e los dichos procuradores desde agora para entonces, y desde entonces para agora, em nombre de los dichos sus constetuientes, suplican a Su Sanctidad que lo quiera asy confirmar e juzgar por sentenšia del modo e manera que em este capitolo esta asentado e declarado, de la qual confirmacion e aprobaş cion cada una de las partes podra sacar su bulla, la qual los dichos procuraş dores, em nombre de los dichos sus constituientes peden a Su Sanctidad que mande dar a cada uno dellos que la expedir quisiere, sim mas la otra parte para ello se rrequerir para confirmacion e firmeza de su derecho.

Y todo lo sobredicho asy concordado e asentado, como de suso es contenido, los dichos procuradores, em nombre de los dichos sus constituientes, y por vertud de las dichas sus procuraciones, dixeron ante mym, el dicho secreş tario e notario publico, e ante los testigos de yuso escriptos y firmados, que aprobavan, loavan, y otorgavan pera siempre jamas, asy e tan enteramente, com todas las clausulas, declaraciones, pactos y convenciones, penas y obligaş clones en este contrato contenidas; y promitieron y se obligaron, la una parte a la otra, la otra a la otra, em nombre de los dichos sus constituientes, estipuş lantes e aceptantes por solene estipulacion, de asy lo tener e complir y gardar para siempre jamas, y que los dichos sus constituientes y sus sobcesores y todos sus vasalhos, subditos, y naturales, ternan y gardaran e compliran, agora e pera siempre, el dicho contrato e todo lo en el contenido, so las penas y obligaciones en el declaradas; y que nom yran nim vernam, nym consentiran ny permitiran que sea ido ny venido contra el, ny parte alguna del, directe ny indirectemente, em juizio ny fuera del, por ninguna causa, color, ni caso alguno que sea, o set pueda, pensada o por pensar; y dixeron los dichos procuradores em nombre de los dichos senhores sus constituientes que rrenunciavan, como de hecho rrenunciaran todas las enexaciones y ecepciones e todos rremedios juridicos, beneficios y concilios ordinarios y extraordinarios, que a los dichos se˝ores sus constituientes, y a cada uno dellos conpetem, o podram conpetir e pertenecer por derecho, aguora yen qualquier tiempo de aquy adelante, para anular y rrevocar o quebrantar, en todo o em parte, este contrato, o para inpedir el efecto del, y ansy mismo rrenunciaran todos los derechos, leis, costunbres, estilos, haza˝as y openiones de doctores, que para ello les pudiesem aprovechar, em qualquier manera, y especialmente rrenunş ciaran las leis y derechos que dizem que general rrenunciacion no val, para lo qual todo asy tener e gardar y conplir obligaron los dichos procuradores todos los bienes, patrimoniales e fiscales, de los dichos sus constituientes y de las coronas de sus rreinos; y, por maior firmeza, los dichos procuradores dixeron que jurarian, como de hecho loguo juraran ante mym, el dicho secretario y notario suso dicho, e testigos de yuso espritos, a Dios y a Sancta Maria y a la se˝al de la Cruz ? a los sanctos Avangelios, que com sus manos derechas tocaran, em nombre y en las animas de los dichos sus conş stituientes, por virtud de los dichos poderes que especialmente para ello tienem, que ellos, y cada uno dellos, por sy y por sus subcesores, ternam, e gardaran y haran tener y gardar, para siempre jamas, este contrato, como en el es contenido; y que los dichos se˝ores sus constituientes, y cada uno dellos, confirmaran, aprovaran, loaran e rratificaran y otorgaran de nuevo esta capitulacion, y todo lo en ello contenido, y cada cosa, y parte dello, y prometeran y se obligaran y juraran de lo gardar y conplir cada una de las partes, pelo que le toca, incumbe e ata˝e de hazer e gardar e complir, rrealş mente y com efecto, a buena fee, sim mal enga˝o, y sim arte ni cautela alguna; y que los dichos sus constituientes ny alguno dellos, no demamdaran, por sy, ny por otras personas, absulucion, rrelaxacion, dispensacion, ny conmutacion del dicho juramiento, a nuestro muy sancto Padre, ni a otra persona alguna que poder tenga para lo dar e conceder; y, puesto que de propio motu, o en otra qualquier manera, les sea dada, no usaran della, antes, sin enbargo della, ternan, gardaran, y cumpliran, y haran tener y gardar y conplir todo lo contenido en este dicho contrato, com todas las clausulas, obligaciones y penas, y cada cosa, y parte dello, segund en el se contiene, fiel e verdadera, rrealmente e com efecto, y que dara y entregara, cada una de las dichas partes a la otra, la dicha aprobacion e rratificacion deste contrato, jurada e ffirmada de cada huum de los dichos sus constituientes, y sellada com su sello, desd el dia de la fecha del em veinte dias luego seguientes. Em testimonio y firmeza de lo qual, los dichos procuradores otorgaron este contrato en la forma suso dicha, ante myra, el dicho secretario y notario suso dicho, y de los testigos de yuso espritos, y lo firmaron de sus nombres, y pidierom a mym, el dicho secretario y notario, que les diese uno y muchos instrumentos, se les necesario fuesen, sub my publica firma y signo; que fue fecha y otorgada em la dicha cibdad de Caragoca, el dia, mes y anno suso dichos. Testigos que fuerom presentes al otorgamiento deste dicho contrato, y vieron firmar en el a todos los dichos se˝ores procuradores, en el rregistro de mym, el dicho secretario, y los vieron jurar corporalmente em mano de mym, el dicho secretario: Alonso de Valdes, secretario del dicho se˝or Emperador, y Agustin de Urbina, chancyller de su Magestad, Jeronimo Rancio, criado del dicho se˝or chanciler, y Conde de Gatynara; y Hernam Rodriguez y Antonio de Sosa, criados del dicho se˝or embaixador Antonio de Azevedo, y Alonso de Ydiaquez, criado de mym, el dicho secretario, los quales dichos testigos, asy mismo firmaran sus nombres en el rregistro de mym, el dicho secretario. Mercurinus, cancellarius. Frater Garcia, episcopus Oxomensis. El Comemdador Mayor. Antonio de Azevedo, coutinho. Testigos: Alonso de Valdes, Jeronimo Rancio, Agustin de Urbina, Antonio de Sousa, Fernan Rodriguez, A!onso de Ydiaquez. E yo, el dicho secretario y notario, Francisquo de los Covos, fuy presente, en uno con los dichos testigos, al otorgamiento deste contrato y asiento, y al juramiento en el contenido, que en mis manos hizieron los dichos se˝ores procuradores, y al firmar dellos y de los dichos testigos, en el rregisto que queda en my poder; e a pedimiento del dicho se˝or embaxador Antonio de Azevedo, hyze sacar este treslado; e, por ende, fize aquy mi signo em testimonio de verdad. Franş cisquo de los Covos.

