in Western Europe
from the Fifth to the Fourteenth Century
by Robert Folz
Professor in the Faculty of Letters at the University of Dijon
Translated by Sheila Ann Ogilvie
Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd., 1969
Authorised translation from the French
L'Idée d'Empire dans L'Occident du V e au XIV e siècle
First Published 1969
First Published by
Aubier, Editions Montaigne, 1953
THE CHIEF ELEMENTS OF THE MEDIEVAL CONCEPT OF EMPIRE.
1. How the Concept of Empire survived the fall of the Western Roman Empire
I. The image of the Roman Empire
II. The Empire and the Church
III. The attitude of the Germans to the Empire.
2. The Concept of Empire in the time of Charlemagne and the rebirth of the Western Empire.
I. The conception of Charles, King of the Franks, as an emperor.
II. Charlemagne - the Emperor.
III. Towards a new concept of empire.
3. Vicissitudes of the Concept of Empire in the Ninth Century.
I. The concept of the Empire as a Frankish institution.
II. The Romanisation of the concept of empire.
III. Accessions to the imperial throne, between 875 and 915.
EXTENSION AND FRAGMENTATION OF THE NOTION OF EMPIRE.
4. The diversity of the Tenth Century; the Empire's second rebirth (2nd February, 962).
I. The non-Roman concept of empire.
II. The concept of a Frankish empire north of the Alps in the Tenth Century. III. Otto I's accession to the imperial throne.
5. The Concept of Empire in the Iberian States.
ATTEMPTS AT A SYNTHESIS:
THE EMPIRE BETWEEN THEORY AND REALITY
6. The Ottanian and Salian Era (second half of the tenth and whole of the eleventh centuries).
I. The religious mission of the Empire: Advocacy of the Roman Church.
II. The extent of the concept of empire.
III. The person of the Emperor.
7. The Concept of Empire and the Papacy.
I. The setting: The Papacy - heir of the Roman Empire.
II. The internal evolution of the Pontifical auctoritas.
III. The Papacy and the Empire.
8. The Concept of the Empire as a Roman institution.
I. General characteristics.
II. The judicial foundations of the Empire.
III. An attempt to apply the doctrine: The Roman Commune and Arnold of Brescia.
9. The Doctrine and Mystique of the Empire in the time of the Hohenstaufens.
I. The Prestige of the past.
II. The present: the dual aspects of the Empire.
III. Visions of the end of time.
THE CONCEPT OF EMPIRE BEYOND THE REALM OF REALITY.
10. The Concept of the Empire as a Roman institution at the time of the Great Interregnum (1250-1268).
I. The awakening
II. Exploitation by the Guelfs and the Ghibellines of the concept of the Empire as a Roman institution.
III. Final defeat.
11. The Controversy over the Concept of Empire.
I. The political level.
II. The intellectual level
12. The Concept of Empire on the threshold of Modern Times:
Realities and aspirations
I. The failure of Roman universalism.
II. From Universal Empire to national Empire.
III. Hopes for the future Empire.
I. The Universality of Christianity and of Rome.
II. Continuity of Rome's universal mission.
III. The 'Donation of Constantine'.
IV. Gallo-Frankish Laudes.
V. The three supreme authorities on the eve of the year 800.
VI. The accession of Charlemagne to the Empire as described in the Annales Laureshamenses
VII. A letter from Emperor Louis II to Basil I, emperor of Byzantium.
VIII. Diatribes launched against the Romans by Liutprand of Cremona.
IX. Pope and Emperor towards the year 1000.
X. The rejection by Otto III of the 'Donation of Constantine'.
XI. The nature of the Emperor's authority in the Ottanian period.
XII. The concept of Empire at the period of the Investiture Contest.
XIII. The imperial coronation of Alfonso VII (1135).
XIV. The Romans and the Empire in the middle of the Twelfth century.
XV. The tradition of the anointed ruler in the mid-Twelfth century.
XVI. Supremacy of the Empire in the time Frederick I.
XVII. The Empire's reputation and the eschatological vision of Frederick I's contemporaries.
XVIII. The concept of Empire at a critical stage under (Pope) Innocent III.
XIX. The enthronement of (Pope) Gregory IX.
XX. Frederick II's concept of the Empire as a Roman institution.
XXI. The concept of the Empire as a Roman institution during the Interregnum.
XXII. The positions taken up by Boniface VIII towards the Empire.
XXIII. The Legend of Constantine interpreted by Jacques de Voragine.
XXIV. The two suns.
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