La qual dicha espritura e asiento, que de suso va incorporado, por nos vista y entendida, y cada cosa y parte dello, y siendo ciertos y certeficados de todo lo en ella contenido, por la presente lo loamos e confirmamos e aprobamos y rreteficamos, y quanto es necesario de nuevo otorgamos, y prometemos de tener y gardar la dicha escriptura y asiento, que asy polos dichos nuestros procuradores, e asy mismo por el dicho embaixador, procuş rador del dicho serenisimo, muy alto, muy poderoso Rey de Portugal, nuestro ermano, fue asentada e otorgada e concertada em nuestros nombres, y cada cosa e parte dello, de todo lo tener y guardar, rrealmente y com efeto, a buena fee, sim mal emga˝o, cesante todo fraude e simulacion, dolo e cautela, e toda otra especie de decebcion y arte; y queremos y somos contentos que se guarde e cunpla, segund y como en ella se contiene, bien asy y tan comş plidamente, como sy por nos fuera hecha y asentada. E, para validacion e corroboracion e firmeza de la dicha espritura de venta e asiento, derogamos e abrogamos, casamos e anulamos todas las leis e derechos, prematicas, haza˝as, y openiones de doctores, que al valor de la dicha espritura de suso emcorporada seam contrarias; especialmente derogamos, casamos, e anulamos quallesquiera peticiones de procuradores del rreyno queen las cortes de Toledo, o en otras qualesquiera que ayamos tenido, no [sic] seam fechas sobre que no hagamos este concierto e asiento, ny otro alguno, con el dicho serenisimo rrey, nuestro hermano, puesto que especie de contrato tengan; e asy mismo qualesquiera prematicas, capitolos de cortes, que, sobre las dichas peteciones de procuradores del rreyno, hayamos hecho, porque todas e cada una dellas derogamos, abrogamos, anulamos y casamos, y avemos por ningunas, de nuestro poderio rreal absuluto, no rreconocientes superior en lo temporal; y avemos por buena la dicha spritura de venta, con el dicho pacto de rretro vendendo, y la confirmamos y rreteficamos, desde aguora pera siempre jamas, y la avemos por buena y provechosa a nos y a la corona de nosos rreinos; y queremos que valga como seem cortes, y con consenş timiento de los procuradores de las cibdades, villas y pueblos de nuestros rreinos, fuese fecha; la qual asy confirmamos e rreteficamos e aprovamos por causas a nos conocidas y provechosas, y a la corona de nuestros rreinos; y avemos por casadas, anuladas, e abrogadas todas e qualesquiera leies e derechos que en contrario seam; especialmente derogamos, casamos e anulamos las leies que dizen e disponen que general rrenunciacion nom vale. E yo, el rrey, juro a Dios y a Santa Maria, y alas palavras de los Sanctos Avangelios, y a la se˝al de la Cruz ? em que ponguo nuestra mano derecha, y prometemos, por nos, y por nuestros subcesores, de nunca yr nero venir, ny consentir, ny permetir que se vaya ny pase contra esta espritura de venta, com pacto de rretro vendemdo, ny parte della, dereite ny indereite, ny por otra alguna caussa, pensada o no pensada, so color alguna, por nos ny por otro, ny consentiremos ny permiteremos que otra alguna persona o personas vayam contra la dicha espritura e asiento, antes lo defenderemos, y castiş garemos e proiberemos quanto a nos posible sea, so cargo del dicho juramiento, del no pediremos rrelaxacion, como por mys procuradores esta otorgado, ny usaremos della, puesto que el papa, o otro que su poder tenga, de su propio motu nos la conceda, puesto que tenga clausulas derogatorias e abrogatorias de todo lo que dicho es, porque todo lo rrenunciamos, y prometemos de no usar dello, so cargo del dicho juramiento, y, para certenidad desta nuestra voluntad y firmeza y validacion de lo suso dicho, mandamos pasar y dar esta nuestra carta de aprobacion, rratificacion, abrogacion y anulacion, firmada por my, el rrey, y sellada con nuestro sello. Dada en la cidad de Lerida, a veinte e tres dias del mes dAbril, a˝o del Se˝or de mile quinientos e veinte e nueve a˝os. Yo, El Rey. Yo, Francisquo de los Covos, secretario de Sus Cesarea y Catholicas Magestades, la fize screvir por su mamdado. Mercuş rinus, cancelarius. Frater Garcia, episcopus Oxomensis. El Comendador Maior.

A qual carta de contrato, capitolacam, e asento de pacto de rretro venş dendo, vista por mym, e todas as condic§es e clausulas em ella conteudas, de palavra a palavra, bem vistas e entemdidas, a comfirmo, aprovo, e rretefico, e ey por booa e todas as cousas em ella conteudas e cada huua dellas; e prometo por minha fee rreal, y juro aos santos Avangelhos, sobre que pus minhas maŃos, que as comprirey e gardarey, comvem a saber, aquelas que a mym toca comprir e guardar, por bem, do dito contrato, capitolacam, e asento, asy e tam inteiramente como nela he conteudo e declarado e sem mingoamento alguum, e sob as penas, clausulas, pactos, e condic§es que nela se contem. E prometo e juro, por mym e por meus erdeiros e sobcesores, de nunca em nenhuum tempo, nem por modo alguum, por mym, nem por outrem, hiir nem viir contra o dito contrato, capitolacam, e asento, nem contra cousa alguua das que em elle sam contiudas, antes em todo e por todo as comprirey e guardarey, e farey comprir e gardar, a boa fee, sem arte, cautela, emgano nem malicia alguua, como dito he. E, por certidam de todo, mamdeey fazer esta carta de comfirmacam, aprovacam e rreteficacam, por mym asinada e aselada do meu selo pendente em chumbo. Dada em a cidade de Lixboa, a vinte dias de Junho. Pero dAlcacova Carneiro a fez. Anno de Noso Senhor Jesuu Cristo de mil e quinhentos e trinta annos.

EL REY.

TRANSLATION.
Dom John, by the grace of God king of Portugal, and of the Algarves on this side and beyond the sea in Africa, lord of Guinea and of the conquest, navigation, and commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India. Be it known to all who shall see this my deed of confirmation, approval, and ratification, that between me and Don Charles, emperor ever august, king of Germany, Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, etc., my very beloved and prudent brother, there was doubt and dispute in respect to the ownership and possession (or quasi-possession), title, navigation, and comş merce of the Moluccas and other islands and seas, each of us saying that they belonged to him and that he was in the possession of all the aforesaid; and because of our very close relationship, and in order that no discontent might ever be felt between our vassals and the natives of our kingdoms, and that the great love, justice, and obligation existing between us might always be preserved, we have concerted in respect to the aforesaid a deed of contract, treaty, and agreement, made by our sufficient and qualified repreş sentatives, deputed therefor, the tenor of which, word for word, is as follows:

Don Charles, by the divine clemency elected emperor ever august, king of Germany, Do˝a Joanna, his mother, and the same Don Charles, her son, by the grace of God king and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, Navarre, Granada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Seville, Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, the Algarves, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, the Indies, islands and mainland of the ocean sea, archduke and archduchess of Austria, duke and duchess of Burgundy and Brabant, count and countess of Barcelona, Flanders, and Tyrol, lord and lady of Biscay and Molina, duke and duchess of Athens and Neopatras, count and countess of Roussillon and Cerdagne, marquis and marchioness of Oristano and Gociano, etc., we have seen and read a deed of treaty and agreement of sale with compact of retroş vendendo of the right and possession, or quasi-possession, and action that we have or may have in the Molucca Islands--in whatever way the right may or can pertain to us--and in the lands, islands, and seas mentioned in the said contract and agreement, made in our name by Mercurino de Gattinara, count of Gattinara, grand chancellor of me, the king, and by Don Fray GarcÝa de Loaysa, bishop of Osma, my confessor, and by Don GarcÝa de Padilla, chief knight-commander of Calatrava, all members of our council and our representatives, and by Antonio d'Azevedo, contino, member of the council and ambassador of the most serene, very exalted and very mighty King of Portugal, our very dear and greatly beloved brother, and his repreş sentative, the tenor of which, word for word, is as follows:

In the name of God Almighty, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, three Persons, and only one true God. Be it known and manifest to all who shall see this public instrument of adjustment and contract of sale, with compact of retroş vendendo, that in the city of Saragossa, which is in the kingdom of Aragon, on the twenty-second day of the month of April, in the year of the nativity of our Savior Jesus Christ, 1529, in the presence of me, Francisco de los Cobos, secretary and member of the council of the emperor, Don Charles, and of the queen, Do˝a Joanna, his mother, queen and king of Castile, and their scrivener and notary public, and in the presence of the undersigned witnesses, appeared the lords, Mercurino de Gattinara, count of Gattinara, grand chancellor of the said emperor, the very reverend Don Fray GarcÝa de Loaysa, bishop of Osma, his confessor, and Don Fray GarcÝa de Padilla, chief knight-commander of the Order of Calatrava, all three members of the council of the said very exalted and very powerful princes, Don Charles, by divine clemency elected emperor ever august, king of Germany, and Do˝a Joanna, his mother, and the same Don Charles, her son, by the grace of God, king and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, Navarre, Granada, etc., in the name and as representatives of the said lords, emperor and king and queen of Castile, on the one part, and Antonio d'Azevedo, contino, member of the council and ambassador of the very exalted and very powerful lord, Dom John, by the grace of God king of Portugal, of the Algarves on this side of and beyond the sea in Africa, lord of Guinea and of the conquest, navigation, and commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India, etc., in his name, and as his representative on the other part; as they presently proved by their procurations, suitable and sufficient for this contract, signed by the said lords, emperor and king and queen of Castile and the King of Portugal, and sealed with their seals. Verbatim transcripts of these said procurations are as follows:

[Here follow the full powers granted by the sovereigns of Castile to the Count of Gattinara, the Bishop of Osma, and the chief Knight- Commander of Calatrava on April 15, 1529, and the full powers granted by John III. of Portugal to Antonio d'Azevedo on October 18, 1528.]

After39 said authorizations were presented by the said representatives it was declared that, inasmuch as there existed a doubt between the said Emperor and King of Castile, etc., and the said King of Portugal, etc., conş cerning the ownership, possession, and rights, or possession, or quasi-possesş sion, navigation, and trade of the Moluccas and other islands and seas, which each one of the said lords, the Emperor and King of Castile and the King of Portugal, declares as his, both by virtue of the treaties made by the most exalted, powerful, and Catholic sovereigns, Don Fernando and Do˝a Isabella, rulers of Castile, grandparents of the said Emperor and the King, Dom John II., of Portugal (may they rest in glory), about the demarcation of the ocean sea, and by virtue of other rights and privileges which each one of the said emperor and monarchs asserts to belong and pertain to said islands, seas, and lands belonging to him of which he is in possession; and inasmuch as the said emperor and monarchs considering the very close relationship and great affection existing between them, and which not only should very rightly be preserved, but as far as possible be increased, and in order to free themselves from the doubts, complaints, and disputes that might arise between them, and the many troubles that might ensue among their vassals and subş jects and the natives of their kingdoms, the said emperor and monarchs, and the said attorneys acting in their names, have covenanted and agreed as to the said doubts and disputes in the following form and manner: 1. First, the said Grand Chancellor, the Bishop of Osma, and the Comş mander-in-chief of Calatrava, attorneys of the said emperor and sovereign of Castile, declared that they, in his name, and by virtue of their said power of attorney, would sell and in fact did sell from this day and for all time, to the said King of Portugal, for him and all the successors to the crown of his kingdoms, all right, action, dominion, ownership, and possession, or quasi- possession, and all rights of navigation, traffic, and trade in any manner whatsoever, that the said Emperor and King of Castile declares that he holds and could hold howsoever and in whatsoever manner in the said Moluccas, the islands, places, lands, and seas, as will be declared hereafter; this, with the declarations, limitations, conditions, and clauses contained and stated hereunder, for the sum of three hundred and fifty thousand ducats of gold, paid in the current money, of gold or silver, each ducat being valued in Castile at three hundred and seventy-five maravedis. The said King of Portugal will give and pay this amount to the said Emperor and King of Castile, and to the persons whom his Majesty may appoint, in the following manner: one hundred and fifty thousand ducats to be paid at Lisbon within the first fifteen or twenty days after this contract, confirmed by the said Emperor and King of Castile, shall have arrived at the city of Lisbon, or wherever the said King of Portugal may be; thirty thousand ducats to be paid in Castile--twenty thousand at Valladolid and ten thousand at Seville, by the twentieth day of the month of May of this present year; seventy thousand ducats to be paid in Castile at the May fair of Medina del Campo of this same year, at the terms of the payments of said fair, and the hundred thousand ducats remaining at the October fair at the said town of Medina del Campo, of this same year, at the terms of the payment of the same--all to be paid over and above the rate of exchange. If necessary, notes will

____________________
39 From this point through art. 14 the translation is from Blair and Robertson, Philipş pine Islands, I. 223-238.

be given for the said time; and, if said Emperor and King of Castile wishes to take in exchange the said hundred thousand ducats at the said May fair of this said year in order to avail himself of their use, he shall pay the said King of Portugal exchange at the rate of five or six per cent., the rate which his treasurer, Hernand Alvarez, is accustomed to exact from fair to fair. The aforesaid sale is made by the said Emperor and King of Castile to the said King of Portugal on condition that, at whatever time the said Emperor and King of Castile or his successors should wish to return and should return all of the said three hundred and fifty thousand ducats without any shortage to the said King of Portugal or his successors, the said sale becomes null and void and each one of the said sovereigns shall enjoy the right and authority which he now holds and claims to hold, both as regards the right of possesş sion or quasi-possession, and as regards the proprietorship, howsoever and in whatever manner they belong to him, as if this contract were not made, and in the manner in which they first held possession and claimed to hold it, and this contract shall cause no prejudice or innovation.

2. Item, it is covenanted and agreed by the said attorneys, in the names of their said constituents, that, in order to ascertain what islands, places, lands, seas, and their rights and jurisdiction, are sold henceforth and forever by the said Emperor and King of Castile, by this contract under the aforeş said condition, to the said King of Portugal, a line must be determined from pole to pole, that is to say, from north to south, by a semicircle extending northeast by east nineteen degrees from Molucca, to which number of degrees correspond almost seventeen degrees on the equinoctial, amounting to two hundred and ninety-seven and one-half leagues east of the islands of Molucca, allowing seventeen and one-half leagues to an equinoctial degree. In this northeast by east meridian and direction are situated the islands of Las Velas and40 Santo Thome, through which the said line and semicircle passes. Since these islands are situated and are distant from Molucca the said distance, more or less, the deputies determine and agree that the said line be drawn at the said two hundred and ninety-seven and one-half leagues to the east, the equivalent of the nineteen degrees northeast by east from the said islands of Molucca, as aforesaid. The said deputies declare that, in order to ascertain where the said line should be drawn, two [model] charts of the same tenor shall be made, conformable to the [model] chart in the India House of Trade at Seville, and by which the fleets, vassals, and subjects of the said Emperor and King of Castile navigate. Within thirty days from the date of this contract two persons shall be appointed by each side to examine the aforesaid chart and make the two copies aforesaid conformable to it. In them the said line shall be drawn in the manner aforesaid; and they shall be signed by the said sovereigns and sealed with their seals, so that each one will keep his own chart; and the said line shall remain fixed henceforth at the point and place so designated. This chart shall also designate the spot in which the said vassals of the said Emperor and King of Castile shall situate and locate Molucca, which during the time of this contract shall be regarded as situated in such place, although in truth it is situated more or less distance eastward from the place that is designated in the said charts. The seventeen degrees eastward shall be drawn from the point where Molucca is situated in said charts. For the good of this contract the said King of

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40 The word 'of' is omitted from the translation. Cf. Doc. 15, note 23.

Portugal must have said chart, and in case the aforesaid be not found in the House of Trade of Seville, the said persons appointed by the said sovereigns shall make said charts within one month, signed and sealed as aforesaid. Furthermore navigation charts shall be made by them, in which the said line shall be drawn in the manner aforesaid, so that henceforth the said vassals, natives, and subjects of the said Emperor and King of Castile shall navigate by them; and so that the navigators of either part shall be certain of the location of the said line and of the aforesaid distance of the two hundred and ninety-seven and one-half leagues between the said line and Molucca. It is covenanted and agreed by the said deputies that, whenever the said King of Portugal shall wish to prove his right to the proprietorship of Molucca, and the lands and seas specified in this contract, and although at that time the said Emperor and King of Castile shall not have returned the price abovesaid, nor the said contract be cancelled, it shall be done in the following manner, namely, each one of the said sovereigns shall appoint three astrologers and three pilots or three mariners, who are experts in navigation, who shall assemble at a place on the frontier between the kingş doms, where it shall be agreed that they assemble, within four months of the time when the Emperor and King of Castile, or his successors, shall be notified by the said King of Portugal to appoint a day. There they shall consult, covenant, and agree upon the manner of ascertaining the right of said proprietorship conformable to said treaty and contract made between the said Catholic sovereigns, Don Ferdinand and Do˝a Isabella, and the said king, Dom John II., of Portugal. In case the said Emperor and King of Castile be judged to have the right of said proprietorship, such sentence shall not be executed nor used until the said Emperor and King of Castile, or his successors, shall first have actually returned all the said three hundred and fifty thousand ducats, which by virtue of this contract shall have been given. If the right of proprietorship be conceded to the said King of Portugal, the said Emperor and King of Castile, or his successors, shall be obliged actually to return the said three hundred and fifty thousand ducats to the said King of Portugal, or his successors, within the first four years ensuing after the date of such sentence.

Item, it was covenanted and agreed by said deputies, in the names of their said constituents, that, since this contract of sale shall be valid and hold good henceforth from date, if any spices or drugs of any sort whatever be brought to any ports or parts of the kingdoms and seigniories of either of the said constituents, in charge of the vassals, subjects, or natives of the kingdoms of the said Emperor and King of Castile, or by any other persons whomsoever who may not be vassals, subjects, or natives of said kingdoms, then the said Emperor and King of Castile in his kingdoms and seigniories, and the said King of Portugal in his, shall be obliged to order and cause, and they shall order and cause, the said spices or drugs to be deposited securely, without him to whose kingdom they have been brought being so notified to do so by the other side; but they shall be deposited in the name of both, in the power of the person or persons whom each one of the said sovereigns shall have ordered to take charge of said deposit in his lands and seigniories. The said sovereigns shall be obliged to order and cause such deposit to be made in the manner abovesaid, whether the said spices or drugs are found in the possession of those who brought them, or in the power of any other person or persons, in whatsoever regions or districts they shall have been found. The said emperor and kings shall be obliged to give notifiş cation to this effect henceforth throughout all their kingdoms and seigniories so that these instructions may be complied with and no one may plead ignorş ance of them. The said spices or drugs having been taken to any ports or lands that do not belong to either one of the said sovereigns, provided they are not those of enemies, either one of them by virtue of this contract may require, in the name of both, and without showing any further provision or power of the other to the justice of the kingdoms and seigniories where said drugs or spices happen to be, or to have been found, and they may order them to be deposited, and they shall be deposited. In whatsoever ports said drugs or spices are thus found they will be under embargo and deposited by both until it is known from whose demarcation they were taken. In order to ascertain if the places and lands from which the said spices or drugs are taken and brought fall within the demarcation and limits which by this conş tract remain to the said King of Castile, and if they contain the said spices or drugs, the said emperor and kings shall despatch two or four ships, an equal number being sent by both. In these an equal number of persons from both sides, sworn to fulfill their obligation, shall sail to those places and lands whence the said spices or drugs were said to have been taken and brought, in order to ascertain and determine within whose demarcation are situated the said lands and places whence the said spices or drugs are said to have been brought. Should it be found that said places and lands are within the demarcation of the said Emperor and King of Castile, that the said spices and drugs exist there in such quantity that they could reasonably be carried away, then the said deposit shall be given up and freely delivered to the said Emperor and King of Castile without his being obliged to pay any costs, expenses, interests, or any other thing. If, on the other hand, it be disş covered that said drugs or spices were taken from the districts' and lands belonging to the said King of Portugal, the said deposit shall be ceded and delivered in like manner to the said King of Portugal without his being obliged to pay any costs, expenses, interests, nor anything whatsoever. The persons who thus imported said drugs or spices shall be penalized and punş ished by the said Emperor and King of Castile or by his justices, as violators of peace and faith, according to law. Each one of the aforesaid, the emperor and king of Castile and the king of Portugal, shall be obliged to send as many ships and persons as may be required by the other. As soon as the said spices or drugs shall be deposited and placed under embargo in the manner aforesaid, neither the said Emperor and King of Castile, nor his agents, nor anyone with his favor or consent, shall go or send to the said land or lands whence were taken the said drugs or spices in this manner. All that is set forth in this section about the deposit of the spices or drugs shall not be underş stood to refer to the spices or drugs which may come to any places whatsoş ever for the said King of Portugal.

Item, it is covenanted and agreed that, in all the islands, lands, and seas within the said line, the vessels and people of the said Emperor and King of Castile, or of his subjects, vassals, or natives of his kingdom, or any others (although these latter be not his subjects, vassals, or natives of his kingdoms), shall not, with or without his command, consent, favor, and aid, enter, navigate, barter, traffic, or take on board anything whatsoever that may be in said islands, lands, or seas. Whosoever shall henceforth violate any of the aforesaid provisions, or who shall be found within said line, shall be seized by any captain, captains, or people of the said King of Portugal, and shall be tried, chastised, and punished by the said captains as privateers and violators of the peace. Should they not be found inside of said line by the said captains or people of the said King of Portugal and should come to any port, land, or seigniory whatsoever of the said Emperor and King of Castile, the said Emperor and King of Castile, by his justices in that place, shall be obliged and bound to take and hold them. In the meanş time the warrants and examinations proving their guilt in each of the aforeş said things shall be sent by the said King of Portugal, or by his justices, and they shall be punished and chastised exactly as evil-doers and violators of the peace and faith.

Item, it is covenanted and agreed by said deputies that the said Emperor and King of Castile shall not personally, or through an agent, send the natives of his kingdoms, his vassals, subjects, or alieus (and although these latter be not natives of his kingdoms, or his vassals or subjects), to the said islands, lands, and seas within said line, nor shall he consent nor give them aid or favor or permit them to go there contrary to the form and determination of this contract. Rather he shall be obliged to forbid, suppress, and prevent it as much as possible. Should the said Emperor and King of Castile, personally or through an agent, send natives of his kingdoms, or his vassals, subjects, or aliens (although these latter be not natives of his kingdoms, or his vassals or subjects), to the said islands, lands, or seas within the said line, or consent to such a thing, giving them aid or favor or permitting them to go contrary to the form and determination of this contract; and should he not forbid, suppress, or prevent it as much as possible, the said agreement. of retrovendendo becomes null and void; and the said King of Portugal shall no longer be obliged to receive the said sum, nor to sell back the rights and dominion which the said Emperor and King of Castile might have therein, in any manner whatsoever, but which he has sold, renounced, and delivered to the said King of Portugal by virtue of this contract, and by this very act the said sale shall remain complete and valid forever, as if at first it were made without condition and agreement to sell back. However, since it may happen that, when the aforesaid subjects, natives, or vassals of the said Emperor and King of Castile, navigating as aforesaid in the southern seas, should meet with winds so tempestuous or contrary that they would be constrained by necessity to continue their course and navigation within the said line, they shall in such case incur no penalty whatever. On the contrary, when, in such circumstances, they shall come to and anchor at any land included within the said line, pertaining by virtue of this contract to the said King of Portugal, they, shall be treated by his subjects, vassals, and inhabiş tants of said land as the vassals of his brother, as in the same manner the Emperor and King of Castile would command the Portuguese subjects to be treated who should in like manner arrive at ports in his lands of New Spain or in any other of his ports. It is understood, however, that when such necessity ceases they shall immediately set sail and return to their part of the southern seas. Should the aforesaid subjects cross said line through ignorance, it is herein covenanted and agreed that they shall incur on that account no penalty whatsoever, and as long as it is not fully evident that they know themselves to be within the said line, they shall not turn about and go outside of it as is covenanted and agreed in case of entering on account of tempestuous and contrary winds or necessity. But, when such a fact is quite evident, if it shall be proved that they have entered the line maliciously, they shall be punished and dealt with as those who shall enter the line as aforesaid and as is set forth in this contract. Should the aforesaid discover any islands or lands while navigating within the said line, such islands or lands shall belong freely and actually to the said King of Portugal and his successors, as if they were discovered, found, and taken possession of by his own captains and vassals at such time. It is covenanted and agreed by said deputies that the ships and vessels of the said Emperor and King of Castile and those of his subjects, vassals, and the natives of his kingdoms may navigate and pass through the seas of the said King of Portugal, whence his fleets sail for India, only as much as may be necessary to take a due course toward the Strait of Magellan. And if they violate the abovesaid and sail farther over the said seas of the said King of Portugal than is mentioned above, both the said Emperor and King of Castile, if it is proved that they did it by his order, countenance, aid, or consent, and those sailing in this manner and violating the abovesaid, shall incur the above penalties in the completeness set forth above in this contract.

Item, it was covenanted and agreed that if any of the subjects of the said Emperor and King of Castile or any others shall henceforth be seized and found within the said limits above declared, they shall be imprisoned by any captain, captains, or subjects whatsoever of the said King of Portugal and shall be tried, chastised, and punished as privateers, violators, and disş turbers of the peace by the said captains. Should they not be discovered within the said line, and should afterwards come to any port whatever of the said Emperor and King of Castile, his Majesty and his justices shall be obliged to seize and imprison them until the warrants and testimonies sent by the said King of Portugal, or his justices, shall have been presented. If proved guilty of the aforesaid offenses they shall be punished and chastised to the limit as evil-doers and violators of the faith and peace, and of everyş thing else set forth in this contract in regard to the crossing of said line by any subjects of the said Emperor and King of Castile, or any others by his command, consent, favor, or aid. It is understood that these penalties shall apply from the day when the subjects and people of the said emperor now in and navigating those seas and regions shall be notified. Before such notiş fication they shall not incur said penalties. It is to be understood, however, that the aforesaid refers to the people of the fleets of the said emperor which have until now gone to those parts, and that no others be sent without incurring said penalties from the day of the signing of this contract, and henceforth during the time that the said sale be not cancelled in the aforeş said manner.

Item, it was covenanted and agreed by the said deputies that the said King of Portugal shall not build nor order built for himself, or any other, any new fortress whatever in Molucca, nor within twenty leagues of it, nor any nearer Molucca than the line which is to be drawn according to this contract. It is covenanted unanimously by the said deputies of both sides that this provision shall take effect, namely, from the time that the said King of Portugal can send there a notification to make no new fortress whatever, that is to say, in the first fleet which shall sail for India from the said kingş dom of Portugal after this contract shall have been confirmed and approved by the said constituents and sealed with their seals. There shall be no new work whatsoever undertaken on the fortress which is already built at Molucca, from the said time henceforth; it shall only be repaired and kept in the same condition in which it may be at the aforesaid time, if the said King of Portugal so desires; to the above he shall swear and promise full compliance.

Item, it was covenanted and agreed that the fleets which heretofore have been despatched to those regions by the said Emperor and King of Castile be well treated in every way by the said King of Portugal and his people; and that no embargo or obstacle to their navigation or traffic be imposed upon them. If there should be any damage, which is not looked for however, which they shall have received or shall receive from his captains or people, or shall anything have been seized from them, the said King of Portugal shall be obliged to give satisfaction, restore, make good and pay immediately all such damages suffered by the said Emperor and King of Castile and his subjects and fleets; he shall order the offenders to be punished and chastised, and he shall allow the fleets and people of the said Emperor and King of Castile to come and go as they please, freely, without any obstacle whatever.

Item, it is covenanted that the said Emperor and King of Castile command letters and instructions to be given immediately to his captains and subjects who are in the said islands that they do no more trading henceforth and return at once, provided that they be allowed to bring freely whatever goods they shall have already bartered, traded, and taken on board.

Item, it is covenanted and agreed that in the instructions and letters relating to this covenant and contract, which are to be given and despatched by the said Emperor and King of Castile, it shall declare that this statement, instruction, and contract as above made is as binding as though it were made and passed in the General Cortes,41 with the express consent of the deputies41 thereof; and to make it valid by his royal and absolute power, which, as king and natural lord, recognizing no temporal superior, he my exercise and shall exercise, abrogate, abolish, repeal, and annul the supplication made by the deputies of the cities and towns of these kingdoms at the cortes held in the city of Toledo in the past year, [one thousand] five hundred and twenty- five, concerning the trade of the said islands and lands, the reply given to it, and any law that was made on this subject in the said cortes or in any others that may conflict with this.

Item, it is hereby covenanted that the said King of Portugal promises to command manifest, sincere, and summary justice to be executed, because certain subjects of the said Emperor and King of Castile and other aliens of his kingdoms who entered his service complain that their possessions have been seized by the former's India House of Trade42 and in his kingdoms, without any regard to the annoyance caused them thereby, because they have entered the service and did serve the said emperor.

Item, it was covenanted and agreed by the said deputies in the names of their said constituents that the treaties negotiated between the said Catholic sovereigns, Doti Ferdinand and Do˝a Isabella and the King Dom John II., of Portugal, in regard to the demarcation of the ocean sea, shall remain valid and binding its toto and in every particular, as is therein contained and declared, excepting those things which are otherwise covenanted and agreed upon in this contract. In case the said Emperor and King of Castile returns

____________________
41 The editor has ventured to alter the translation in respect to this word.
42 The translation has been slightly altered.

the sum which, according to this contract, is to be given in the manner aforeş said, thus cancelling the sale, the said treaties negotiated between the said Catholic sovereigns, Don Ferdinand and Do˝a Isabella and the said king Dom John II., of Portugal, shall remain in full force and power as if this contract were not made; and the said constituents shall be obliged to comply with it in every respect, as is therein agreed.

Item, it is covenanted and agreed by the said deputies that although the rights and dominion which the said Emperor and King of Castile claims to possess in the said lands, districts, seas, and islands, and which he sells to the said King of Portugal in the manner abovesaid are worth more than [the] half of the just price given, and the said Emperor and King of Castile has certain definite knowledge, through exact information, of persons who are experts on the subject, and who have investigated and ascertained defiş nitely, that said rights are of much greater value and worth, more than [the] half of the just price that the said King of Portugal gives to the said Emperor and King of Castile, he is pleased to make him a gift of it, as he does in fact, which from the said day henceforth shall be valid among the living, of the said excess in value above the half of the just price, however great that excess may be. This excess in value above the half of the just price the said Emperor and King of Castile relinquishes for himself and his successors, and disunites the same from the royal crown of his kingdoms forever, and delivers it entire to the said King of Portugal, to him and to his successors and crown of his kingdoms, really and effectually, in the aforeş said manner and during the time of this contract.

Item, it is covenanted and agreed by the said representatives that whichş ever of the parties shall violate this contract, or part of it, of himself or through another, in any way, shape, or manner, premeditated or unpremediş tated, he shall, ipso facto, lose the right that he holds in any way, shape, or manner whatsoever. The whole shall be immediately adjudged, given to, and acquired by the other party, who shall abide by the said contract and not violate it, and to and by the crown of his realms. He who shall violate it shall not be cited, heard, or notified further; nor shall it be necessary that any further sentence be given in respect to that matter, by any judge or judicator whatsoever, provided that the command, consent, or support of the party who shall violate it shall have been first investigated and proved. Furthermore, he who shall violate this contract in any form or manner whatsoever, in part or in whole, shall pay to the other party, who shall abide by it, 200,000 ducats of gold, as a penalty and under the name of fine and interest. This fine they shall incur as often as they shall violate the treaty in part or in whole, as has been said; and whether this fine be exacted or not, the contract will, nevertheless, remain secure, valid, and stable forever and ever, to the advantage of him who shall abide by it, and to the disadvantage of the party who shall violate it. To this end they have pledged all the possesş sions, patrimonial and fiscal, of their said constituents, and of the crowns of their realms, to fulfill and maintain all in the same manner and as comş pletely as is set forth therein.

Item, it was covenanted and agreed by the said representatives that the said lords, their constituents, and each one of them, shall solemnly swear and shall promise on the said oath, that neither they nor their successors will ever, at any time, violate this contract, in whole or in part, of themselves or through another, in court or without, in any way, shape, or manner whatsoever, or that may be thought of; and that never, at any time, of themselves or through another, will they seek release from the said oath from our Very Holy Father, or from any other who may have power to release them. And although his Holiness, or whoever shall have power to release them, shall, without being asked, but proprio motu, release them from the said oath, they will not accept it, or ever, at any time, make use of the said release, or help themselves by it, or avail themselves of it, in any manner or way whatsoever, in court or out.

Item, it was covenanted and agreed by the said representatives, that, for the further corroboration and strengthening of this contract, this conş tract and adjustment, with all the clauses, conditions, compacts, obligations, and declarations thereof, as and in the manner in which they ire set forth therein, be adjudged by sentence of the Pope, and confirmed and approved by his Holiness, by an apostolic bull, with his seal, in which bull of sentence, confirmation, and approval, all this contract will be inserted verbatim; and that, in the said sentence, his Holiness supply and consider as supplied, of his certain knowledge and absolute power, all or any defect or formality, which may be required, in fact or in law, to render this contract more secure and valid, in all and every part of it; and that his Holiness impose sentence of excommunication both upon the principal parties and upon all other persons who shall violate it, and shall not observe it, in whole or in part, in any way, shape, or manner whatsoever. In this sentence of excommunication, he shall declare and ordain that those who shall violate the said contract, in whole or in part, shall incur excommunication ipso facto, without any other sentence of excommunication, or declaration thereof, being necessary or required for that purpose; and that those who violate it cannot be absolved by his Holiness, or by any other person acting by his command, without the consent of the other party concerned, and without his being first cited, notified, and heard in regard to the said absolution. The said representatives, henceforth and forever, and forever and henceforth, acting in the name of their said contituş ents, entreat his Holiness that he will thus consent to confirm and adjudicate the contract in the form and manner agreed upon and stated in this article. Of this confirmation and approval each one of the parties will be able to obtain a copy of the bull, which the said representatives, acting in the name of their said constituents, shall solicit from his Holiness; and the latter shall order it to be given to either one of them who shall choose to ask for it, without the other party's requiring it for the preservation and strengthening of his right.

And all the foregoing having thus been covenanted and agreed, as is set forth above, the said representatives, acting in the name of their said conş stituents, and by virtue of their said powers of attorney, declared before me, the said secretary and notary public, and before the undersigned witnesses, that they approved, commended, and authorized this contract forever and ever, as it is and in its entirety, with all the clauses, declarations, compacts and conventions, penalties, and obligations set forth in it; and they promised and bound themselves reciprocally, in the name of their said constituents, stipulating and accepting as a formal stipulation, that they will keep, fulfill, and observe it in this manner forever; and that their said constituents and their successors, and all their vassals, subjects, and natives of their kingdoms, shall keep, observe, and fulfill, now and forever, the said contract and all that is set forth therein, tinder the penalties and obligations stated therein; and that they will not violate it, or consent or permit that it, or any part of it, be violated, directly or indirectly, in court or out, for any cause, pretext, or contingency, which may or can be, premeditated or unpremeditated. The said representatives declared in the name of the said lords, their constituents, that they renounced, as in fact they did renounce, all releases, exceptions, and all juridical remedies, benefits, and ordinary and extraordinary councils which are or may be due or rightfully pertain to the said lords, their constituş ents, and to each one of them, now and at any future time, to annul, revoke, and break this contract, wholly or in part, or to obstruct the effect of it, and in like manner they renounced all the rights, laws, customs, uses, decisions, and opinions of doctors of the law, which could protect them in any manner; and they renounced specifically the laws and rights which declare that a general renunciation is invalid; and as guarantee that they would keep, observe, and fulfill all this, the said representatives pledged all the patriş monial and fiscal possessions belonging to their said constituents and to the crowns of their realms. For greater security, the said representatives deş clared that they swore, as in fact they did swear forthwith, before me, the said secretary and notary aforesaid, and the undersigned witnesses, in the presence of God and of Holy Mary and upon the sign of the Cross ?, and upon the Holy Gospels, which they touched with their right hands, in the name and on the consciences of their said constituents, by virtue of the said powers which they had especially for this purpose, that they, jointly and severally, themselves and their successors, will keep and observe this conş tract and will cause it to be kept and observed forever and ever, as is set forth therein; and that the said lords, their constituents, and each one of them, will confirm, approve, commend, ratify, and authorize anew this agreement and all that is set forth therein, and each part and parcel of it, and that they will promise, bind themselves, and swear to observe and fulfill it, each one of the parties [promising] to do, observe and fulfill, really and in effect, in good faith and without any deception, evasion, or mental reservation whatsoever, that which concerns, is incumbent upon, and appertains to him; and that neither their said constituents nor any of them will ask for himself or for others, absolution, release, dispensation, or commutation of the said oath, from our Very Holy Father, or from any other person who may have power to give and grant it; and even though he gives it to them proprio motu or in any other way whatsoever, they will not make use of it, but rather, in spite of this, they will keep, observe, and fulfill, and will cause to be kept, observed, and fulfilled, all that is set forth in this said contract, with all the clauses, obligations, penalties, and every part and parcel thereof, as they stand, faithş fully and truly, really and effectively, and that each one of the said parties will give and deliver to the other the said approval and ratification of this contract, sworn to, and signed by each one of their said constituents, and sealed with his seal, within the term of the first twenty days following the day when it is dated. In testimony and assurance of this, the said represenş tatives authorized this contract in the foregoing form, before me, the aforeş said secretary and notary, and the undersigned witnesses; and they signed it with their names and they requested me, the said secretary and notary, to give them one, and, if they should need them, many instruments written under my public signature and sign. This was made and authorized in the said city of Saragossa on the day, month, and year abovesaid. Witnesses who were present at the authorization of this said contract, and saw it signed by all the said representatives in the register made by me, the said secretary, and saw them take oath in person, by the hand of me, the said secretary: Alonso de ValdÚs, secretary of the said lord emperor; Augustin de Urbina, chancellor of his Majesty; Geronimo Ranzo, servant of the said lord Chancellor and Count of Gattinara; Fernando Rodriguez and Antonio de Sosa, servants of the said lord ambassador, Antonio d'Azevedo; Alonso de Idiaquez, servant of me, the said secretary. The said witnesses likewise will sign their names in the register made by me the said secretary: Mercuş rinus, chancellor. Fray GarcÝa, bishop of Osma. The Chief Knight-Comş mander. Antonio de Acevedo, conti˝o. Witnesses: Alonso de ValdÚs, Hieronimo Ranzo, Agustin de Urbina, Antonio de Sousa, Fernando Rodriş guez, Alonso de Idiaquez. I, the said secretary and notary, Francisco de los Cobos, was present, together with the said witnesses, at the authorization of this contract and treaty, and at the oath set forth therein, which the said representatives made by my hands, and at the signing of it by them, and by the said witnesses, in the register which remains in my possession; and at the instance of the said ambassador, Antonio d'Azevedo, I have caused this transcript to be made, and for that reason I have made this my sign here, in testimony of the truth, Francisco de los Cobos.

Spanish ratification.

The said instrument and treaty, incorporated above, and every part and parcel of it, having been seen and understood by us, we, being certain and assured of all its contents, commend, confirm, approve, and ratify it, by these presents, and so far as is necessary we execute it anew, and we promise to keep and observe the said instrument and treaty, which thus by our said representatives, and likewise by the said ambassador, representative of the said most serene, very exalted, and very mighty King of Portugal, our brother, was agreed to, authorized, and concerted in our names, and every part and parcel of it, to keep and observe it all, really and in truth, in good faith, without deceit, renouncing all fraud and subterfuge, imposition and mental reservation, and every other form of deception and evasion; and we desire and are content that it shall be observed and fulfilled just as is set forth therein, in the same manner as, and as completely, as if it had been made and adjusted by us. And for the validation, corroboration, and security of the said instrument of sale and treaty, we abolish and abrogate, repeal and annul, all the laws and rights, rescripts, decisions, and opinions of doctors of the law that may be opposed to the validity of the said instrument incorporated above. In particular, we abolish, repeal, and annul any petitions from deputies of the realm that, in the Cortes of Toledo, or in any other cortes whatsoever held by us, they may have presented against our concluding this or any other agreement and treaty with the said Most Serene King, our brother, although they may regard the petition as a kind of contract; and likewise whatever rescripts and articles of the Cortes we may have made, in respect to the said petitions of the deputies of the realm, we, of our absolute royal power, recognizing no superior in temporal affairs, abolish, abrogate, annul, and repeal all and each of them, and deem them as nothing, and we consider as good the said deed of sale, with the said compact of retrovendendo, and we confirm and ratify it, from now on forever and ever. And we regard it as good and profitable for us and for the crown of our realms; and we desire that it shall be valid, as if it had been made in the Cortes and with the consent of the deputies of the cities, villages, and towns of our realms. We thus confirm, ratify, and approve it, for reasons known and profitable to us and to the crown of our realms; and we consider as repealed, annulled, and abrogated all and whatsoever ordinances and laws may be contrary to it. In particular we abolish, repeal, and annul the laws that state and direct that a general renunciation is not valid. And I, the King, swear before God and Holy Mary and on the words of the Holy Gospels and on the sign of the Cross ? on which I place my right hand, and we promise for ourselves and for our successors never to violate or permit to be violated by ourselves or by another this deed of sale with compact of retrovendendo, or any part of it, directly or indirectly, for any other cause, premeditated or unpremeditated, under any pretext; nor shall we consent or permit any other person or persons to violate the said deed and treaty, but rather we will forbid, punish, and prohibit it, as much as we can, under obligation of the said oath. We will not ask to be released from the oath as it was executed by my representatives, nor will we make use of the release although the Pope, or other person who shall have his power, shall grant it to us proprio motu, and although it shall have clauses abolishing and abrogating all that is said; for we renounce it all and promise not to make use of it, under obligation of the said oath. And to secure this our will, and to establish and validate the aforesaid, we order this our letter of approval, ratification, abrogation, and annulment, signed by me, the King, and sealed with our seal, to be drawn up and delivered. Given in the city of Lerida, on the twenty-third day of the month of April, in the year of the Lord, 1529. I, the King. I, Francisco de los Cobos, secreş tary of his Imperial Majesty and of their Catholic Majesties, caused it to be written by his command. Mercurino, chancellor. Fray GarcÝa, bishop of Osma. The Chief Knight-Commander.

Portuguese ratification.

This instrument of contract, agreement, and compact of retrovendendo, having been seen by me, and all the conditions and clauses contained therein, having been, word for word, seen and well understood, I confirm, approve, and ratify it, and I approve of all and every part of its contents; and I promise on my royal faith and I swear on the Holy Gospels, on which I place my hands, that I will fulfill and will observe as good the contents of the said contract, treaty, and agreement (i. e., such parts of it as it pertains to me to fulfill and observe), as, and as entirely, as is contained and declared in it, and without any diminution, and under the penalties, clauses, compacts, and conditions contained therein; and I promise and swear, for me and for my heirs and successors, never, at any time, or in any way, of myself, or through another, to contravene or violate the said contract, agreement, and treaty, or any of its contents, but rather, I will fulfill and observe them wholly and completely, and I will cause them to be fulfilled and observed in good faith, without any evasion, mental reservation, deception, or malice, as is aforesaid; and to secure this I command this instrument of confirmation, approval, and ratification to be made, signed by me and sealed with my hanging leaden seal.

Given in the city of Lisbon on the 20th day of June. Pero d'Alcašova Carneiro made it. In the year of our Lord Jesus Christ, 1530.

THE KING.


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